Kisameet Clay Exhibits Potent Antibacterial Activity against the ESKAPE Pathogens.
ABSTRACT: The ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide since they escape the inhibitory effect of the available antibiotics and the immune response. Here, we report the broad-spectrum and potent antibacterial activity of Kisameet clay, a natural clay mineral from British Columbia, Canada, against a group of multidrug-resistant ESKAPE strains. The results suggest that this natural clay might be developed as a therapeutic option for the treatment of serious infections caused by these important pathogens.More than 50 years of misuse and overuse of antibiotics has led to a plague of antibiotic resistance that threatens to reduce the efficacy of antimicrobial agents available for the treatment of infections due to resistant organisms. The main threat is nosocomial infections in which certain pathogens, notably the ESKAPE organisms, are essentially untreatable and contribute to increasing mortality and morbidity in surgical wards. The pipeline of novel antimicrobials in the pharmaceutical industry is essentially empty. Thus, there is a great need to seek for new sources for the treatment of recalcitrant infectious diseases. We describe experiments that demonstrate the efficacy of a "natural" medicine, Kisameet clay, against all of the ESKAPE strains. We suggest that this material is worthy of clinical investigation for the treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms.
Project description:The acronym ESKAPE includes six nosocomial pathogens that exhibit multidrug resistance and virulence: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. Persistent use of antibiotics has provoked the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) bacteria, which render even the most effective drugs ineffective. Extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacteria have emerged as an important therapeutic challenge. Development of novel therapeutics to treat drug resistant infections, especially those caused by ESKAPE pathogens is the need of the hour. Alternative therapies such as use of antibiotics in combination or with adjuvants, bacteriophages, antimicrobial peptides, nanoparticles, and photodynamic light therapy are widely reported. Many reviews published till date describe these therapies with respect to the various agents used, their dosage details and mechanism of action against MDR pathogens but very few have focused specifically on ESKAPE. The objective of this review is to describe the alternative therapies reported to treat ESKAPE infections, their advantages and limitations, potential application in vivo, and status in clinical trials. The review further highlights the importance of a combinatorial approach, wherein two or more therapies are used in combination in order to overcome their individual limitations, additional studies on which are warranted, before translating them into clinical practice. These advances could possibly give an alternate solution or extend the lifetime of current antimicrobials.
Project description:Covering: up to 2017.Natural products are important secondary metabolites produced by bacterial and fungal species that play important roles in cellular growth and signaling, nutrient acquisition, intra- and interspecies communication, and virulence. A subset of natural products is produced by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), a family of large, modular enzymes that function in an assembly line fashion. Because of the pharmaceutical activity of many NRPS products, much effort has gone into the exploration of their biosynthetic pathways and the diverse products they make. Many interesting NRPS pathways have been identified and characterized from both terrestrial and marine bacterial sources. Recently, several NRPS pathways in human commensal bacterial species have been identified that produce molecules with antibiotic activity, suggesting another source of interesting NRPS pathways may be the commensal and pathogenic bacteria that live on the human body. The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) have been identified as a significant cause of human bacterial infections that are frequently multidrug resistant. The emerging resistance profile of these organisms has prompted calls from multiple international agencies to identify novel antibacterial targets and develop new approaches to treat infections from ESKAPE pathogens. Each of these species contains several NRPS biosynthetic gene clusters. While some have been well characterized and produce known natural products with important biological roles in microbial physiology, others have yet to be investigated. This review catalogs the NRPS pathways of ESKAPE pathogens. The exploration of novel NRPS products may lead to a better understanding of the chemical communication used by human pathogens and potentially to the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Increasing rates of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection are one of the most pressing contemporary global health concerns. The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) have been identified as the leading global cause of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, and overexpression of multidrug efflux (MEX) transport systems has been identified as one of the most critical mechanisms facilitating the evolution of multidrug resistance in ESKAPE pathogens. Despite efforts to develop efflux pump inhibitors to combat antibiotic resistance, the need persists to identify additional targets for future investigations. We evaluated evolutionary pressures on 110 MEX-encoding genes from all annotated ESKAPE organism genomes. We identify several MEX genes under stabilizing selection-representing targets which can facilitate broad-spectrum treatments with evolutionary constraints limiting the potential emergence of escape mutants. We also examine MEX systems being evaluated as drug targets, demonstrating that divergent selection may underlie some of the problems encountered in the development of effective treatments-specifically in relation to the NorA system in S. aureus. This study provides a comprehensive evolutionary context to efflux in the ESKAPE pathogens, which will provide critical context to the evaluation of efflux systems as antibiotic targets. IMPORTANCE Increasing rates of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection are one of the most pressing contemporary global health concerns. The ESKAPE pathogen group represents the leading cause of these infections, and upregulation of efflux pump expression is a significant mechanism of resistance in these pathogens. This has resulted in substantial interest in the development of efflux pump inhibitors to combat antibiotic-resistant infections; however, no widespread treatments have been developed to date. Our study evaluates an often-underappreciated aspect of resistance-the impact of evolutionary selection. We evaluate selection on all annotated efflux genes in all sequenced ESKAPE pathogens, providing critical context for and insight into current and future development of efflux-targeting treatments for resistant bacterial infections.
Project description:ESKAPE bacteria are a major cause of multidrug-resistant infections, and new drugs are urgently needed to combat these pathogens. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial drugs. In this scenario, the FDA-approved iron mimetic metal Gallium [Ga(III)] has been successfully repurposed as an antimicrobial drug. Ga(III) disrupts ferric iron-dependent metabolic pathways, thereby inhibiting microbial growth. This work provides the first comparative assessment of the antibacterial activity of Ga(NO3)3 (GaN), Ga(III)-maltolate (GaM), and Ga(III)-protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX), belonging to the first-, second- and third-generation of Ga(III) formulations, respectively, on ESKAPE species, including reference strains and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. In addition to the standard culture medium Mueller Hinton broth (MHB), iron-depleted MHB (DMHB) and RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% human serum (HS) (RPMI-HS) were also included in Ga(III)-susceptibility tests, because of their different nutrient and iron contents. All ESKAPE species were resistant to all Ga(III) compounds in MHB and DMHB (MIC > 32 ?M), except Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii, which were susceptible to GaPPIX. Conversely, the antibacterial activity of GaN and GaM was very evident in RPMI-HS, in which the low iron content and the presence of HS better mimic the in vivo environment. In RPMI-HS about 50% of the strains were sensitive (MIC < 32) to GaN and GaM, both compounds showing a similar spectrum of activity, although GaM was more effective than GaN. In contrast, GaPPIX lost its antibacterial activity in RPMI-HS likely due to the presence of albumin, which binds GaPPIX and counteracts its inhibitory effect. We also demonstrated that the presence of multiple heme-uptake systems strongly influences GaPPIX susceptibility in A. baumannii. Interestingly, GaN and GaM showed only a bacteriostatic effect, whereas GaPPIX exerted a bactericidal activity on susceptible strains. Altogether, our findings raise hope for the future development of Ga(III)-based compounds in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens.
Project description:ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) are among the most common opportunistic pathogens in nosocomial infections. ESKAPE pathogens distinguish themselves from normal ones by developing a high level of antibiotic resistance that involves multiple mechanisms. Contemporary therapeutic strategies which are potential options in combating ESKAPE bacteria need further investigation. Herein, a broad overview of the antimicrobial research on ESKAPE pathogens over the past five years is provided with prospective clinical applications.
Project description:In an effort to stem the rising tide of multi-resistant bacteria, researchers have turned to niche environments in the hope of discovering new varieties of antibiotics. We investigated an ethnopharmacological (cure) from an alkaline/radon soil in the area of Boho, in the Fermanagh Scarplands (N. Ireland) for the presence of Streptomyces, a well-known producer of antibiotics. From this soil we isolated a novel (closest relative 57% of genome relatedness) Streptomyces sp. capable of growth at high alkaline pH (10.5) and tolerant of gamma radiation to 4 kGy. Genomic sequencing identified many alkaline tolerance (antiporter/multi-resistance) genes compared to S. coelicolor M145 (at 3:1), hence we designated the strain Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1, from the Greek, myro (fragrance) and phorea (porter/carrier). In vitro tests demonstrated the ability of the Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 to inhibit the growth of many strains of ESKAPE pathogens; most notably carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (a critical pathogen on the WHO priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (both listed as high priority pathogens). Further in silico prediction of antimicrobial potential of Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 by anti-SMASH and RAST software identified many secondary metabolite and toxicity resistance gene clusters (45 and 27, respectively) as well as many antibiotic resistance genes potentially related to antibiotic production. Follow-up in vitro tests show that the Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 was resistant to 28 out of 36 clinical antibiotics. Although not a comprehensive analysis, we think that some of the Boho soils' reputed curative properties may be linked to the ability of Streptomyces sp. myrophorea, isolate McG1 to inhibit ESKAPE pathogens. More importantly, further analysis may elucidate other key components that could alleviate the tide of multi-resistant nosocomial infections.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the significant clinical challenges and also an emerging area of concern arising from nosocomial infections of ESKAPE pathogens, which has been on the rise in both the developed and developing countries alike. These pathogens/superbugs can undergo rapid mutagenesis, which helps them to generate resistance against antimicrobials in addition to the patient's non-adherence to the antibiotic regimen. Sticking to the idea of a 'one-size-fits-all' approach has led to the inappropriate administration of antibiotics resulting in augmentation of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the natural host defense peptides that have gained attention in the field of AMR, and recently, synthetic AMPs are well studied to overcome the drawbacks of natural counterparts. This review deals with the novel techniques utilizing the bacteriolytic activity of natural AMPs. The effective localization of these peptides onto the negatively charged bacterial surface by using nanocarriers and structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers (SNAPPs) owing to its smaller size and better antimicrobial activity is also described here.
Project description:Background:Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the biggest threats to global health. Infections by ESKAPE (Enterococcus, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli) organisms are the leading cause of healthcare-acquired infections worldwide. ABR in ESKAPE organisms is usually associated with significant higher morbidity, mortality, as well as economic burden. Directing attention towards the ESKAPE organisms can help us to better combat the wide challenge of ABR, especially multi-drug resistance (MDR). Objective:This study aims to systematically review and evaluate the evidence of the economic consequences of ABR or MDR ESKAPE organisms compared with susceptible cases or control patients without infection/colonization in order to determine the impact of ABR on economic burden. Methods:Both English-language databases and Chinese-language databases up to 16 January, 2019 were searched to identify relevant studies assessing the economic burden of ABR. Studies reported hospital costs (charges) or antibiotic cost during the entire hospitalization and during the period before/after culture among patients with ABR or MDR ESKAPE organisms were included. The costs were converted into 2015 United States Dollars. Disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. Results:Of 13,693 studies identified, 83 eligible studies were included in our review. The most studied organism was S. aureus, followed by Enterococcus, A. baumannii, E. coli, E. coli or/and K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae. There were 71 studies on total hospital cost or charge, 12 on antibiotic cost, 11 on hospital cost or charge after culture, 4 on ICU cost, 2 on hospital cost or charge before culture, and 2 on total direct and indirect cost. In general, ABR or MDR ESKAPE organisms are significantly associated with higher economic burden than those with susceptible organisms or those without infection or colonization. Nonetheless, there were no differences in a few studies between the two groups on total hospital cost or charge (16 studies), antibiotic cost (one study), hospital cost before culture (one study), hospital cost after culture (one study). Even, one reported that costs associated with MSSA infection were higher than the costs for similar MRSA cases. Conclusions:ABR in ESKAPE organisms is not always, but usually, associated with significantly higher economic burden. The results without significant differences may lack statistical power to detect a significant association. In addition, study design which controls for severity of illness and same empirical antibiotic therapy in the two groups would be expected to bias the study towards a similar, even negative result. The review also highlights key areas where further research is needed.
Project description:Treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections has been a great challenge globally. Previous studies including our study have highlighted the use of celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in combination with antibiotic has decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration to limit Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment against various pathogenic bacteria is not determined. Therefore, we have evaluated the potential use of celecoxib in combination with low doses of antibiotic in limiting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vivo in murine polymicrobial sepsis developed by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) method and against clinically isolated human ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species). The in vivo results clearly demonstrated a significant reduction in the bacterial load in different organs and in the inflammatory markers such as COX-2 and NF-?B via activation of SIRT1 in mice treated with imipenem, a choice of antibiotic for polymicrobial sepsis treatment. Combinatorial treatment of ampicillin and celecoxib was effective on clinical isolates of ESKAPE pathogens, 45% of tested clinical isolates showed more than 50% reduction in the colony forming units when compared to ampicillin alone. In conclusion, this non-traditional treatment strategy might be effective in clinic to reduce the dose of antibiotic to treat drug-resistant bacterial infections.
Project description:With the antibiotic development pipeline running dry, many fear that we might soon run out of treatment options. High-density infections are particularly difficult to treat due to their adaptive multidrug-resistance and currently there are no therapies that adequately address this important issue. Here, a large-scale in vivo study was performed to enhance the activity of antibiotics to treat high-density infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was shown that synthetic peptides can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, meropenem, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin to improve the treatment outcome of murine cutaneous abscesses caused by clinical hard-to-treat pathogens including all ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae) pathogens and Escherichia coli. Promisingly, combination treatment often showed synergistic effects that significantly reduced abscess sizes and/or improved clearance of bacterial isolates from the infection site, regardless of the antibiotic mode of action. In vitro data suggest that the mechanisms of peptide action in vivo include enhancement of antibiotic penetration and potential disruption of the stringent stress response.