Distinct requirements for intra-ER sorting and budding of peroxisomal membrane proteins from the ER.
ABSTRACT: During de novo peroxisome biogenesis, importomer complex proteins sort via two preperoxisomal vesicles (ppVs). However, the sorting mechanisms segregating peroxisomal membrane proteins to the preperoxisomal endoplasmic reticulum (pER) and into ppVs are unknown. We report novel roles for Pex3 and Pex19 in intra-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sorting and budding of the RING-domain peroxins (Pex2, Pex10, and Pex12). Pex19 bridged the interaction at the ER between Pex3 and RING-domain proteins, resulting in a ternary complex that was critical for the intra-ER sorting and subsequent budding of the RING-domain peroxins. Although the docking subcomplex proteins (Pex13, Pex14, and Pex17) also required Pex19 for budding from the ER, they sorted to the pER independently of Pex3 and Pex19 and were spatially segregated from the RING-domain proteins. We also discovered a unique role for Pex3 in sorting Pex10 and Pex12, but with the docking subcomplex. Our study describes an intra-ER sorting process that regulates segregation, packaging, and budding of peroxisomal importomer subcomplexes, thereby preventing their premature assembly at the ER.
Project description:Dynamic control of peroxisome proliferation is integral to the peroxisome's many functions. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves as a source of preperoxisomal vesicles (PPVs) that mature into peroxisomes during de novo peroxisome biogenesis and support growth and division of existing peroxisomes. However, the mechanism of PPV formation and release from the ER remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III are required to release PPVs budding from the ER into the cytosol. Absence of ESCRT-III proteins impedes de novo peroxisome formation and results in an aberrant peroxisome population in vivo. Using a cell-free PPV budding assay, we show that ESCRT-III proteins Vps20 and Snf7 are necessary to release PPVs from the ER. ESCRT-III is therefore a positive effector of membrane scission for vesicles budding both away from and toward the cytosol. These findings have important implications for the evolutionary timing of emergence of peroxisomes and the rest of the internal membrane architecture of the eukaryotic cell.
Project description:In peroxisomes, peroxins (PEXs) 3 and 19 are the principal protein components of the machinery required for early peroxisomal biogenesis. For further insight into the interaction of PEX3 and PEX19, we used hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry to monitor conformational changes during complex formation between PEX3 and PEX19 in vitro. Our data showed that PEX19 remained highly flexible during interaction with PEX3. However, we could detect three changes, one each in the N-and C-terminus along with a small stretch in the middle of PEX19 (F64-L74) which became shielded from hydrogen exchange when interacting with PEX3. PEX3 became more protected from hydrogen exchange in the binding groove for PEX19 with only small changes elsewhere. Most likely the N-terminus of PEX19 initiates the binding to PEX3, and then subtle conformational changes in PEX3 affect the surface of the PEX3 molecule. PEX19 in turn, is stabilized by folding of a short helix and its C-terminal folding core permitting PEX19 to bind to PEX3 with higher affinity than just the N-terminal interaction allows. Thus within the cell, PEX3 is stabilized by PEX19 preventing PEX3 aggregation.
Project description:The human peroxins PEX3 and PEX19 play a central role in peroxisomal membrane biogenesis. The membrane-anchored PEX3 serves as the receptor for cytosolic PEX19, which in turn recognizes newly synthesized peroxisomal membrane proteins. After delivering these proteins to the peroxisomal membrane, PEX19 is recycled to the cytosol. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of the cytosolic domain of PEX3 in complex with a PEX19-derived peptide. PEX3 adopts a novel fold that is best described as a large helical bundle. A hydrophobic groove at the membrane-distal end of PEX3 engages the PEX19 peptide with nanomolar affinity. Mutagenesis experiments identify phenylalanine 29 in PEX19 as critical for this interaction. Because key PEX3 residues involved in complex formation are highly conserved across species, the observed binding mechanism is of general biological relevance.
Project description:The integral peroxisomal membrane proteins PEX10, PEX2, and PEX12 contain a zinc RING finger close to the C terminus. Loss of function of these peroxins causes embryo lethality at the heart stage in Arabidopsis. Preventing the coordination of Zn(2+) ions by amino acid substitutions in PEX10, PEX2, and PEX12 and overexpressing the resulting conditional sublethal mutations in WT uncovered additional functions of PEX10. Plants overexpressing DeltaZn-mutant PEX10 display deformed peroxisomal shapes causing diminished contact with chloroplasts and possibly with mitochondria. These changes correlated with impaired metabolite transfer and, at high CO(2), recoverable defective photorespiration plus dwarfish phenotype. The N-terminal PEX10 domain is critical for peroxisome biogenesis and plant development. A point mutation in the highly conserved TLGEEY motif results in vermiform peroxisome shape without impairing organelle contact. Addition of an N-terminal T7 tag to WT PEX0 resulted in partially recoverable reduced growth and defective inflorescences persisting under high CO(2). In contrast, plants overexpressing PEX2-DeltaZn-T7 grow like WT in normal atmosphere, contain normal-shaped peroxisomes, but display impaired peroxisomal matrix protein import. PEX12-DeltaZn-T7 mutants exhibit unimpaired import of matrix protein and normal-shaped peroxisomes when grown in normal atmosphere. During seed germination, glyoxysomes form a reticulum around the lipid bodies for mobilization of storage oil. The formation of this glyoxysomal reticulum seemed to be impaired in PEX10-DeltaZn but not in PEX2-DeltaZn-T7 or PEX12-DeltaZn-T7 plants. Both cytosolic PEX10 domains seem essential for peroxisome structure but differ in metabolic function, suggesting a role for this plant peroxin in addition to the import of matrix protein via ubiquitination of PEX5.
Project description:Trypanosomatid parasites are infectious agents for diseases such as African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis that threaten millions of people, mostly in the emerging world. Trypanosomes compartmentalize glycolytic enzymes to an organelle called the glycosome, a specialized peroxisome. Functionally intact glycosomes are essential for trypanosomatid viability, making glycosomal proteins as potential drug targets against trypanosomatid diseases. Peroxins (Pex), of which Pex3 is the master regulator, control glycosome biogenesis. Although Pex3 has been found throughout the eukaryota, its identity has remained stubbornly elusive in trypanosomes. We used bioinformatics predictive of protein secondary structure to identify trypanosomal Pex3. Microscopic and biochemical analyses showed trypanosomal Pex3 to be glycosomal. Interaction of Pex3 with the peroxisomal membrane protein receptor Pex19 observed for other eukaryotes is replicated by trypanosomal Pex3 and Pex19. Depletion of Pex3 leads to mislocalization of glycosomal proteins to the cytosol, reduced glycosome numbers, and trypanosomatid death. Our findings are consistent with Pex3 being an essential gene in trypanosomes.
Project description:We demonstrate that the peroxin Pex3 is not required for the formation of peroxisomal membrane structures in yeast pex3 mutant cells. Notably, pex3 mutant cells already contain reticular and vesicular structures that harbor key proteins of the peroxisomal receptor docking complex-Pex13 and Pex14-as well as the matrix proteins Pex8 and alcohol oxidase. Other peroxisomal membrane proteins in these cells are unstable and transiently localized to the cytosol (Pex10, Pmp47) or endoplasmic reticulum (Pex11). These reticular and vesicular structures are more abundant in cells of a pex3 atg1 double deletion strain, as the absence of Pex3 may render them susceptible to autophagic degradation, which is blocked in this double mutant. Contrary to earlier suggestions, peroxisomes are not formed de novo from the endoplasmic reticulum when the PEX3 gene is reintroduced in pex3 cells. Instead, we find that reintroduced Pex3 sorts to the preperoxisomal structures in pex3 cells, after which these structures mature into normal peroxisomes.
Project description:Peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) traffic to peroxisomes by two mechanisms: direct insertion from the cytosol into the peroxisomal membrane and indirect trafficking to peroxisomes via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In mammals and yeast, several PMPs traffic via the ER in a Pex3- and Pex19-dependent manner. In Komagataella phaffii (formerly called Pichia pastoris) specifically, the indirect traffic of Pex2, but not of Pex11 or Pex17, depends on Pex3, but all PMPs tested for indirect trafficking require Pex19. In mammals, the indirect traffic of PMPs also requires PEX16, a protein that is absent in most yeast species. In this study, we isolated PEX36, a new gene in K. phaffii, which encodes a PMP. Pex36 is required for cell growth in conditions that require peroxisomes for the metabolism of certain carbon sources. This growth defect in cells lacking Pex36 can be rescued by the expression of human PEX16, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex34, or by overexpression of the endogenous K. phaffii Pex25. Pex36 is not an essential protein for peroxisome proliferation, but in the absence of the functionally redundant protein, Pex25, it becomes essential and less than 20% of these cells show import-incompetent, peroxisome-like structures (peroxisome remnants). In the absence of both proteins, peroxisome biogenesis and the intra-ER sorting of Pex2 and Pex11C are seriously impaired, likely by affecting Pex3 and Pex19 function.
Project description:Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles mainly involved in ROS and lipid metabolism. Their abundance, protein composition and metabolic function vary depending on the cell type and adjust to different intracellular and environmental factors such as oxidative stress or nutrition. The biogenesis and proliferation of these important organelles are regulated by proteins belonging to the peroxin (PEX) family. PEX3, an integral peroxisomal membrane protein, and the cytosolic shuttling receptor PEX19 are thought to be responsible for the early steps of peroxisome biogenesis and assembly of their matrix protein import machinery. Recently, both peroxins were suggested to be also involved in the autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy). Despite the fact that distribution and intracellular abundance of these proteins might regulate the turnover of the peroxisomal compartment in a cell type-specific manner, a comprehensive analysis of the endogenous PEX3 and PEX19 distribution in different organs is still missing. In this study, we have therefore generated antibodies against endogenous mouse PEX3 and PEX19 and analysed their abundance and subcellular localisation in various mouse organs, tissues and cell types and compared it to the one of three commonly used peroxisomal markers (PEX14, ABCD3 and catalase). Our results revealed that the abundance of PEX3, PEX19, PEX14, ABCD3 and catalase strongly varies in the analysed organs and cell types, suggesting that peroxisome abundance, biogenesis and matrix protein import are independently regulated. We further found that in some organs, such as heart and skeletal muscle, the majority of the shuttling receptor PEX19 is bound to the peroxisomal membrane and that a strong variability exists in the cell type-specific ratio of cytosol- and peroxisome-associated PEX19. In conclusion, our results indicate that peroxisomes in various cell types are heterogeneous with regards to their matrix, membrane and biogenesis proteins.
Project description:Glycosomes are divergent peroxisomes found in trypanosomatid protozoa, including those that cause severe human diseases throughout much of the world. While peroxisomes are dispensable for both yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and others) and mammalian cells in vitro, glycosomes are essential for trypanosomes and hence are viewed as a potential drug target. The import of proteins into the matrix of peroxisomes utilizes multiple peroxisomal membrane proteins which require the peroxin PEX19 for insertion into the peroxisomal membrane. In this report, we show that the specificity of peroxisomal membrane protein binding for Trypanosoma brucei PEX19 is very similar to those previously identified for human and yeast PEX19. Our studies show that trafficking is conserved across these distant phyla and that both a PEX19 binding site and a transmembrane domain are required for the insertion of two test proteins into the glycosomal membrane. However, in contrast to T. brucei PEX10 and PEX12, T. brucei PEX14 does not traffic to human peroxisomes, indicating that it is not recognized by the human PEX14 import mechanism.
Project description:Pex19p, a soluble cytoplasmic transport protein, is required for the traffic of the peroxisomal membrane proteins Pex3p and Pex15p from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the peroxisome. We documented Pex15p traffic from the ER using a chimeric protein containing a C-terminal glycosylation acceptor peptide. Pex15Gp expressed in wild-type yeast cells is N-glycosylated and functions properly in the peroxisome. In contrast, pex19?-mutant cells accumulate the glycoprotein Pex15Gp in the ER. We developed a cell-free preperoxisomal vesicle-budding reaction in which Pex15Gp and Pex3p are packaged into small vesicles in the presence of cytosol, Pex19p, and ATP. Secretory vesicle budding (COPII) detected by the packaging of a SNARE protein (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive attachment protein receptor) occurs in the same incubation but does not depend on Pex19p. Conversely a dominant GTPase mutant Sar1p which inhibits COPII has no effect on Pex3p packaging. Pex15Gp and Pex3p budded vesicles sediment as low-buoyant-density membranes on a Nycodenz gradient and copurify by affinity isolation using native but not Triton X-100-treated budded vesicles. ER-peroxisome transport vesicles appear to rely on a novel budding mechanism requiring Pex19p and additional unknown factors.