Systemic Chromosome Instability Resulted in Colonic Transcriptomic Changes in Metabolic, Proliferation, and Stem Cell Regulators in Sgo1-/+ Mice.
ABSTRACT: Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer and is predicted to claim 49,700 lives in the United States this year. Chromosome instability (CIN) is observed in 80% to 90% of colon cancers and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. To investigate the impact of CIN on colon cancer development, we developed shugoshin-1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient (-/+) mice, an animal model focusing on mitotic error-induced CIN. In this study, we analyzed signature changes in the colonic transcriptome of Sgo1(-/+) mice to examine the molecular events underlying the altered carcinogenesis profiles in Sgo1(-/+) mice. We performed next-generation sequencing of normal-looking colonic mucosal tissue from mice treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane after 24 weeks. Transcriptome profiling revealed 349 hits with a 2-fold expression difference threshold (217 upregulated genes, 132 downregulated genes, P < 0.05). Pathway analyses indicated that the Sgo1-CIN tissues upregulated pathways known to be activated in colon cancer, including lipid metabolism (z score 4.47), Notch signaling (4.47), insulin signaling (3.81), and PPAR pathways (3.75), and downregulated pathways involved in immune responses including allograft rejection (6.69) and graft-versus-host disease (6.54). Notably, stem cell markers were also misregulated. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that systemic CIN results in transcriptomic changes in metabolism, proliferation, cell fate, and immune responses in the colon, which may foster a microenvironment amenable to cancer development. Therefore, therapeutic approaches focusing on these identified pathways may be valuable for colon cancer prevention and treatment.
Project description:Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer. It is predicted to claim 50,310 lives in 2014. Chromosome Instability (CIN) is observed in 80-90% of colon cancers, and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. However, there are no animal models of CIN that have been validated for studies of colon cancer development or drug testing. In this study, we sought to validate a mitotic error-induced CIN model mouse, the Shugoshin1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient mouse, as a colon cancer study model. Wild-type and Sgo1(-/+) mice were treated with the colonic carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM). We tracked colon tumor development 12, 24, and 36?wk after treatment to assess progression of colon tumorigenesis. Initially, more precancerous lesions, Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF), developed in Sgo1(-/+) mice. However, the ACF did not develop straightforwardly into larger tumors. At the 36-wk endpoint, the number of gross tumors in Sgo1(-/+) mice was no different from that in wild-type controls. However, Copy Number Variation (CNV) analysis indicated that fully developed colon tumor in Sgo1(-/+) mice carried 13.75 times more CNV. Immunohistological analyses indicated that Sgo1(-/+) mice differentially expressed IL-6, Bcl2, and p16(INK4A) . We propose that formation of ACF in Sgo1(-/+) mice is facilitated by the IL6-STAT3-SOCS3 oncogenic pathway and by the Bcl2-anti-apoptotic pathway, yet further development of the ACF to tumors is inhibited by the p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor pathway. Manipulating these pathways would be beneficial for inhibiting development of colon cancer with CIN.
Project description:Chromosome instability (CIN) is found in 85% of colorectal cancers. Defects in mitotic processes are implicated in high CIN and may be critical events in colorectal tumorigenesis. Shugoshin-1 (SGO1) aids in the maintenance of chromosome cohesion and prevents premature chromosome separation and CIN. In addition, integrity of the centrosome may be compromised due to the deficiency of Cohesin and Sgo1 through the disengagement of centrioles. We report here the generation and characterization of SGO1-mutant mice and show that haploinsufficiency of SGO1 leads to enhanced colonic tumorigenesis. Complete disruption of SGO1 results in embryonic lethality, whereas SGO1+/- mice are viable and fertile. Haploinsufficiency of SGO1 results in genomic instability manifested as missegregation of chromosomes and formation of extra centrosomal foci in both murine embryonic fibroblasts and adult bone marrow cells. Enhanced CIN observed in SGO1-deficient mice resulted in an increase in formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and accelerated development of tumors after exposure to azoxymethane (AOM), a colon carcinogen. Together, these results suggest that haploinsufficiency of SGO1 causes enhanced CIN, colonic preneoplastic lesions and tumorigenesis in mice. SGO1 is essential for the suppression of CIN and tumor formation.
Project description:A major etiological risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is infection by Hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus do not cause aggressive activation of an oncogenic pathway, but they transactivate a broad array of genes, cause chronic inflammation, and, through interference with mitotic processes, lead to mitotic error-induced chromosome instability (ME-CIN). However, how ME-CIN is involved in the development of HCC remains unclear. Delineating the effect of ME-CIN on HCC development should help in identifying measures to combat HCC. In this study, we used ME-CIN model mice haploinsufficient in Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1(-/+)) to assess the role of ME-CIN in HCC development. Treatment with the carcinogen azoxymethane caused Sgo1(-/+) ME-CIN model mice to develop HCCs within 6 months, whereas control mice developed no HCC (P < 0.003). The HCC development was associated with expression of early HCC markers (glutamine synthetase, glypican 3, heat shock protein 70, and the serum marker alpha fetoprotein), although without fibrosis. ME-CIN preceded the expression of HCC markers, suggesting that ME-CIN is an important early event in HCC development. In 12-month-old untreated Sgo1 mice, persistent DNA damage, altered gene expression, and spontaneous HCCs were observed. Sgo1 protein accumulated in response to DNA damage in vitro. Overall, Sgo1(-/+)-mediated ME-CIN strongly promoted/progressed development of HCC in the presence of an initiator carcinogen, and it had a mild initiator effect by itself. Use of the ME-CIN model mice should help in identifying drugs to counteract the effects of ME-CIN and should accelerate anti-HCC drug development.
Project description:Mitotic error-mediated chromosome instability (CIN) can lead to aneuploidy, chromothripsis, DNA damage and/or whole chromosome gain/loss. CIN may prompt rapid accumulation of mutations and genomic alterations. Thus, CIN can promote carcinogenesis. This CIN process results from a mutation in certain genes or environmental challenge such as smoking, and is highly prevalent in various cancers, including lung cancer. A better understanding of the effects of CIN on carcinogenesis will lead to novel methods for cancer prevention and treatment. Previously Shugoshin-1 (Sgo1(-/+)) mice, a transgenic mouse model of CIN, showed mild proneness to spontaneous lung and liver cancers. In this study, adoptive (T/B-cell based) immunity-deficient RAG1(-/-) Sgo1(-/+) double mutant mice developed lung adenocarcinomas more aggressively than did Sgo1(-/+) or RAG1(-/-) mice, suggesting immune system involvement in CIN-mediated lung carcinogenesis. To identify molecular causes of the lung adenocarcinoma, we used systems biology approach, comparative RNAseq, to RAG1(-/-) and RAG1(-/-) Sgo1(-/+). The comparative RNAseq data and follow-up analyses in the lungs of naive Sgo1(-/+) mice demonstrate that, (i) glutathione is depleted, making the tissue vulnerable to oxidative stress, (ii) spontaneous DNA damage is increased, (iii) oncogenic Wnt signaling is activated, (iv) both major branches of the immune system are weakened through misregulations in signal mediators such as CD80 and calreticulin and (v) the actin cytoskeleton is misregulated. Overall, the results show multi-faceted roles of CIN in lung carcinoma development in Sgo1(-/+) mice. Our model presents various effects of CIN and will help to identify potential targets to prevent CIN-driven carcinogenesis in the lung.
Project description:The data shown in this article are related to the research article entitled "Characterization of Sgo1 expression pattern in developing and adult mouse" (Song et al., 2017) . The article provides novel data on Sgo1 gene expression pattern utilizing Sgo1_LacZ_Knock in mouse line and immunohistochemistry in wild type mice. The data presents Sgo1 expression pattern during development, and in post-developmental proliferative and quiescent tissue. The article describes following tissues: developing heart, neural tube, adult colon, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, liver, and testis.
Project description:Although studies have revealed some of the pathological causes associated with prostate cancer progression, further studies are still needed. Shugoshin 1 (SGO1) is a protein essential for precise chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. However, the role and mechanism of SGO1 in tumors and even prostate cancer is not completely clear. In this study, expression of SGO1 in human prostate tumors were higher than that of adjacent normal tissues and were positively correlated with the poor prognosis of prostate cancer patients. SGO1 expression levels are also higher in several prostate cancer cell lines. In cell experiments, knockdown of SGO1 reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo, and also inhibited cell cycle progression of prostate cancer cells. In contrast, ectopic expression of SGO1 has the opposite effects. In addition, knockdown of SGO1 induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by promoting cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Importantly SGO1 function is dependent on AKT. Inhibition of AKT activity by AKT inhibitor abolished the role of SGO1 overexpression in promoting cell proliferation and metastasis. Therefore, SGO1 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of prostate cancer through the AKT pathway, and can be considered as an effective candidate for developing an effective prostate cancer treatment strategy.
Project description:At anaphase onset, Sgo1 function of cohesion protection must be disabled to allow timely chromosome segregation, but how this is achieved is not fully understood. Here, we show that SET, a known PP2A inhibitor, directly binds to a domain in Sgo1 in close proximity to the cohesin-binding motif. The Sgo1-cohesin binding can be disrupted by SET in a dose-dependent manner in vitro as well as by SET overexpression in cells, suggesting that SET is also an inhibitor to the Sgo1-cohesin binding. Furthermore, the SET binding-deficient Sgo1 mutant fully supports centromeric cohesion protection but delays chromosome segregation, suggesting that the SET-Sgo1 binding is required for timely chromosome segregation. Moreover, overexpression of SET WT, not the Sgo1 binding-deficient mutant, exacerbates the occurrence of cohesion fatigue in MG132-arrested cells. Conversely, SET depletion delays it. Thus, we propose that a major function of SET during mitosis is to disrupt the Sgo1-cohesin interaction, thereby promoting centromeric cohesion de-protection and timely chromosome segregation at anaphase onset.
Project description:The conserved mitotic kinase Bub1 performs multiple functions that are only partially characterized. Besides its role in the spindle assembly checkpoint and chromosome alignment, Bub1 is crucial for the kinetochore recruitment of multiple proteins, among them Sgo1. Both Bub1 and Sgo1 are dispensable for growth of haploid and diploid budding yeast, but they become essential in cells with higher ploidy. We find that overexpression of SGO1 partially corrects the chromosome segregation defect of bub1? haploid cells and restores viability to bub1? tetraploid cells. Using an unbiased high-copy suppressor screen, we identified two members of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), BIR1 (survivin) and SLI15 (INCENP, inner centromere protein), as suppressors of the growth defect of both bub1? and sgo1? tetraploids, suggesting that these mutants die due to defects in chromosome biorientation. Overexpression of BIR1 or SLI15 also complements the benomyl sensitivity of haploid bub1? and sgo1? cells. Mutants lacking SGO1 fail to biorient sister chromatids attached to the same spindle pole (syntelic attachment) after nocodazole treatment. Moreover, the sgo1? cells accumulate syntelic attachments in unperturbed mitoses, a defect that is partially corrected by BIR1 or SLI15 overexpression. We show that in budding yeast neither Bub1 nor Sgo1 is required for CPC localization or affects Aurora B activity. Instead we identify Sgo1 as a possible partner of Mps1, a mitotic kinase suggested to have an Aurora B-independent function in establishment of biorientation. We found that Sgo1 overexpression rescues defects caused by metaphase inactivation of Mps1 and that Mps1 is required for Sgo1 localization to the kinetochore. We propose that Bub1, Sgo1, and Mps1 facilitate chromosome biorientation independently of the Aurora B-mediated pathway at the budding yeast kinetochore and that both pathways are required for the efficient turnover of syntelic attachments.
Project description:Shugoshin-like protein 1 (Sgo1) is an essential protein in mitosis; it protects sister chromatid cohesion and thereby ensures the fidelity of chromosome separation. We found that the expression of Sgo1 mRNA was relatively low in normal tissues, but was upregulated in 82% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and correlated with elevated alpha-fetoprotein and early disease onset of HCC. The depletion of Sgo1 reduced cell viability of hepatoma cell lines including HuH7, HepG2, Hep3B, and HepaRG. Using time-lapse microscopy, we showed that hepatoma cells were delayed and ultimately die in mitosis in the absence of Sgo1. In contrast, cell viability and mitotic progression of immortalized cells were not significantly affected. Notably, mitotic cell death induced upon Sgo1 depletion was suppressed upon inhibitions of cyclin-dependent kinase-1 and Aurora kinase-B, or the depletion of mitotic arrest deficient-2. Thus, mitotic cell death induced upon Sgo1 depletion in hepatoma cells is mediated by persistent activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Together, these results highlight the essential role of Sgo1 in the maintenance of a proper mitotic progression in hepatoma cells and suggest that Sgo1 is a promising oncotarget for HCC.
Project description:We compare mRNA expression profiles between wild type control and Sgo1-/+ chromosome instability model mice Overall design: Characterize influence of chromosome instability on colon