Examining food purchasing patterns from sales data at a full-service grocery store intervention in a former food desert.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The Good Food Junction Grocery Store was opened in a former food desert in the inner city of Saskatoon, Canada. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this research was to examine, using grocery store sales data, healthy and less healthful food purchasing over a one-year period beginning eight months after opening by shoppers' neighborhood of residence. DESIGN:A multilevel cross sectional design was used. The sample consisted of members of the Good Food Junction with a valid address in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. All purchases made by members who reported their postal code of residence from May 15, 2013 to April 30, 2014 were analyzed. The outcome variable was the total amount spent on foods in 11 food groups. Linear random intercept models with three levels were fit to the data. RESULTS:Shoppers who were residents of former food desert neighborhoods spent $0.7 (95% CI: 0.2 to 1.2) more on vegetables, and $1.2 (95% CI: - 1.8 to - 0.6) less on meat, and $1.1 (95% CI: - 2.0 to - 0.3) less on prepared foods than shoppers who did not reside in those neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS:When given geographical access to healthy food, people living in disadvantaged former food desert neighborhoods will take advantage of that access.
Project description:Greater distance to full-service supermarkets and low income may impair access to healthy diets and contribute to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. The study aim was to determine relationships among residence in a "food desert," low income, CKD, and blood pressure.Adults in the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=22,173) were linked to food desert data (www.ers.usda.gov) by Census Tracts. Food deserts have low median income and are further from a supermarket or large grocery store (>1 mile in urban areas, >10 miles in rural areas). Weighted regression was used to determine the association of residence in a food desert and family income with dietary intake; systolic blood pressure (SBP); and odds of CKD. Data analysis was performed in 2014-2015.Compared with those not in food deserts, participants residing in food deserts had lower levels of serum carotenoids (p<0.01), a biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake, and higher SBP (1.53 mmHg higher, 95% CI=0.41, 2.66) after adjustment for demographics and income. Residence in a food desert was not associated with odds of CKD (OR=1.20, 95% CI=0.96, 1.49). Lower, versus higher, income was associated with lower serum carotenoids (p<0.01) and higher SBP (2.00 mmHg higher for income-poverty ratio ?1 vs >3, 95% CI=1.12, 2.89), but also greater odds of CKD (OR=1.76 for income-poverty ratio ?1 vs >3, 95% CI=1.48, 2.10).Limited access to healthy food due to geographic or financial barriers could be targeted for prevention of CKD and hypertension.
Project description:Little is known about the relationship between changes in food store environment and children's obesity risk in the United States. This study examines children's weight status associated with the changes in the quantity of food stores in their neighborhoods.A nationally representative cohort of schoolchildren in the United States was followed from fifth grade in 2004 to eighth grade in 2007 (n = 7,090). In 2004 and 2007, children's body mass index (BMI) was directly measured in schools. ZIP Code Business Patterns data from the Census Bureau in 2004 and 2007 characterized the numbers of food stores in every ZIP code area by type of store: supermarkets, limited-service restaurants, small-size grocery, and convenience stores. Baseline and change in the numbers of stores were the major exposures of interest.Girls living in neighborhoods with three or more supermarkets had a lower BMI 3 years later (by -.62 kg/m(2); 95% confidence interval = -1.05 to -.18) than did those living in neighborhoods without any supermarkets. Girls living in neighborhoods with many limited-service restaurants had a greater BMI 3 years later (by 1.02 kg/m(2); 95% confidence interval = .36-1.68) than did those living in neighborhoods with less than or equal to one limited-service restaurant. Exposure to a decreased quantity of small-size grocery stores in neighborhoods was associated with girls' lower BMI by eighth grade.The longitudinal association between neighborhood food environment and children's BMI differed by gender. For girls, supermarkets in neighborhoods seemed protective against obesity, whereas small-size grocery stores and limited-service restaurants in neighborhoods increased obesity risk. There was no significant longitudinal finding for boys.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that opening a grocery store in a food desert does not translate to better diet quality among community residents.This study evaluated the influence of proximity to a healthy food store on the effect of a dietary behavioral intervention on diet among obese adults randomized to either a high fiber or American Heart Association diet intervention.Participants were recruited from Worcester County, Massachusetts, between June 2009 and January 2012. Dietary data were collected via 24-hour recalls at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Based on in-store inspection data, a store was considered as having adequate availability of healthy foods if it had at least one item available in each of 20 healthy food categories. Linear models evaluated maximum change in dietary outcomes in relation to road distance from residence to the nearest June healthy food store. The analysis was conducted in January to June 2014.On average, participants (N=204) were aged 52 years, BMI=34.9, and included 72% women and 89% non-Hispanic whites. Shorter distance to a healthy food store was associated with greater improvements in consumption of fiber (b=-1.07 g/day per mile, p<0.01) and fruits and vegetables (b=-0.19 servings/day per mile, p=0.03) with and without covariate adjustment.The effectiveness of dietary interventions is significantly influenced by the presence of a supportive community nutrition environment. Considering the nationwide efforts on promotion of healthy eating, the value of improving community access to healthy foods should not be underestimated.NCT00911885.
Project description:A consistent body of research has shown that the neighborhood food environment is associated with fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and obesity in deprived neighborhoods in the United States. However, these studies have often neglected to consider how transportation can moderate associations between food accessibility and diet-related outcomes.This study examined associations between distance to primary food store, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI and whether mode of transportation to the primary food store moderates this relation.Cross-sectional data from the baseline wave of the Philadelphia Neighborhood Food Environment Study were used. A telephone survey of adult (?18 y of age) household primary food shoppers residing in 2 Philadelphia neighborhoods was conducted (n = 1440).In a bivariate linear regression analysis, distance to primary food store did not predict F&V consumption (? = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.00, 0.09). Linear regression analysis stratified by transportation mode to the main F&V store showed no difference in F&V consumption between car, public, and multimodal transportation users. Compared with respondents using multimodal transportation, those using public transit had a significantly lower BMI (? = -1.31; 95% CI: -2.50, -0.10), whereas those using an automobile did not (? = -0.41; 95% CI: -1.36, 0.54).The assumption that using an automobile to access food stores results in increased F&V consumption was not confirmed. Significant associations were found for the relation between transportation mode and BMI. Theory-based mechanisms explaining relationships between the primary transportation mode used to access food stores and BMI should be further explored.
Project description:Grocery shopping shapes the home food environment, which can contribute to the development of obesity. Episodic future thinking (EFT) helps adults make healthier decisions by initiating prospective thinking, which guides one to forego smaller immediate rewards in favor of larger delayed rewards. EFT could help parents improve grocery purchases thereby improving the home food environment and family eating behaviors. The effect of EFT on food shopping was evaluated in two studies with mothers who were overweight/obese and primary household shoppers. In Study 1, 24 mothers were randomized to goal-directed process EFT versus a money saving control. In Study 2, 33 mothers were randomized to goal-directed process EFT, general EFT, or an episodic recent thinking (ERT) control. Following cue generation, participants completed a task where they purchased one week of groceries from an online store. Food purchases were analyzed for calories purchased per family member. In Study 1 the goal-directed process EFT group purchased fewer calories per person (F(1, 23)?=?25.16, p?<?.001; ?p2?=?0.522). In Study 2 the goal-directed process EFT purchased fewer calories (F(1, 30)?=?5.98, p?=?.02; ?p2?=?0.166) than the ERT control as did the EFT general group (F(1, 30)?=?4.61, p?=?.04; ?p2?=?0.133). The two EFT groups did not differ from each other (F(1, 30)?=?0.16, p?=?.69; ?p2?=?0.005). EFT may be an effective intervention for reducing the energy intake of foods purchased while grocery shopping.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A growing body of cross-sectional, small-sample research has led to policy strategies to reduce food deserts--neighborhoods with little or no access to healthy foods--by limiting fast food restaurants and small food stores and increasing access to supermarkets in low-income neighborhoods. METHODS:We used 15 years of longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a cohort of US young adults (aged 18-30 years at baseline) (n = 5115), with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived food resource measures. Using repeated measures from 4 examination periods (n = 15,854 person-examination observations) and conditional regression (conditioned on the individual), we modeled fast food consumption, diet quality, and adherence to fruit and vegetable recommendations as a function of fast food chain, supermarket, or grocery store availability (counts per population) within less than 1.00 km, 1.00 to 2.99 km, 3.00 to 4.99 km, and 5.00 to 8.05 km of respondents' homes. Models were sex stratified, controlled for individual sociodemographic characteristics and neighborhood poverty, and tested for interaction by individual-level income. RESULTS:Fast food consumption was related to fast food availability among low-income respondents, particularly within 1.00 to 2.99 km of home among men (coefficient, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.51). Greater supermarket availability was generally unrelated to diet quality and fruit and vegetable intake, and relationships between grocery store availability and diet outcomes were mixed. CONCLUSION:Our findings provide some evidence for zoning restrictions on fast food restaurants within 3 km of low-income residents but suggest that increased access to food stores may require complementary or alternative strategies to promote dietary behavior change.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Research on urban food environments emphasizes limited access to healthy food, with fewer large supermarkets and higher food prices. Many residents of Hartford, Connecticut, which is often considered a food desert, buy most of their food from small and medium-sized grocery stores. We examined the food environment in greater Hartford, comparing stores in Hartford to those in the surrounding suburbs, and by store size (small, medium, and large).<h4>Methods</h4>We surveyed all small (over 1,000 ft2), medium, and large-sized supermarkets within a 2-mile radius of Hartford (36 total stores). We measured the distance to stores, availability, price and quality of a market basket of 25 items, and rated each store on internal and external appearance. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used for mapping distance to the stores and variation of food availability, quality, and appearance.<h4>Results</h4>Contrary to common literature, no significant differences were found in food availability and price between Hartford and suburban stores. However, produce quality, internal, and external store appearance were significantly lower in Hartford compared to suburban stores (all p<0.05). Medium-sized stores had significantly lower prices than small or large supermarkets (p<0.05). Large stores had better scores for internal (p<0.05), external, and produce quality (p<0.01). Most Hartford residents live within 0.5 to 1 mile distance to a grocery store.<h4>Discussion</h4>Classifying urban areas with few large supermarkets as 'food deserts' may overlook the availability of healthy foods and low prices that exist within small and medium-sized groceries common in inner cities. Improving produce quality and store appearance can potentially impact the food purchasing decisions of low-income residents in Hartford.
Project description:Studies suggest that the built environment with high numbers of fast food restaurants and convenience stores and low numbers of super stores and grocery stores are related to obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, and other chronic diseases. Since few studies assess these relationships at the county level, we aim to examine fast food restaurant density, convenience store density, super store density, and grocery store density and prevalence of type II diabetes among counties in South Carolina.Pearson's correlation between four types of food outlet densities- fast food restaurants, convenience stores, super stores, and grocery stores- and prevalence of type II diabetes were computed. The relationship between each of these food outlet densities were mapped with prevalence of type II diabetes, and OLS regression analysis was completed adjusting for county-level rates of obesity, physical inactivity, density of recreation facilities, unemployment, households with no car and limited access to stores, education, and race.We showed a significant, negative relationship between fast food restaurant density and prevalence of type II diabetes, and a significant, positive relationship between convenience store density and prevalence of type II diabetes. In adjusted analysis, the food outlet densities (of any type) was not associated with prevalence of type II diabetes.This ecological analysis showed no associations between fast food restaurants, convenience stores, super stores, or grocery stores densities and the prevalence of type II diabetes. Consideration of environmental, social, and cultural determinants, as well as individual behaviors is needed in future research.
Project description:Using data (n = 60,775 women) from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial (WHI CT)-a national study of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years-we analyzed cross-sectional associations between the availability of different types of food outlets in the 1.5 miles surrounding a woman's residence, census tract neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), BMI, and blood pressure (BP). We simultaneously modeled NSES and food outlets using linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for multiple sociodemographic factors, population density and random effects at the tract and metropolitan statistical area (MSA) level. We found significant associations between NSES, availability of food outlets and individual-level measurements of BMI and BP. As grocery store/supermarket availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, controlling for confounders, BMI was lower by 0.30 kg/m(2). Conversely, as fast-food outlet availability increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, BMI was higher by 0.28 kg/m(2). When NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile of its distribution, BMI was lower by 1.26 kg/m(2). As NSES increased from the 10th to the 90th percentile, systolic and diastolic BP were lower by 1.11 mm Hg and 0.40 mm Hg, respectively. As grocery store/supermarket outlet availability increased from the 10th and 90th percentiles, diastolic BP was lower by 0.31 mm Hg. In this national sample of postmenopausal women, we found important independent associations between the food and socioeconomic environments and BMI and BP. These findings suggest that changes in the neighborhood environment may contribute to efforts to control obesity and hypertension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In developed countries, adolescent and young adult diets have been found to be nutritionally poor. The aim of this study was to examine whether a choice architecture intervention, re-arrangement of produce within a grocery store to increase the accessibility of fruit and vegetables, affected purchasing behaviour on a university campus. METHODS:A database of daily sales data from January 2012 to July 2017 was obtained from a campus grocery store. Two changes to the layout were made during this time period. In January 2015, fruit and vegetables were moved from the back of the store, furthest from the entrance, to the aisle closest to the entrance and an entrance-facing display increasing their accessibility. In April 2016, the entrance-facing display of fruit and vegetables was replaced with a chiller cabinet so that fruit and vegetables remained more accessible than during the baseline period, but less accessible than in the period immediately previously. A retrospective interrupted time series analysis using dynamic regression was used to model the data and to examine the effect of the store re-arrangements on purchasing. All analyses were carried out both for sales-by-quantity and for sales-by-money. RESULTS:The first shop re-arrangement which made fruit and vegetables more prominent, increased the percentage of total sales that were fruit and vegetables, when analysed by either items purchased or money spent. The second rearrangement also had a positive effect on the percentage of total sales that were fruit and vegetables compared to baseline, however this was not significant at the 5% level. Over the five year period, the percentage of sales that were fruit and vegetables declined both in terms of items purchased, and money spent. CONCLUSIONS:Increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables in a grocery store is a feasible way to improve the diet of students in tertiary education. There is evidence of declining fruit and vegetable consumption among the studied population, which should be further investigated.