Regulation of Blood Pressure, Appetite, and Glucose by Leptin After Inactivation of Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Signaling in the Entire Brain or in Proopiomelanocortin Neurons.
ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is one of the 3 major leptin receptor signaling pathways, but its role in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on blood pressure, food intake, and glucose regulation is unclear. We tested whether genetic inactivation of IRS2 in the entire brain (IRS2/Nestin-cre mice) or specifically in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (IRS2/POMC-cre mice) attenuates the chronic cardiovascular, metabolic, and antidiabetic effects of leptin. Mice were instrumented with telemetry probes for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate and with venous catheters for intravenous infusions. After a 5-day control period, mice received leptin infusion (2 ?g/kg per minute) for 7 days. Compared with control IRS2(flox/flox) mice, IRS2/POMC-cre mice had similar body weight and food intake (33±1 versus 35±1 g and 3.6±0.5 versus 3.8±0.2 g per day) but higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (110±2 versus 102±2 mm Hg and 641±9 versus 616±5 bpm). IRS2/Nestin-cre mice were heavier (38±2 g), slightly hyperphagic (4.5±1.0 g per day), and had higher MAP and heart rate (108±2 mm Hg and 659±9 bpm) compared with control mice. Leptin infusion gradually increased MAP despite decreasing food intake by 31% in IRS2(flox/flox) and in Nestin-cre control mice. In contrast, leptin infusion did not change MAP in IRS2/Nestin-cre or IRS2/POMC-cre mice. The anorexic and antidiabetic effects of leptin, however, were similar in all 3 groups. These results indicate that IRS2 signaling in the central nervous system, and particularly in POMC neurons, is essential for the chronic actions of leptin to raise MAP but not for its anorexic or antidiabetic effects.
Project description:Although the central nervous system melanocortin system is an important regulator of energy balance, the role of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on appetite, blood pressure, and glucose regulation is unknown. Using Cre/loxP technology we tested whether leptin receptor deletion in POMC neurons (LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice) attenuates the chronic effects of leptin to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP), enhance glucose use and oxygen consumption, and reduce appetite. LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre, wild-type, LepR(flox/flox), and POMC-Cre mice were instrumented for MAP and heart rate measurement by telemetry and venous catheters for infusions. LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice were heavier, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperleptinemic compared with wild-type, LepR(flox/flox), and POMC-Cre mice. Despite exhibiting features of metabolic syndrome, LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice had normal MAP and heart rate compared with LepR(flox/flox) but lower MAP and heart rate compared with wild-type mice. After a 5-day control period, leptin was infused (2 ?g/kg per minute, IV) for 7 days. In control mice, leptin increased MAP by ?5 mm Hg despite decreasing food intake by ?35%. In contrast, leptin infusion in LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice reduced MAP by ?3 mm Hg and food intake by ?28%. Leptin significantly decreased insulin and glucose levels in control mice but not in LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice. Leptin increased oxygen consumption in LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre and wild-type mice. Activation of POMC neurons is necessary for the chronic effects of leptin to raise MAP and reduce insulin and glucose levels, whereas leptin receptors in other areas of the brain other than POMC neurons appear to play a key role in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on appetite and oxygen consumption.
Project description:Leptin regulates energy homeostasis and reproduction. One key population of leptin receptors (Lepr) are found on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, and evidence links the action of gonadal estrogens to these same POMC neurons. To determine whether Lepr on POMC neurons are critical for reproductive capacity or for sex-specific energy and glucose homeostasis, we studied Cre/loxP mice lacking Lepr specifically on POMC neurons (Pomc-Cre, Lepr(flox/flox) mice) and their controls with normal Lepr (Lepr(flox/flox) mice). Pomc-Cre, Lepr(flox/flox) mice maintained normal reproductive capacity and accumulated more body fat than their same sex controls. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed to investigate the effects of the estrogens and Lepr on POMC neurons on body fat accumulation and glucose tolerance. OVX Pomc-Cre, Lepr(flox/flox) females accumulated more fat than OVX Lepr(flox/flox) females did. Pomc-Cre, Lepr(flox/flox) males were glucose intolerant and insulin insensitive compared with control males. In contrast, control and Pomc-Cre, Lepr(flox/flox) females had similar glucose tolerance before and after OVX. Therefore leptin's action on POMC neurons reduces body fat accumulation, but is not critical for regulation of reproduction. The sex difference in leptin signaling on POMC neurons on glucose tolerance appears independent of ovarian hormones.
Project description:Circulating leptin and insulin convey information regarding energy stores to the central nervous system, particularly the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis and express leptin and insulin receptors. However, the physiological significance of concomitant leptin and insulin action on POMC neurons remains to be established. Here, we show that mice lacking both leptin and insulin receptors in POMC neurons (Pomc-Cre, Lepr(flox/flox) IR(flox/flox) mice) display systemic insulin resistance, which is distinct from the single deletion of either receptor. In addition, Pomc-Cre, Lepr(flox/flox) IR(flox/flox) female mice display elevated serum testosterone levels and ovarian abnormalities, resulting in reduced fertility. We conclude that direct action of insulin and leptin on POMC neurons is required to maintain normal glucose homeostasis and reproductive function.
Project description:Insulin receptor substrate 2 (Irs2) plays complex roles in energy homeostasis. We generated mice lacking Irs2 in beta cells and a population of hypothalamic neurons (RIPCreIrs2KO), in all neurons (NesCreIrs2KO), and in proopiomelanocortin neurons (POMCCreIrs2KO) to determine the role of Irs2 in the CNS and beta cell. RIPCreIrs2KO mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance and reduced beta cell mass. Overt diabetes did not ensue, because beta cells escaping Cre-mediated recombination progressively populated islets. RIPCreIrs2KO and NesCreIrs2KO mice displayed hyperphagia, obesity, and increased body length, which suggests altered melanocortin action. POMCCreIrs2KO mice did not display this phenotype. RIPCreIrs2KO and NesCreIrs2KO mice retained leptin sensitivity, which suggests that CNS Irs2 pathways are not required for leptin action. NesCreIrs2KO and POMCCreIrs2KO mice did not display reduced beta cell mass, but NesCreIrs2KO mice displayed mild abnormalities of glucose homeostasis. RIPCre neurons did not express POMC or neuropeptide Y. Insulin and a melanocortin agonist depolarized RIPCre neurons, whereas leptin was ineffective. Insulin hyperpolarized and leptin depolarized POMC neurons. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for IRS2 in beta cell and hypothalamic function and provide insights into the role of RIPCre neurons, a distinct hypothalamic neuronal population, in growth and energy homeostasis.
Project description:We examined whether deficiency of Src homology 2 containing phosphatase (Shp2) signaling in forebrain neurons alters metabolic and cardiovascular regulation under various conditions and if it attenuates the anorexic and cardiovascular effects of leptin. We also tested whether forebrain Shp2 deficiency alters blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to acute stress.Forebrain Shp2(-/-) mice were generated by crossing Shp2(flox/flox) mice with CamKII?-cre mice. At 22-24 weeks of age, the mice were instrumented for telemetry for measurement of BP, HR and body temperature (BT). Oxygen consumption (VO2), energy expenditure and motor activity were monitored by indirect calorimetry.Shp2/CamKII?-cre mice were heavier (46±3 vs 32±1?g), hyperglycemic, hyperleptinemic, hyperinsulinemic and hyperphagic compared to Shp2(flox/flox) control mice. Shp2/CamKII?-cre mice exhibited reduced food intake responses to fasting/refeeding and impaired regulation of BT when exposed to 15 and 30?°C ambient temperatures. Despite being obese and having many features of metabolic syndrome, Shp2/CamKII?-cre mice had similar daily average BP and HR compared to Shp2(flox/flox) mice (112±2 vs 113±1?mm?Hg and 595±34 vs 650±40 b.p.m.), but exhibited increased BP and HR responses to cold exposure and acute air-jet stress test. Leptin's ability to reduce food intake and to raise BP were markedly attenuated in Shp2/CamKII?-cre mice.These results suggest that forebrain Shp2 signaling regulates food intake, appetite responses to caloric deprivation and thermogenic control of body temperature during variations in ambient temperature. Deficiency of Shp2 signaling in the forebrain is associated with augmented cardiovascular responses to cold and acute stress but attenuated BP responses to leptin.
Project description:We determined whether deficiency of neuronal SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3)-a potential negative regulator of leptin signaling-amplifies the chronic effects of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, and blood pressure (BP) and protects against adverse cardiometabolic effects of obesity. BP and heart rate were recorded by telemetry, and oxygen consumption (VO2) was monitored in 22-week-old mice with nervous system SOCS3 deficiency (SOCS3-Nestin-Cre) and control mice (SOCS3flox/flox) fed normal or high-fat-high-fructose diet from 6 to 22 weeks of age. Compared with controls, SOCS3-Nestin-Cre mice had lower plasma glucose (124±7 versus 146±10 mg/dL), consumed less food (3.0±0.4 versus 3.6±0.2 g/d), and had similar VO2 (77±6 versus 73±3 mL/kg per minute) and BP (103±3 versus 107±3 mm Hg) but higher heart rate (666±15 versus 602±17 bpm). In mice fed the normal diet, leptin infusion for 7 days caused similar reductions in food intake (2.3±0.1 versus 2.4±0.2 g) but greater increases in BP (15±3 versus 7±2 mm Hg) in SOCS3-Nestin-Cre compared with controls. Leptin reduced blood glucose concentrations in both groups. Male or female SOCS3-Nestin-Cre fed high-fat-high-fructose diet exhibited less weight gain, body fat, and liver steatosis and greater energy expenditure and heart rate compared with controls. Female SOCS3-Nestin-Cre mice fed high-fat-high-fructose diet had higher BP compared with controls. Thus, neuronal SOCS3 seems to play an important role in cardiometabolic regulation because neuronal SOCS3 deficiency reduced body weight and food intake while amplifying leptin's effects on appetite and BP and attenuating the adverse metabolic effects of high-fat-high-fructose diet.
Project description:It has generally been assumed that bone mass is controlled by endocrine mechanisms and the local bone environment. Recent findings demonstrate that central pathways are involved in the regulation of bone mass. Estrogen is involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis and the CNS is also a target for estrogen actions. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo the role of central estrogen receptor-? (ER?) expression for bone mass. Nestin-Cre mice were crossed with ER?(flox) mice to generate mice lacking ER? expression specifically in nervous tissue (nestin-ER?(-/-)). Bone mineral density was increased in both the trabecular and cortical bone compartments in nestin-ER?(-/-) mice compared with controls. Femoral bone strength was increased in nestin-ER?(-/-) mice, as demonstrated by increased stiffness and maximal load of failure. The high bone mass phenotype in nestin-ER?(-/-) mice was mainly caused by increased bone formation. Serum leptin levels were elevated as a result of increased leptin expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and slightly increased amount of WAT in nestin-ER?(-/-) mice. Leptin receptor mRNA levels were reduced in the hypothalamus but not in bone. In conclusion, inactivation of central ER? signaling results in increased bone mass, demonstrating that the balance between peripheral stimulatory and central inhibitory ER? actions is important for the regulation of bone mass. We propose that the increased bone mass in nestin-ER?(-/-) mice is mediated via decreased central leptin sensitivity and thereby increased secretion of leptin from WAT, which, in turn, results in increased peripheral leptin-induced bone formation.
Project description:Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that signals to inform the brain of nutrient status; loss of leptin signaling results in marked hyperphagia and obesity. Recent work has identified several groups of neurons that contribute to the effects of leptin to regulate energy balance, but leptin receptors are distributed throughout the brain, and the function of leptin signaling in discrete neuronal populations outside of the hypothalamus has not been defined. In the current study, we produced mice in which the long form of the leptin receptor (Lepr) was selectively ablated using Cre-recombinase selectively expressed in the hindbrain under control of the paired-like homeobox 2b (Phox2b) promoter (Phox2b Cre Lepr(flox/flox) mice). In these mice, Lepr was deleted from glucagon-like 1 peptide-expressing neurons resident in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Phox2b Cre Lepr(flox/flox) mice were hyperphagic, displayed increased food intake after fasting, and gained weight at a faster rate than wild-type controls. Paradoxically, Phox2b Cre Lepr(flox/flox) mice also exhibited an increased metabolic rate independent of a change in locomotor activity that was dependent on food intake, and glucose homeostasis was normal. Together, these data support a physiologically important role of direct leptin action in the hindbrain.
Project description:Irs2-mediated insulin/IGF1 signaling in the CNS modulates energy balance and glucose homeostasis; however, the site for Irs2 function is unknown. The hormone leptin mediates energy balance by acting on leptin receptor (LepR-b)-expressing neurons. To determine whether LepR-b neurons mediate the metabolic actions of Irs2 in the brain, we utilized Lepr(cre) together with Irs2(L/L) to ablate Irs2 expression in LepR-b neurons (Lepr(?Irs2)). Lepr(?Irs2) mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Leptin action was not altered in young Lepr(?Irs2) mice, although insulin-stimulated FoxO1 nuclear exclusion was reduced in Lepr(?Irs2) mice. Indeed, deletion of Foxo1 from LepR-b neurons in Lepr(?Irs2) mice normalized energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and arcuate nucleus gene expression. Thus, Irs2 signaling in LepR-b neurons plays a crucial role in metabolic sensing and regulation. While not required for leptin action, Irs2 suppresses FoxO1 signaling in LepR-b neurons to promote energy balance and metabolism.
Project description:The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is considered a major site for leptin signaling that regulates several physiological processes.To test the hypothesis that leptin receptor in the ARC is required to mediate leptin-induced sympathetic activation.First, we used the ROSA Cre-reporter mice to establish the feasibility of driving Cre expression in the ARC in a controlled manner with bilateral microinjection of adenovirus-expressing Cre-recombinase (Ad-Cre). Ad-Cre microinjection into the ARC of ObR(flox/flox) mice robustly reduced ObR expression and leptin-induced Stat3 activation in the ARC but not in the adjacent nuclei, confirming the efficacy and selectivity of the ARC deletion of ObR. Critically, deletion of ObR in the ARC attenuated brown adipose tissue and renal sympathetic nerve responses to leptin. We also examined whether ObR in the ARC is required for the preserved leptin-induced increase in renal sympathetic activity in dietary obesity. We found that deletion of ARC ObR abrogated leptin-induced increases in renal sympathetic discharge and resolved arterial pressure elevation in diet-induced obese ObR(flox/flox) mice.These data demonstrate a critical role for ObR in the ARC in mediating the sympathetic nerve responses to leptin and in the adverse sympathoexcitatory effects of leptin in obesity.