Predictive value and clinical utility of centrally assessed ER, PgR, and Ki-67 to select adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer: TEXT and SOFT trials.
ABSTRACT: The SOFT and TEXT randomized phase III trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer. We investigated the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and Ki-67 expression in women with HER2-negative disease. Of 5707 women enrolled, 4115 with HER2-negative (HR+/HER2-) disease had ER, PgR, and Ki-67 centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was defined from randomization to first invasive local, regional, or distant recurrence or contralateral breast cancer. The prognostic and predictive values of ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression levels were assessed using Cox modeling and STEPP methodology. In this HR+/HER2- population, the median ER, PgR, and Ki-67 expressions were 95, 90, and 18 % immunostained cells. As most patients had strongly ER-positive tumors, the predictive value of ER levels could not be investigated. Lower PgR and higher Ki-67 expression were associated with reduced BCFI. There was no consistent evidence of heterogeneity of the relative treatment effects according to PgR or Ki-67 expression levels, though there was a greater 5-year absolute benefit of exemestane + ovarian function suppression (OFS) versus tamoxifen with or without OFS at lower levels of PgR and higher levels of Ki-67. Women with poor prognostic features of low PgR and/or high Ki-67 have greater absolute benefit from exemestane + OFS versus tamoxifen + OFS or tamoxifen alone, but individually PgR and Ki-67 are of limited predictive value for selecting adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- early breast cancer.
Project description:Risk of recurrence is the primary consideration in breast cancer adjuvant therapy recommendations. The TEXT (Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial) and SOFT (Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial) trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, testing exemestane plus ovarian function suppression (OFS), tamoxifen plus OFS, and tamoxifen alone. We examined absolute treatment effect across a continuum of recurrence risk to individualize endocrine therapy decision making for premenopausal women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative disease.The TEXT and SOFT hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative analysis population included 4,891 women. The end point was breast cancer-free interval (BCFI), defined as time from random assignment to first occurrence of invasive locoregional, distant, or contralateral breast cancer. A continuous, composite measure of recurrence risk for each patient was determined from a Cox model incorporating age, nodal status, tumor size and grade, and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Ki-67 expression levels. Subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot methodology revealed differential treatment effects on 5-year BCFI according to composite risk.SOFT patients who remained premenopausal after chemotherapy experienced absolute improvement of 5% or more in 5-year BCFI with exemestane plus OFS versus tamoxifen plus OFS or tamoxifen alone, reaching 10% to 15% at intermediate to high composite risk; the benefit of tamoxifen plus OFS versus tamoxifen alone was apparent at the highest composite risk. The SOFT no-chemotherapy cohort-for whom composite risk was lowest on average-did well with all endocrine therapies. For TEXT patients, the benefit of exemestane plus OFS versus tamoxifen plus OFS in 5-year BCFI ranged from 5% to 15%; patients not receiving chemotherapy and with lowest composite risk did well with both treatments.Premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative disease and high recurrence risk, as defined by clinicopathologic characteristics, may experience improvement of 10% to 15% in 5-year BCFI with exemestane plus OFS versus tamoxifen alone. An improvement of at least 5% may be achieved for women at intermediate risk, and improvement is minimal for those at lowest risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) aberrations may be associated with expression of estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) or Ki-67 labeling index and prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS:ESR1 was assessed in 1129 (81%) of 1396 postmenopausal Danish women with early breast cancer randomly assigned to receive 5 years of letrozole, tamoxifen or a sequence of these agents in the Breast International Group 1-98 trial and who had ER ? 1% after central review. RESULTS:By FISH, 13.6% of patients had an ESR1-to-Centromere-6 (CEN-6) ratio ? 2 (amplified), and 4.2% had ESR1-to-CEN-6 ratio <0.8 (deleted). Deletion of ESR1 was associated with significantly lower levels of ER (P < 0.0001) and PgR (P = 0.02) and more frequent HER2 amplification. ESR1 deletion or amplification was associated with higher-Ki-67 than ESR1-normal tumors. Overall, there was no evidence of heterogeneity of disease-free survival (DFS) or in treatment effect according to ESR1 status. However, significant differences in DFS were observed for subsets based on a combination of ESR1 and HER2 status (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:ESR1 aberrations were associated with HER2 status, Ki-67 labeling index and ER and PgR levels. When combined with HER2, ESR1 may be prognostic but should not be used for endocrine treatment selection in postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer.
Project description:Purpose To describe benefits and toxicities of adjuvant endocrine therapies in women younger than 35 years with breast cancer (n = 582) enrolled in the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT) and Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT). Methods In SOFT, women still premenopausal after surgery with or without chemotherapy were randomly assigned to tamoxifen alone, tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression (OFS), or exemestane plus OFS. In TEXT, all received OFS with or without concomitant chemotherapy and were randomly assigned to exemestane plus OFS or tamoxifen plus OFS. We summarize treatment efficacy, quality of life, and adherence of the cohort of women younger than 35 years in SOFT and TEXT, alongside data from the cohort of older premenopausal women. Results For 240 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years enrolled in SOFT after receiving chemotherapy, the 5-year breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was 67.1% (95% CI, 54.6% to 76.9%) with tamoxifen alone, 75.9% with tamoxifen plus OFS (95% CI, 64.0% to 84.4%), and 83.2% with exemestane plus OFS (95% CI, 72.7% to 90.0%). For 145 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative patients younger than 35 years in TEXT, 5-year BCFI was 79.2% (95% CI, 66.2% to 87.7%) with tamoxifen plus OFS and 81.6% (95% CI, 69.8% to 89.2%) with exemestane plus OFS. The most prominent quality of life symptom for patients younger than 35 years receiving OFS was vasomotor symptoms, with the greatest worsening from baseline at 6 months (on the order of 30 to 40 points), but loss of sexual interest and difficulties in becoming aroused were also clinically meaningful (? 8-point change). The level of symptom burden was similar in older premenopausal women. A total of 19.8% of women younger than 35 years stopped all protocol-assigned endocrine therapy early. Conclusion In women younger than 35 years with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, adjuvant OFS combined with tamoxifen or exemestane produces large improvements in BCFI compared with tamoxifen alone. Menopausal symptoms are significant but are not worse than those seen in older premenopausal women.
Project description:The biological subtype of breast cancer influences the selection of systemic therapy. Distinction between luminal A and B cancers depends on consistent assessment of Ki-67, but substantial intra-observer and inter-observer variability exists when immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used. We compared RT-qPCR with IHC in the assessment of Ki-67 and other standard factors used in breast cancer subtyping. RNA was extracted from archival breast tumour tissue of 769 women randomly assigned to the FinHer trial. Cancer ESR1, PGR, ERBB2 and MKI67 mRNA content was quantitated with an RT-qPCR assay. Local pathologists assessed ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression using IHC. HER2 amplification was identified with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) centrally. The results were correlated with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS). qPCR-based and IHC-based assessments of ER and PgR showed good concordance. Both low tumour MKI67 mRNA (RT-qPCR) and Ki-67 protein (IHC) levels were prognostic for favourable DDFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, 95 % CI 0.25-0.71, P = 0.001; and HR 0.56, 0.37-0.84, P = 0.005, respectively] and OS. In multivariable analyses, cancer MKI67 mRNA content had independent influence on DDFS (adjusted HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89, P = 0.019) while Ki-67 protein expression had not any influence (P = 0.266) whereas both assessments influenced independently OS. Luminal B patients treated with docetaxel-FEC had more favourable DDFS and OS than those treated with vinorelbine-FEC when the subtype was defined by RT-qPCR (for DDFS, HR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.29-0.94, P = 0.031), but not when defined using IHC. Breast cancer subtypes approximated with RT-qPCR and IHC show good concordance, but cancer MKI67 mRNA content correlated slightly better with DDFS than Ki-67 expression. The findings based on MKI67 mRNA content suggest that patients with luminal B cancer benefit more from docetaxel-FEC than from vinorelbine-FEC.
Project description:Objective:While the value of Ki-67 has been recognized in breast cancer, controversy also exists. The goal of this study is to show the prognostic value of Ki-67 according to progesterone receptor (PgR) expression in patients who have estrogen receptor- (ER-) positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- (HER2-) negative early breast cancer. Methods:The records of nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer patients who underwent surgery at a single institution between 2009 and 2012 were reviewed. Primary end point was recurrence-free survival (RFS), and secondary end point was overall survival (OS). Ki-67 and PgR were assessed with immunohistochemistry for the tumor after surgery. Results:A total of 1848 patients were enrolled in this study. 223 (12%) patients had high (?10%) Ki-67, and 1625 (88%) had low Ki-67 expression. Significantly worse RFS and OS were observed in the high vs. low Ki-67 expression only when the PgR was low (<20%) (p < 0.001 and 0.005, respectively, for RFS and OS). There was no significant difference in RFS and OS according to Ki-67 when the PgR was high (p=0.120 and 0.076). RFS of four groups according to high/low Ki-67 and PgR expression was compared. The low PgR and high Ki-67 expression group showed worst outcome among them (p < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, high Ki-67 was an independent prognostic factor when the PgR was low (HR 3.05; 95% CI 1.50-6.19; p=0.002). Conclusions:Ki-67 had a value as a prognostic factor only under low PgR expression level in early breast cancer. PgR should be considered in evaluating the prognosis of breast cancer patients using Ki-67.
Project description:Background:Recent breast cancer treatment guidelines recommend that higher-risk premenopausal patients should receive ovarian function suppression (OFS) as part of adjuvant endocrine therapy. If chemotherapy is also given, it is uncertain whether to select concurrent or sequential OFS initiation. Design and methods:We analyzed 1872 patients enrolled in the randomized phase III TEXT and SOFT trials who received adjuvant chemotherapy for hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer and upon randomization to an OFS-containing adjuvant endocrine therapy, initiated gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist triptorelin. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was compared between patients who received OFS concurrently with chemotherapy in TEXT (n?=?1242) versus sequentially post-chemotherapy in SOFT (n?=?630). Because timing of trial enrollment relative to adjuvant chemotherapy differed, we implemented landmark analysis re-defining BCFI beginning 1?year after final dose of chemotherapy (median, 15.5 and 8.1?months from enrollment to landmark in TEXT and SOFT, respectively). As a non-randomized treatment comparison, we implemented comparative-effectiveness propensity score methodology with weighted Cox modeling. Results:Distributions of several clinico-pathologic characteristics differed between groups. Patients who were premenopausal post-chemotherapy in SOFT were younger on average. The median duration of adjuvant chemotherapy was 18?weeks in both groups. There were 231 (12%) BC events after post-landmark median follow-up of about 5?years. Concurrent use of triptorelin with chemotherapy was not associated with a significant difference in post-landmark BCFI compared with sequential triptorelin post-chemotherapy, either in the overall population (HR?=?1.11, 95% CI 0.72-1.72; P?=?0.72; 4-year BCFI 89% in both groups), or in the subgroup of 692 women?<40?years at diagnosis (HR?=?1.13, 95% CI 0.69-1.84) who are less likely to develop chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea. Conclusion:Based on comparative-effectiveness modeling of TEXT and SOFT after about 5?years median follow-up, with limited statistical power especially for the subgroup?<40?years, neither detrimental nor beneficial effect of concurrent administration of OFS with chemotherapy on the efficacy of adjuvant therapy that includes chemotherapy was detected. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT00066690 and NCT00066703.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2013 recognized substantial progress in the pathological characterization of breast cancer subtypes. A useful surrogate definition was developed to distinguish luminal A-like breast cancer from luminal B-like disease based on a combination of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and Ki-67 status, without a requirement for molecular diagnostics. Differences depend upon the choice of the threshold value for Ki-67 and the requirement for substantial PgR positivity. We aimed to verify the suitability of the new surrogate definitions of luminal subtypes in terms of distant disease control in a large series of patients.<h4>Methods</h4>We studied 9,415 women with a median follow-up of 8.1 years who (1) had ER-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative early breast cancer and (2) had undergone surgery at the European Institute of Oncology between 1994 and 2006. We evaluated distant disease-free survival of patients with "low" (<14%), "intermediate" (14% to 19%) or "high" (?20%) Ki-67 positivity stratified by PgR expression (negative or low versus high). We calculated the cumulative incidence of distant events, considered competing events and performed multivariable analysis adjusted for pathologic tumor stage, pathologic node stage, tumor grade, peritumoral vascular invasion and menopausal status.<h4>Results</h4>Lack of substantial PgR positivity was associated with poorer outcomes only for patients with an intermediate Ki-67 level (P<0.001). The 4,890 patients (51.9%) with low Ki-67 level (any PgR expression level) or with intermediate Ki-67 level but substantial PgR positivity had comparably good outcomes and thus may represent a most advantageous grouping of those with luminal A-like disease.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The updated pathological definition of intrinsic molecular subtypes may maximize the number of patients classified as having the luminal A-like intrinsic subtype of breast cancer and for whom the use of cytotoxic drugs could mostly be avoided.
Project description:AIM:To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. METHODS:Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ER?, ER?, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31) slides and correlated to mammographic density. RESULTS:Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22) = 0.5226, p = 0.0088) and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22) = -0.5409, p = 0.0064). Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ER? was common (19/20 cases, 95%). There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026). CONCLUSIONS:The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ER? expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density.
Project description:The Tamoxifen and Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial included a prospectively planned pathology substudy testing the predictive value of progesterone receptor (PgR) expression for outcome of estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) early breast cancer treated with exemestane versus tamoxifen.Pathology blocks from 4,781 TEAM patients randomly assigned to exemestane versus tamoxifen followed by exemestane for 5 years of total therapy were collected centrally, and tissue microarrays were constructed from samples from 4,598 patients. Quantitative analysis of hormone receptors (ER and PgR) was performed by using image analysis and immunohistochemistry, and the results were linked to outcome data from the main TEAM trial and analyzed relative to disease-free survival and treatment.Of 4,325 eligible ER-positive patients, 23% were PgR-poor (Allred < 4) and 77% were PgR- rich (Allred ≥ 5). No treatment-by-marker effect for PgR was observed for exemestane versus tamoxifen (PgR-rich hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.05; PgR-poor HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.19; P = .88 for interaction). Both PgR and ER expression were associated with patient prognosis in univariate (PgR HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65; P < .001; ER HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.86; P = .002), and multivariate analyses (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively). A trend toward a treatment-by-marker effect for ER-rich patients was observed.Preferential exemestane versus tamoxifen treatment benefit was not predicted by PgR expression; conversely, patients with ER-rich tumors may derive additional benefit from exemestane. Quantitative analysis of ER and PgR expression provides highly significant information on risk of early relapse (within 1 to 3 years) during treatment.
Project description:On average, aromatase inhibitors are better than tamoxifen when used as initial or sequential therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Because there may be contraindications to their use based on side-effects or cost, we investigated subgroups in which aromatase inhibitors may be more or less important.Breast International Group 1-98 trial randomized 6182 women among four groups comparing letrozole and tamoxifen with sequences of each agent; 5177 (84%) had centrally confirmed estrogen receptor (ER) positivity. We assessed whether centrally determined ER, progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and Ki-67 labeling index, alone or in combination with other prognostic features, predicted the magnitude of letrozole effectiveness compared with either sequence or tamoxifen monotherapy.Individually, none of the markers significantly predicted differential treatment effects. Subpopulation treatment effect pattern plot analysis of a composite measure of prognostic risk revealed three patterns. Estimated 5-year disease-free survival for letrozole monotherapy, letrozole?tamoxifen, tamoxifen?letrozole, and tamoxifen monotherapy were 96%, 94%, 93%, and 94%, respectively, for patients at lowest risk; 90%, 91%, 93%, and 86%, respectively, for patients at intermediate risk; and 80%, 76%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, for patients at highest risk.A composite measure of risk informs treatment selection better than individual biomarkers and supports the choice of 5 years of letrozole for patients at highest risk for recurrence.