Mechanisms underlying atrial-selective block of sodium channels by Wenxin Keli: Experimental and theoretical analysis.
ABSTRACT: Atrial-selective inhibition of cardiac sodium channel current (INa) and INa-dependent parameters has been shown to contribute to the safe and effective management of atrial fibrillation. The present study was designed to examine the basis for the atrial-selective actions of Wenxin Keli.Whole cell INa was recorded at room temperature in canine atrial and ventricular myocytes. Trains of 40 pulses were elicited over a range of pulse durations and interpulse intervals to determine tonic and use-dependent block. A Markovian model for INa that incorporates interaction of Wenxin Keli with different states of the channel was developed to examine the basis for atrial selectivity of the drug.Our data indicate that Wenxin Keli does not bind significantly to either closed or open states of the sodium channel, but binds very rapidly to the inactivated state of the channel and dissociates rapidly from the closed state. Action potentials recorded from atrial and ventricular preparations in the presence of 5g/L Wenxin Keli were introduced into the computer model in current clamp mode to simulate the effects on maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax). The model predicted much greater inhibition of Vmax in atrial vs. ventricular cells at rapid stimulation rates.Our findings suggest that atrial selectivity of Wenxin Keli to block INa is due to more negative steady-state inactivation, less negative resting membrane potential, and shorter diastolic intervals in atrial vs. ventricular cells at rapid activation rates. These actions of Wenxin Keli account for its relatively safe and effective suppression of atrial fibrillation.
Project description:Wenxin Keli is a Chinese herb extract reported to be of benefit in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac inflammation, and heart failure.We evaluated the electrophysiologic effects of Wenxin Keli in isolated canine arterially perfused right atrial preparations with a rim of right ventricular tissue (n = 11). Transmembrane action potentials and a pseudoelectrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded. Acetylcholine (1 ?M) was used to induce atrial fibrillation (AF) and to test the anti-AF potential of Wenxin Keli (5 g/L). Wenxin Keli produced preferential abbreviation of action potential duration measured at 90% repolarization (APD(90)) in atria, but caused atrial-selective prolongation of the effective refractory period, due to the development of postrepolarization refractoriness. The maximum rate of rise of the action potential upstroke was preferentially reduced in atria. The diastolic threshold of excitation increased in both atria and ventricles, but much more in atria. The duration of the "P wave" (index of atrial conduction time) was prolonged to a much greater extent than the duration of the "QRS complex" (index of ventricular conduction time). Wenxin Keli significantly reduced I(Na) and shifted steady-state inactivation to more negative potentials in HEK293 cells stably expressing SCN5A. Wenxin Keli prevented the induction of persistent AF in 100% atria (6/6) and, in another experimental series, was found to terminate persistent acetylcholine-mediated AF in 100% of atria (3/3).Wenxin Keli produces atrial-selective depression of I(Na)-dependent parameters in canine isolated coronary-perfused preparations via a unique mechanism and is effective in suppressing AF and preventing its induction, with minimal effects on the ventricular electrophysiology.
Project description:Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major public health problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality on a global basis. Wenxin Keli (WXKL), a formally classical Chinese patent medicine with obvious efficacy and favorable safety, plays a great role in the management of patients with CVDs. Accumulating evidence from various animal and cell studies has showed that WXKL could protect myocardium and anti-arrhythmia against CVDs. WXKL exhibited its cardioprotective roles by inhibiting inflammatory reaction, decreasing oxidative stress, regulating vasomotor disorders, lowering cell apoptosis, and protection against endothelial injure, myocardial ischemia, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy. Besides, WXKL could effectively shorten the QRS and Q-T intervals, decrease the incidence of atrial/ventricular fibrillation and the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes, improve the severity of arrhythmias by regulating various ion channels with different potencies, mainly comprising peak sodium current (INa), late sodium current (INaL), transient outward potassium current (Ito), L-type calcium current (ICaL), and pacemaker current (If).
Project description:Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs are highly effective in restoring and maintaining sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation patients but carry a risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The antianginal agent ranolazine is a prototypic atrial-selective voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker but the mechanisms underlying its atrial-selective action remain unclear.The present study examined the mechanisms underlying the atrial-selective action of ranolazine.Whole-cell voltage-gated Na+ currents (INa) were recorded at room temperature (?22°C) from rabbit isolated left atrial and right ventricular myocytes.INa conductance density was ?1.8-fold greater in atrial than in ventricular cells. Atrial INa was activated at command potentials ?7 mV more negative and inactivated at conditioning potentials ?11 mV more negative than ventricular INa. The onset of inactivation of INa was faster in atrial cells than in ventricular myocytes. Ranolazine (30 ?M) inhibited INa in atrial and ventricular myocytes in a use-dependent manner consistent with preferential activated/inactivated state block. Ranolazine caused a significantly greater negative shift in voltage of half-maximal inactivation in atrial cells than in ventricular cells, the recovery from inactivation of INa was slowed by ranolazine to a greater extent in atrial myocytes than in ventricular cells, and ranolazine produced an instantaneous block that showed marked voltage dependence in atrial cells.Differences exist between rabbit atrial and ventricular myocytes in the biophysical properties of INa. The more negative voltage dependence of INa activation and inactivation, together with trapping of the drug in the inactivated channel, underlies an atrial-selective action of ranolazine.
Project description:Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are common in the general population, and frequent PVCs may result in the poor quality of life or even the damage of cardiac function. We examined the efficacy and safety of a traditional Chinese medicine Wenxin Keli for the treatment of frequent PVCs among a relatively large Chinese cohort.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial. A total of 1200 eligible participants were randomly assigned in a ratio of 1:1 to receive Wenxin Keli or the placebo for 4 weeks. The primary and secondary endpoint was the change of PVC numbers and PVC-related symptoms after a 4-week treatment compared with baseline, respectively. In addition, vital signs, laboratory values, and electrocardiographic parameters were assessed in a safety analysis.At the initial evaluation, no significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the Wenxin Keli group and the placebo group. A smaller number of PVCs was observed after the 4-week treatment than at baseline, in both the Wenxin Keli group (5686 ± 5940 vs. 15,138 ± 7597 beats/d, P < 0.001) and the placebo group (10,592 ± 8009 vs. 14,529 ± 5929 beats/d, P < 0.001); moreover, the Wenxin Keli group demonstrated a significantly greater reduction in the frequency of PVCs than the placebo group (P < 0.001). In a full analysis set, patients in the Wenxin Keli group exhibited significantly higher total effective responses in the reduction of PVCs compared to those in the placebo group (83.8% vs. 43.5%,P < 0.001). The per-protocol analysis yielded similar results (83.0% vs. 39.3%,P < 0.001). Treatment with Wenxin Keli also demonstrated superior performance compared to the placebo with respect to PVC-related symptoms. No severe adverse effects attributable to Wenxin Keli were reported.Wenxin Keli treatment effectively reduced the overall number of PVCs and alleviated PVC-related symptoms in patients without structural heart diseases and had no severe side effects.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Developing effective and safe anti-AF drugs remains an unmet challenge. Simultaneous block of both atrial-specific ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium (K+) current (IKur) and the Na+ current (INa) has been hypothesized to be anti-AF, without inducing significant QT prolongation and ventricular side effects. However, the antiarrhythmic advantage of simultaneously blocking these two channels vs. individual block in the setting of AF-induced electrical remodeling remains to be documented. Furthermore, many IKur blockers such as acacetin and AVE0118, partially inhibit other K+ currents in the atria. Whether this multi-K+-block produces greater anti-AF effects compared with selective IKur-block has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to use computer models to (i) assess the impact of multi-K+-block as exhibited by many IKur blokers, and (ii) evaluate the antiarrhythmic effect of blocking IKur and INa, either alone or in combination, on atrial and ventricular electrical excitation and recovery in the setting of AF-induced electrical-remodeling. Contemporary mathematical models of human atrial and ventricular cells were modified to incorporate dose-dependent actions of acacetin (a multichannel blocker primarily inhibiting IKur while less potently blocking Ito, IKr, and IKs). Rate- and atrial-selective inhibition of INa was also incorporated into the models. These single myocyte models were then incorporated into multicellular two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) anatomical models of the human atria. As expected, application of IKur blocker produced pronounced action potential duration (APD) prolongation in atrial myocytes. Furthermore, combined multiple K+-channel block that mimicked the effects of acacetin exhibited synergistic APD prolongations. Synergistically anti-AF effects following inhibition of INa and combined IKur/K+-channels were also observed. The attainable maximal AF-selectivity of INa inhibition was greatly augmented by blocking IKur or multiple K+-currents in the atrial myocytes. This enhanced anti-arrhythmic effects of combined block of Na+- and K+-channels were also seen in 2D and 3D simulations; specially, there was an enhanced efficacy in terminating re-entrant excitation waves, exerting improved antiarrhythmic effects in the human atria as compared to a single-channel block. However, in the human ventricular myocytes and tissue, cellular repolarization and computed QT intervals were modestly affected in the presence of actions of acacetin and INa blockers (either alone or in combination). In conclusion, this study demonstrates synergistic antiarrhythmic benefits of combined block of IKur and INa, as well as those of INa and combined multi K+-current block of acacetin, without significant alterations of ventricular repolarization and QT intervals. This approach may be a valuable strategy for the treatment of AF.
Project description:Ganglionated plexus have been developed as additional ablation targets to improve the outcome of atrial fibrillation (AF) besides pulmonary vein isolation. Recent studies implicated an intimate relationship between neuronal sodium channel Nav1.8 (encoded by SCN10A) and AF. The underlying mechanism between Nav1.8 and AF remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of Nav1.8 in cardiac electrophysiology in an acute AF model and explore possible therapeutic targets.Immunohistochemical study was used on canine cardiac ganglionated plexus. Both Nav1.5 and Nav1.8 were expressed in ganglionated plexus with canonical neuronal markers. Sixteen canines were randomly administered either saline or the Nav1.8 blocker A-803467. Electrophysiological study was compared between the 2 groups before and after 6-hour rapid atrial pacing. Compared with the control group, administration of A-803467 decreased the incidence of AF (87.5% versus 25.0%, P<0.05), shortened AF duration, and prolonged AF cycle length. A-803467 also significantly suppressed the decrease in the effective refractory period and the increase in effective refractory period dispersion and cumulative window of vulnerability caused by rapid atrial pacing in all recording sites. Patch clamp study was performed under 100 nmol/L A-803467 in TSA201 cells cotransfected with SCN10A-WT, SCN5A-WT, and SCN3B-WT. INa,P was reduced by 45.34% at -35 mV, and INa,L by 68.57% at -20 mV. Evident fast inactivation, slow recovery, and use-dependent block were also discovered after applying the drug.Our study demonstrates that Nav1.8 could exert its effect on electrophysiological characteristics through cardiac ganglionated plexus. It indicates that Nav1.8 is a novel target in understanding cardiac electrophysiology and SCN10A-related arrhythmias.
Project description:Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndrome first described as a new clinical entity in 1992. Electrocardiographically characterized by distinct coved type ST segment elevation in the right-precordial leads, the syndrome is associated with a high risk for sudden cardiac death in young adults, and less frequently in infants and children. The electrocardiographic manifestations of BrS are often concealed and may be unmasked or aggravated by sodium channel blockers, a febrile state, vagotonic agents, as well as by tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the most widely accepted approach to therapy. Pharmacologic therapy is designed to produce an inward shift in the balance of currents active during the early phases of the right ventricular action potential (AP) and can be used to abort electrical storms or as an adjunct or alternative to device therapy when use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is not possible. Isoproterenol, cilostazol, and milrinone boost calcium channel current and drugs like quinidine, bepridil, and the Chinese herb extract Wenxin Keli inhibit the transient outward current, acting to diminish the AP notch and thus to suppress the substrate and trigger for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Radiofrequency ablation of the right ventricular outflow tract epicardium of patients with BrS has recently been shown to reduce arrhythmia vulnerability and the electrocardiographic manifestation of the disease, presumably by destroying the cells with more prominent AP notch. This review provides an overview of the clinical, genetic, molecular, and cellular aspects of BrS as well as the approach to therapy.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) patients are at high risk of potential lethal arrhythmia. Gap junction and microRNA-1 (miR-1) are both arrhythmia generating conditions. The present study investigated whether Wenxin Granules (Wenxin-Keli, WXKL) could prevent potential lethal arrhythmia by improving gap junctions and miR-1 following MI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into control, model, metoprolol, low dose WXKL, and high dose WXKL groups. The MI rat model was created by coronary artery ligation. Treatments were administrated intragastrically to the rats for 4 weeks. Conventional transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe the ultrastructure of gap junctions. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression of miR-1, protein kinase C (PKC), and related proteins. Additionally, a programmatic electrophysiological stimulation test was performed to detect the ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT). WXKL protected the ultrastructure of the gap junctions and their constituent Cx43 by regulating miR-1 and PKC mediated signal transduction and increased the VFT significantly in the rat MI model. The results suggested that WXKL is an effective alternative medicine to prevent potentially lethal arrhythmia following MI.
Project description:Slowly inactivating Na+ channels conducting "late" Na+ current (INa,late) contribute to ventricular arrhythmogenesis under pathological conditions. INa,late was also reported to play a role in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to investigate INa,late in human right atrial cardiomyocytes as a putative drug target for treatment of AF. To activate Na+ channels, cardiomyocytes from transgenic mice which exhibit INa,late (?KPQ), and right atrial cardiomyocytes from patients in sinus rhythm (SR) and AF were voltage clamped at room temperature by 250-ms long test pulses to -30 mV from a holding potential of -80 mV with a 100-ms pre-pulse to -110 mV (protocol I). INa,late at -30 mV was not discernible as deviation from the extrapolated straight line IV-curve between -110 mV and -80 mV in human atrial cells. Therefore, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 ?M) was used to define persistent inward current after 250 ms at -30 mV as INa,late. TTX-sensitive current was 0.27±0.06 pA/pF in ventricular cardiomyocytes from ?KPQ mice, and amounted to 0.04±0.01 pA/pF and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in SR and AF human atrial cardiomyocytes, respectively. With protocol II (holding potential -120 mV, pre-pulse to -80 mV) TTX-sensitive INa,late was always larger than with protocol I. Ranolazine (30 ?M) reduced INa,late by 0.02±0.02 pA/pF in SR and 0.09±0.02 pA/pF in AF cells. At physiological temperature (37°C), however, INa,late became insignificant. Plateau phase and upstroke velocity of action potentials (APs) recorded with sharp microelectrodes in intact human trabeculae were more sensitive to ranolazine in AF than in SR preparations. Sodium channel subunits expression measured with qPCR was high for SCN5A with no difference between SR and AF. Expression of SCN8A and SCN10A was low in general, and lower in AF than in SR. In conclusion, We confirm for the first time a TTX-sensitive current (INa,late) in right atrial cardiomyocytes from SR and AF patients at room temperature, but not at physiological temperature. While our study provides evidence for the presence of INa,late in human atria, the potential of such current as a target for the treatment of AF remains to be demonstrated.
Project description:We have previously shown that non-equilibrium Na(+) current (INa) reactivation drives isoproterenol-induced phase-3 early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in mouse ventricular myocytes. In these cells, EAD initiation occurs secondary to potentiated sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release and enhanced Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (NCX). This can be abolished by tetrodotoxin-blockade of INa, but not ranolazine, which selectively inhibits ventricular late INa.Since repolarization of human atrial myocytes is similar to mouse ventricular myocytes in that it is relatively rapid and potently modulated by Ca(2+), we investigated whether similar mechanisms can evoke EADs in human atrium. Indeed, phase-3 EADs have been shown to re-initiate atrial fibrillation (AF) during autonomic stimulation, which is a well-recognized initiator of AF.We integrated a Markov model of INa gating in our human atrial myocyte model. To simulate experimental results, we rapidly paced this cell model at 10Hz in the presence of 0.1?M acetylcholine and 1?M isoproterenol, and assessed EAD occurrence upon return to sinus rhythm (1Hz).Cellular Ca(2+) loading during fast pacing results in a transient period of hypercontractility after return to sinus rhythm. Here, fast repolarization and enhanced NCX facilitate INa reactivation via the canonical gating mode (i.e., not late INa burst mode), which drives EAD initiation. Simulating ranolazine administration reduces atrial peak INa and leads to faster repolarization, during which INa fails to reactivate and EADs are prevented.Non-equilibrium INa reactivation can critically contribute to arrhythmias, specifically in human atrial myocytes. Ranolazine might be beneficial in this context by blocking peak (not late) atrial INa.