Grading of Gliomas by Using Monoexponential, Biexponential, and Stretched Exponential Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging and Diffusion Kurtosis MR Imaging.
ABSTRACT: To quantitatively compare the potential of various diffusion parameters obtained from monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched exponential diffusion-weighted imaging models and diffusion kurtosis imaging in the grading of gliomas.This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Both diffusion-weighted imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging were performed in 69 patients with pathologically proven gliomas by using a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. An isotropic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true ADC, pseudo-ADC, and perfusion fraction were calculated from diffusion-weighted images by using a biexponential model. A water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index and distributed diffusion coefficient were calculated from diffusion-weighted images by using a stretched exponential model. Mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, and mean kurtosis were calculated from diffusion kurtosis images. All values were compared between high-grade and low-grade gliomas by using a Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operating characteristic and Spearman rank correlation analysis were used for statistical evaluations.ADC, true ADC, perfusion fraction, water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index, distributed diffusion coefficient, and mean diffusivity values were significantly lower in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas (U = 109, 56, 129, 6, 206, and 229, respectively; P < .05). Pseudo-ADC and mean kurtosis values were significantly higher in high-grade gliomas than in low-grade gliomas (U = 98 and 8, respectively; P < .05). Both water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.993) and mean kurtosis (AUC = 0.991) had significantly greater AUC values than ADC (AUC = 0.866), mean diffusivity (AUC = 0.722), and fractional anisotropy (AUC = 0.500) in the differentiation of low-grade and high-grade gliomas (P < .05).Water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index and mean kurtosis values may provide additional information and improve the grading of gliomas compared with conventional diffusion parameters.
Project description:PURPOSE:Investigating the diagnostic accuracy of histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for determining non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor grades, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We studied 60 surgically diagnosed NSCLC patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the axial plane using a navigator-triggered single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence with prospective acquisition correction. The ADC maps were generated, and we placed a volume-of-interest on the tumor to construct the whole-lesion histogram. Using the histogram, we calculated the mean, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis. Histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of histogram parameters for distinguishing different pathologic features. RESULTS:The ADC mean, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles showed significant differences among the tumor grades. The ADC mean, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were significant histogram parameters between high- and low-grade tumors. The ROC analysis between high- and low-grade tumors showed that the 95th percentile ADC achieved the highest area under curve (AUC) at 0.74. Lymphovascular invasion was associated with the ADC mean, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles, skewness, and kurtosis. Kurtosis achieved the highest AUC at 0.809. Pleural invasion was only associated with skewness, with the AUC of 0.648. CONCLUSIONS:ADC histogram analyses on the basis of the entire tumor volume are able to stratify NSCLCs' tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI, and short echo time chemical shift imaging (CSI) for grading gliomas. METHODS: In this prospective study, 35 patients with cerebral gliomas underwent DKI, DSC, and CSI on a 3 T MR scanner. Diffusion parameters were mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy, and mean kurtosis (MK). Perfusion parameters were mean relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV), mean relative regional cerebral blood flow (rrCBF), mean transit time, and relative decrease ratio (rDR). The diffusion and perfusion parameters along with 12 CSI metabolite ratios were compared among 22 high-grade gliomas and 14 low-grade gliomas (Mann-Whitney U-test, P < .05). Classification accuracy was determined with a linear discriminant analysis for each MR modality independently. Furthermore, the performance of a multimodal analysis is reported, using a decision-tree rule combining the statistically significant DKI, DSC-MRI, and CSI parameters with the lowest P-value. The proposed classifiers were validated on a set of subsequently acquired data from 19 clinical patients. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences among tumor grades were shown for MK, MD, mean rrCBV, mean rrCBF, rDR, lipids over total choline, lipids over creatine, sum of myo-inositol, and sum of creatine. DSC-MRI proved to be the modality with the best performance when comparing modalities individually, while the multimodal decision tree proved to be most accurate in predicting tumor grade, with a performance of 86%. CONCLUSIONS: Combining information from DKI, DSC-MRI, and CSI increases diagnostic accuracy to differentiate low- from high-grade gliomas, possibly providing diagnosis for the individual patient.
Project description:PURPOSE:To quantify changes and prognostic value of diffusion MRI measurements obtained using mono-exponential, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and stretched exponential (SE) models prior and after chemoradiation in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM). METHODS:Diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) were acquired in twenty-three patients following surgery, prior chemoradiation and within 7 days following completion of treatment, using b-values ranging from 0 to 5000s/mm2. Mono-exponential diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient: ADC), isotropic (non-directional) DKI model with apparent diffusivity (Dapp) and kurtosis (Kapp) estimates as well as SE model with distributed-diffusion coefficient (DDC) and mean intra-voxel heterogeneity (?) were computed for all patients prior and after chemoradiation. Median values were calculated for normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and contrast-enhancing tumor (CET). The magnitudes of diffusion change prior and after chemoradiation were used to predict overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Diffusivity in NAWM was consistent for all diffusion measures during chemoradiation, while diffusivity measurements (ADC, Dapp and DDC) within CET changed significantly. A strong positive correlation existed between ADC, Dapp, and DDC measurements prior to chemoradiation; however, this association was weak following chemoradiation, suggesting a more complex microstructural environment after cytotoxic therapy. When combined with baseline tumor volume and MGMT status, age and ADC changes added significant prognostic values, whereas more complex diffusion models did not show significant value in predicting OS. CONCLUSIONS:Despite increased tissue complexity following chemoradiation, advanced diffusion models have longer acquisition times, provide largely comparable measures of diffusivity, and do not appear to provide additional prognostic value compared to mono-exponential ADC maps.
Project description:The preoperative grading of gliomas, which is critical for guiding therapeutic strategies, remains unsatisfactory. We aimed to retrospectively assess the efficacy of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the grading of gliomas. Forty-two newly diagnosed glioma patients underwent conventional MR imaging, DWI, and contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast diffusion coefficient (D*), and fraction of fast ADC (f) were generated. They were tested for differences between low- and high-grade gliomas based on one-way ANOVA. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to determine the optimal thresholds as well as the sensitivity and specificity for grading. ADC, D, and f were higher in the low-grade gliomas, whereas D* tended to be lower (all P<0.05). The AUC, sensitivity, specificity and the cutoff value, respectively, for differentiating low- from high-grade gliomas for ADC, D and f, and differentiating high- from low-grade gliomas for D* were as follows: ADC, 0.926, 100%, 82.8%, and 0.7 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; D, 0.942, 92.3%, 86.2%, and 0.623 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec; f, 0.902, 92.3%, 86.2%, and 35.3%; D*, 0.798, 79.3%, 84.6%, and 0.303 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec. The IVIM DWI demonstrates efficacy in differentiating the low- from high-grade gliomas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To investigate the ability of amide proton transfer (APT) weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), arterial spin labeling (ASL), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and the combination for differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGGs) from low-grade gliomas (LGGs). METHODS:Twenty-seven patients including nine LGGs and eighteen HGGs underwent conventional, APT, ASL and DWI MRI with a 3.0-T MR scanner. Histogram analyses was performed and quantitative parameters including mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC mean), 20th-percentile ADC (ADC 20th), mean APT (APT mean), 90th-percentile APT (APT 90th), relative mean cerebral blood flow (rCBF mean) and relative 90th-percentile CBF (rCBF 90th) were compared between HGGs and LGGs. The diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of each parameter and their combination. Correlations were analyzed among the MRI parameters and Ki-67. RESULTS:The APT values were significantly higher in the HGGs compared to the LGGs (p?<? 0.005), whereas ADC values were significantly lower in HGGs than LGGs (P?<? 0.0001). The ADC 20th and APT mean had higher discrimination abilities compared with other single parameters, with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.877 and 0.840. Adding ADC parameter, the discrimination ability of APT and rCBF significantly improved. The ADC was negatively correlated with the APT and rCBF value, respectively, while APT value was positively correlated with rCBF value. Significant correlations between ADC values and Ki-67 were also observed. CONCLUSIONS:APT and DWI are valuable in differentiating HGGs from LGGs. The combination of APT, DWI and ASL imaging could improve the ability for discriminating HGGs from LGGs.
Project description:Conventional diffusion imaging techniques are not sufficiently accurate for evaluating glioma grade and cellular proliferation, which are critical for guiding glioma treatment. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), an advanced non-Gaussian diffusion imaging technique, has shown potential in grading glioma; however, its applications in this tumor have not been fully elucidated. In this study, DKI and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) were performed on 74 consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed glioma. The kurtosis and conventional diffusion metric values of the tumor were semi-automatically obtained. The relationships of these metrics with the glioma grade and Ki-67 expression were evaluated. The diagnostic efficiency of these metrics in grading was further compared. It was demonstrated that compared with the conventional diffusion metrics, the kurtosis metrics were more promising imaging markers in distinguishing high-grade from low-grade gliomas and distinguishing among grade II, III and IV gliomas; the kurtosis metrics also showed great potential in the prediction of Ki-67 expression. To our best knowledge, we are the first to reveal the ability of DKI to assess the cellular proliferation of gliomas, and to employ the semi-automatic method for the accurate measurement of gliomas. These results could have a significant impact on the diagnosis and subsequent therapy of glioma.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the added value of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging to the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) from perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for discriminating between high- and low-grade gliomas. METHODS:Forty-six consecutive adult patients with diffuse gliomas who underwent preoperative APT imaging, DTI and perfusion MRI were enrolled. APT signals were compared according to the World Health Organization grade. The diagnostic ability and added value of the APT signal to the ADC and rCBV for discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses and integrated discrimination improvement. RESULTS:The APT signal increased as the glioma grade increased. The discrimination abilities of the APT, ADC and rCBV values were not significantly different. Using both the APT signal and ADC significantly improved discrimination vs. the ADC alone (area under the ROC curve [AUC], 0.888?vs.?0.910; P?=?0.007), whereas using both the APT signal and rCBV did not improve discrimination vs. the rCBV alone (AUC, 0.927?vs.?0.923; P?=?0.222). CONCLUSIONS:APT imaging may be a useful imaging biomarker that adds value to the ADC for discriminating between low- and high-grade gliomas. KEY POINTS:• Higher APT values were correlated with higher glioma grades. • Adding the APT signal to the ADC improved glioma grading. • Adding the APT signal to rCBV did not improve glioma grading. • APT is a useful adjunct to the ADC for glioma grading.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the role of diffusion kurtosis and diffusivity as potential imaging biomarkers to predict response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) from baseline staging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:This retrospective study included 45 consecutive patients (31 male/14 female) who underwent baseline MRI with high b-value sequences (up to 1500 mm/s2) for LARC followed by neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgical resection. The mean age was 57.4 years (range 34.2-72.9). An abdominal radiologist using open source software manually segmented T2-weighted images. Segmentations were used to derive diffusion kurtosis and diffusivity from diffusion-weighted images as well as volumetric data. These data were analyzed with regard to tumor regression grade (TRG) using the four-tier American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification, TRG 0-3. Proportional odds regression was used to analyze the four-level ordinal outcome. A sensitivity analysis was performed using univariable logistic regression for binary TRG groups, TRG 0/1 (>?90% response), or TRG 2/3 (<?90% response). p?<?0.05 was considered significant throughout. RESULTS:In the univariable proportional odds regression analysis, higher diffusivity summary (Dsum) values were observed to be significantly associated with higher odds of being in one or more favorable TRG group (TRG 0 or 1). In other words, on average, patients with higher Dsum values were more likely to be in a more favorable TRG group. These results are mostly consistent with the sensitivity analysis, in which higher values for most Dsum values [all but region of interest (ROI)-max D median (p?=?0.08)] were observed to be significantly associated with higher odds of being TRG 0 or 1. Tumor volume of interest (VOI) and ROI volume, ROI kurtosis mean and median, and VOI kurtosis mean and median were not significantly associated with TRG. CONCLUSION:Diffusivity derived from the baseline staging MRI, but not diffusion kurtosis or volumetric data, is associated with TRG and therefore shows promise as a potential imaging biomarker to predict the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in LARC. CLINICAL RELEVANCE STATEMENT:Diffusivity shows promise as a potential imaging biomarker to predict AJCC TRG following neoadjuvant CRT, which has implications for risk stratification. Patients with TRG 0/1 have 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 90-98%, as opposed to those who are TRG 2/3 with 5-year DFS of 68-73%.
Project description:The objective of this study was to examine the tumor spatial heterogeneity in myxoid-containing soft-tissue tumors (STTs) using texture analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). A total of 40 patients with myxoid-containing STTs (23 benign and 17 malignant) were included in this study. The region of interest (ROI) was manually drawn on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map. For texture analysis, the global (mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis), regional (intensity variability and size-zone variability), and local features (energy, entropy, correlation, contrast, homogeneity, variance, and maximum probability) were extracted from the ADC map. Student's t-test was used to test the difference between group means. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed with adjustments for age, sex, and tumor volume. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare diagnostic performances. Malignant myxoid-containing STTs had significantly higher kurtosis (P = 0.040), energy (P = 0.034), correlation (P<0.001), and homogeneity (P = 0.003), but significantly lower contrast (P<0.001) and variance (P = 0.001) compared with benign myxoid-containing STTs. Contrast showed the highest area under the curve (AUC = 0.923, P<0.001), sensitivity (94.12%), and specificity (86.96%). Our results reveal the potential utility of texture analysis of ADC maps for differentiating benign and malignant myxoid-containing STTs.
Project description:To evaluate the interobserver reliability and value of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) in the assessment of uterine tumors compared with those of conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI).This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, which waived the requirement for informed consent. Fifty-eight women (mean age: 55.0 ± 13.6 years; range: 30-89 years) with suspected malignant uterine tumors underwent 3-T magnetic resonance imaging using DKI and DWI. Twelve had coexisting leiomyoma. Two observers analyzed region-of-interest measurements of diffusivity (D), kurtosis (K), and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of uterine lesions and healthy adjacent tissues. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean values were compared using one-way analysis of variance with a post-hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference test. The diagnostic accuracy of D and ADC in differentiating malignant tumors from benign leiomyomas was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.The ICCs between the two observers in evaluating D, K, and the ADC of the malignant tumors were higher than 0.84, suggesting excellent interobserver agreements. The mean D (×10-3 mm2/s) of uterine cancers (1.05 ± 0.41 and 1.09 ± 0.40 for observers 1 and 2, respectively) were significantly lower than those of leiomyoma (1.40 ± 0.37 and 1.56 ± 0.33, respectively; P < 0.05), healthy myometrium (1.72 ± 0.27 and 1.69 ± 0.30, respectively; P < 0.001), and healthy endometrium (1.53 ± 0.35 and 1.42 ± 0.37, respectively; P < 0.005). There was no significant difference in the area under the ROC curve between D and ADC. The mean K of uterine cancers (0.88 ± 0.28 and 0.90 ± 0.23, respectively) were higher than those of myometrium (0.72 ± 0.10 and 0.73 ± 0.10, respectively; P < 0.001), healthy endometrium (0.65 ± 0.13 and 0.60 ± 0.18, respectively; P < 0.001), and leiomyoma (0.76 ± 0.14 and 0.77 ± 0.16, respectively; not significant, P > 0.1).Interobserver agreements in evaluating D, K, and ADC were moderate to excellent. D performed equally to conventional DWI in differentiating between benign and malignant uterine lesions. The mean K of malignant uterine lesions was significantly higher than that of non-tumorous myometrium or endometrium.