Focal Adhesion Kinase Signaling Mediated the Enhancement of Osteogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by Extracorporeal Shockwave.
ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal shockwave (ESW) has been shown of great potential in promoting the osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), but it is unknown whether this osteogenic promotion effect can also be achieved in other MSCs (i.e., tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)). In the current study, we aimed not only to compare the osteogenic effects of BMSCs induced by ESW to those of TDSCs and ADSCs; but also to investigate the underlying mechanisms. We show here that ESW (0.16?mj/mm(2)) significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation in all the tested types of MSCs, accompanied with the downregulation of miR-138, but the activation of FAK, ERK1/2, and RUNX2. The enhancement of osteogenesis in these MSCs was consistently abolished when the cells were pretreated with one of the following conditions: overexpression of miR-138, FAK knockdown using specific siRNA, and U0126, implying that all of these elements are indispensable for mediating the effect of ESW. Moreover, our study provides converging genetic and molecular evidence that the miR-138-FAK-ERK1/2-RUNX2 machinery can be generally activated in ESW-preconditioned MSCs, suggesting that ESW may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the enhancement of osteogenesis of MSCs, regardless of their origins.
Project description:Background/purpose:Mechanical stretch plays a key role in promoting proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in distraction osteogenesis (DO). A better understanding of how the extracellular biomechanical stimulation is transferred to intracellular signal expression will benefit DO. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a key factor in integrin signaling pathway. However, little is known about the effect of integrin-FAK signaling during the process of stretch induced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Materials and methods:A specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) lentiviral expression vector was used to silence Fak gene and a well-established in vitro uniaxial dynamic stretching device was applied to stimulate DO. Fak silencing was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and the detection of Fak mRNA and FAK, p-FAK protein expression. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of osteogenic differentiation markers - runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2/Runx2) and alkaline phosphatase (Alp) together with integrin upstream signal transduction molecules integrin beta-1 (ITGB1/Itgb1) and downstream signal transduction molecules integrin-linked kinase (ILK) were detected after the stretch. Results:The results showed that mechanical stretch in control groups significantly induced the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs with increased ALP activity, expression of RUNX2/Runx2 and Alp, together with upregulated ITGB1/Itgb1 and ILK, which all vanished in Fak silencing group. Conclusion:Silencing of the Fak gene inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs induced by in vitro mechanical stretch through integrin signaling pathway.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable cell source for tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the directed differentiation of MSCs remain unclear; thus, their use is limited. Here, we investigate HOXB7 function in the osteogenic differentiation potentials of MSCs using stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The HOXB7 gene is highly expressed in BMSCs compared with dental tissue-derived MSCs. We found that, in vitro, over-expression of HOXB7 in SCAPs enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization. HOXB7 over-expression affected the mRNA expression of osteonectin (ON), collagen alpha-2(I) chain (COL1A2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN), led to the expression of the key transcription factor, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), and promoted SCAP osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The knock-down of HOXB7 inhibited ALP activity, mineralization, and the expression of ON, BSP, COL1A2, OCN, and RUNX2 in BMSCs in vitro. In addition, transplant experiments in nude mice confirmed that SCAP osteogenesis was triggered when HOXB7 was activated. Furthermore, Over-expression of HOXB7 significantly increased the levels of HOXB7 associated with the BSP promoter by ChIP assays. Taken together, these results indicate that HOXB7 enhances SCAP osteogenic differentiation by up-regulating RUNX2 and directly activating transcript of BSP. Thus, the activation of HOXB7 signaling might improve tissue regeneration mediated by MSCs. These results provide insight into the mechanism underlying the directed differentiation of MSCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, which can give rise to variety of cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. Previously, we have shown that cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (Cdo1) promoted adipogenesis of primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes via interaction with Pparγ. However, the role of Cdo1 in osteogenesis remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that expression of Cdo1 was elevated during osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. Interestingly, knockdown of Cdo1 by siRNA led to an increased expression of osteogenic related genes, elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and enhanced mineralization. Overexpression of Cdo1 in BMSCs inversely suppressed the osteogenesis. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of Cdo1 impaired Wnt signaling and restricted the Wnt3a induced expression of osteogenic transcriptional factors, such as Runx2 and Dlx5. Collectively, our findings indicate Cdo1 suppresses osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, through a potential mechanism which involves in Wnt signaling reduction concomitantly.
Project description:Although the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) is well-characterized as a negative regulator of ?-catenin, its effect on osteogenesis of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) is poorly understood. Here, we show that GSK3? positively regulates osteogenic differentiation of murine ADSCs. Gain-of-function studies showed that GSK3? promotes in vitro osteogenesis of ADSCs. Regulation of GSK3? activity in ADSCs, either by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated GSK3? silencing or by pharmacological inhibitors, blunted osteogenesis and the expression of osteogenic markers. Importantly, we demonstrated that transgenic mice, engineered to overexpress the constitutively active GSK3? (GSK3?-S9A) mutant, exhibited a marked increase in osteogenesis, whereas expression of the catalytically inactive GSK3? (GSK3?-K85A) in mice inhibits osteogenic differentiation. Molecular analyses showed that the enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by GSK3? was mediated by downregulation of ?-catenin. Remarkably, ?-catenin silencing enhances osteogenesis and osteoblast marker gene expression such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osterix. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a novel role for GSK3? in the regulation of osteogenic differentiation in ADSCs.
Project description:The successful implementation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) in bone regeneration depends on efficient osteogenic differentiation. However, a literature survey and our own experience demonstrated that current differentiation methods are not effective enough. Since the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts and adipocytes can be regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling, we investigated the effects of cAMP activator, forskolin, and inhibitor, SQ 22,536, on the early and late osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs cultured in spheroids or in a monolayer. Intracellular cAMP concentration, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) expression examination confirmed cAMP up- and downregulation. cAMP upregulation inhibited the cell cycle and protected ADSCs from osteogenic medium (OM)-induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, the upregulation of cAMP level at the early stages of osteogenic differentiation downregulated the expression of osteogenic markers RUNX2, Osterix, and IBSP, which was more significant in spheroids, and it is used for the more efficient commitment of ADSCs into preosteoblasts, according to the previously reported protocol. However, cAMP upregulation in a culture of ADSCs in spheroids resulted in significantly increased osteocalcin production and mineralization. Thus, undifferentiated and predifferentiated ADSCs respond differently to cAMP pathway stimulation in terms of osteogenesis, which might explain the ambiguous results from the literature.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as important regulators of stem cell lineage commitment and bone development. MiRNA-26a (miR-26a) is one of the important miRNAs regulating osteogenic differentiation of both bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, miR-26a functions oppositely in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs, suggesting distinct post-transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific MSC differentiation. However, the molecular basis is largely unknown. Here, we report that the function of miR-26a is largely depended on the intrinsic signaling regulation network of MSCs. Using bioinformatics and functional assay, we confirmed that miR-26a potentially targeted on GSK3? and Smad1 to regulate Wnt and BMP signaling pathway. Overall comparative analysis revealed that Wnt signaling was enhanced more potently and played a more important role than BMP signaling in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas BMP pathway was more essential for promoting osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. The distinct activation pattern and role of signaling pathways determined that miR-26a majorly targeted on GSK3? to activate Wnt signaling for promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas it inhibited Smad1 to suppress BMP signaling for interfering with the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. Taken together, our study demonstrated that BMSCs and ADSCs applied different signaling pathway to facilitate their osteogenic differentiation, which determined the inverse function of miR-26a. The distinct transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation network suggested the intrinsic molecular differences between tissue-specific MSCs and the complexity in MSC research and MSC-based cell therapy.
Project description:Previous studies indicated that let-7 enhances osteogenesis and bone formation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We also have confirmed that let-7f-5p expression was upregulated during osteoblast differentiation in rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) and was downregulated in the vertebrae of patients with glucocorticoid (GC)-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). The study was performed to determine the role of let-7f-5p in GC-inhibited osteogenic differentiation of murine BMSCs in vitro and in GIOP in vivo. Here, we report that dexamethasone (Dex) inhibited osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and let-7f-5p expression, while increasing the expression of transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1), a direct target of let-7f-5p during osteoblast differentiation under Dex conditions. In addition, let-7f-5p promoted osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, as indicated by the promotion of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and activity, Von Kossa staining, and osteogenic marker expression (Runx2,Osx, Alp, and Ocn), but decreased TGFBR1 expression in the presence of Dex. However, overexpression of TGFBR1 reversed the upregulation of let-7f-5p during Dex-treated osteoblast differentiation. Knockdown of TGFBR1 reversed the effect of let-7f-5p downregulation during Dex-treated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. We also found that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated transcriptional silencing of let-7f-5p and its knockdown enhanced Dex-inhibited osteogenic differentiation. Further, when injected in vivo, agomiR-let-7f-5p significantly reversed bone loss induced by Dex, as well as increased osteogenic marker expression (Runx2, Osx, Alp, and Ocn) and decreased TGFBR1 expression in bone extracts. These findings indicated that the regulatory axis of GR/let-7f-5p/TGFBR1 may be important for Dex-inhibited osteoblast differentiation and that let-7f-5p may be a useful therapeutic target for GIOP.
Project description:Gingiva has been identified as a minimally invasive source of multipotent progenitor cells (GPCs) for use in bone tissue engineering (BTE). To facilitate clinical translation, it is important to characterize GPCs in xeno-free cultures. Recent evidence indicates several advantages of three-dimensional (3D) spheroid cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) over conventional 2D monolayers. The present study aimed to characterize human GPCs in xeno-free 2D cultures, and to test their osteogenic potential in 3D cultures, in comparison to bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs). Primary GPCs and BMSCs were expanded in human platelet lysate (HPL) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and characterized based on in vitro proliferation, immunophenotype and multi-lineage differentiation. Next, 3D spheroids of GPCs and BMSCs were formed via self-assembly and cultured in HPL. Expression of stemness- (SOX2, OCT4, NANOG) and osteogenesis-related markers (BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, OCN) was assessed at gene and protein levels in 3D and 2D cultures. The cytokine profile of 3D and 2D GPCs and BMSCs was assessed via a multiplex immunoassay. Monolayer GPCs in both HPL and FBS demonstrated a characteristic MSC-like immunophenotype and multi-lineage differentiation; osteogenic differentiation of GPCs was enhanced in HPL vs. FBS. CD271+ GPCs in HPL spontaneously acquired a neuronal phenotype and strongly expressed neuronal/glial markers. 3D spheroids of GPCs and BMSCs with high cell viability were formed in HPL media. Expression of stemness- and osteogenesis-related genes was significantly upregulated in 3D vs. 2D GPCs/BMSCs; the latter was independent of osteogenic induction. Synthesis of SOX2, BMP2 and OCN was confirmed via immunostaining, and in vitro mineralization via Alizarin red staining. Finally, secretion of several growth factors and chemokines was enhanced in GPC/BMSC spheroids, while that of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced, compared to monolayers. In summary, monolayer GPCs expanded in HPL demonstrate enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential, comparable to that of BMSCs. Xeno-free spheroid culture further enhances stemness- and osteogenesis-related gene expression, and cytokine secretion in GPCs, comparable to that of BMSCs.
Project description:Tendinopathy is prevalent in athletic and many occupational populations; nevertheless, the pathogenesis of tendinopathy remains unclear. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) were regarded as the key culprit for the development of tendinopathy. However, it is uncertain how TDSCs differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, or osteocytes in the degenerative microenvironment of tendinopathy. So in this study, the regulating effects of the degenerative tendon microenvironment on differentiation of TDSCs were investigated. TDSCs were isolated from rat Achilles tendons and were grown on normal and degenerative (prepared by stress-deprived culture) decellularized tendon slices (DTSs). Immunofluorescence staining, H&E staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot were used to delineate the morphology, proliferation, and differentiation of TDSCs in the degenerative microenvironment. It was found that TDSCs were much more spread on the degenerative DTSs than those on normal DTSs. The tenocyte-related markers, COL1 and TNMD, were highly expressed on normal DTSs than the degenerative DTSs. The expression of chondrogenic and osteogenic markers, COL2, SOX9, Runx2, and ALP, was higher on the degenerative DTSs compared with TDSCs on normal DTSs. Furthermore, phosphorylated FAK and ERK1/2 were reduced on degenerative DTSs. In conclusion, this study found that the degenerative tendon microenvironment induced TDSCs to differentiate into chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. It could be attributed to the cell morphology changes and reduced FAK and ERK1/2 activation in the degenerative microenvironment of tendinopathy.
Project description:PURPOSE: Surgical reattachment of tendon to bone often fails due to regeneration failure of the specialised tendon-bone junction (TBJ). The use of mesenchymal stem cells for TBJ regeneration has been reported with promising results. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) with high proliferative and multi-lineage differentiation potential have been isolated. As stem cells residing in tendons, TDSCs can be considered a new cell source for TBJ repair. Bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a potent osteogenic factor with roles in normal bone healing and pathological ectopic bone formation in soft tissues. The use of BMP-2 to promote TBJ repair has been well reported. This study aimed to compare TDSCs to the gold standard bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with respect to osteogenic response to BMP-2 in vitro. METHOD: The clonogenicity and multi-differentiation potential of TDSCs and BMSCs were identified by colony-forming-unit assay, osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays. Their osteogenic response to BMP-2 in vitro was examined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) cytochemical staining, ALP activity assay and Alizarin red S staining of calcium nodule formation. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and BMP receptor (types IA, IB and II) protein expression were examined by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. RESULTS: Our results showed that both TDSCs and BMSCs exhibited stem cell properties, including clonogenicity and multi-differentiation potential. TDSCs expressed higher mRNA and protein levels of BMP receptors IA, IB and II. They also exhibited higher osteogenic differentiation with and without BMP-2 stimulation compared with BMSCs. CONCLUSIONS: TDSCs with/without BMP-2 might be an attractive source for TBJ repair compared with BMSCs.