Ocular blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid pressure in glaucoma.
ABSTRACT: Disease mechanism underlying glaucoma remains unclear. Extensive research on this pathology has highlighted changes in vascular parameters and in circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here, we review the most recent research on alterations in ocular blood flow and/or CSF flow in glaucoma. Ultrasound Doppler imaging studies have shown an increased resistive index in ophthalmic artery's in glaucoma. Furthermore, changes in optic nerve CSF circulation, which can be assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, may lead to a greater translaminar pressure difference, mechanical stress, and poor clearance of toxic substances. This constitutes a new approach for understanding blood-CSF interactions involved in glaucoma.
Project description:Glioblastoma is a malignant brain tumor with mean overall survival of less than 15 months. Blood vessel leakage and peritumoral edema lead to increased intracranial pressure and augment neurological deficits which profoundly decrease the quality of life of glioblastoma patients. It is unknown how the dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) turnover are affected during this process. By monitoring the transport of CSF tracers to the systemic blood circulation after infusion into the cisterna magna, we demonstrate that the outflow of CSF is dramatically reduced in glioma-bearing mice. Using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared (NIR) imaging, we found that the circulation of CSF tracers was hindered after cisterna magna injection with reduced signals along the exiting cranial nerves and downstream lymph nodes, which represent the major CSF outflow route in mice. Due to blockage of the normal routes of CSF bulk flow within and from the cranial cavity, CSF tracers were redirected into the spinal space. In some mice, impaired CSF clearance from the cranium was compensated by a lymphatic outflow from the sacral spine.
Project description:Purpose:The effective management of glaucoma is hindered by an incomplete understanding of its pathologic mechanism. While important, intraocular pressure (IOP) alone is inadequate in explaining glaucoma. Non-IOP-mediated risk factors such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure have been reported to contribute to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Due to the difficulty associated with experimental measurement of the salient variables, such as the retrobulbar CSF pressure, porosity of the subarachnoid space (SAS), and especially those concerned with the perioptic SAS, there remains a limited understanding of the CSF behavior contributing to the translaminar pressure gradient (TLPG), hypothesized to be a critical factor in the development of glaucoma. Method:An integrated compartmental model describing the intracranial and orbital CSF dynamics, coupled with intraocular dynamics, is developed based on first principles of fluid mechanics. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify anatomic characteristics that significantly affect the retrobulbar subarachnoid space (RSAS) pressure and, consequently, the TLPG. Results:Of the 28 parameters considered, the RSAS pressure is most sensitive to CSF flow resistance in the optic nerve SAS and the potential lymphatic outflow from the optic nerve SAS into the orbital space. A parametric study demonstrates that a combination of resistance in the range of 1.600 × 1012 - 1.930 × 1012 Pa s/m3 (200.0 - 241.3 mm Hg min/mL) with 5% to 10% lymphatic CSF outflow yields RSAS pressures that are consistent with the limited number of studies in the literature. Conclusions:The results suggest that a small percentage of lymphatic CSF outflow through the optic nerve SAS is likely. In addition, flow resistance in the orbital CSF space, hypothesized to be a function of patient-specific optic nerve SAS architecture and optic canal geometry, is a critical parameter in regulating the RSAS pressure and TLPG.
Project description:The pathways of circulation and clearance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the spine have yet to be elucidated. We have recently shown with dynamic in vivo imaging that routes of outflow of CSF in mice occur along cranial nerves to extracranial lymphatic vessels. Here, we use near-infrared and magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate the flow of CSF tracers within the spinal column and reveal the major spinal pathways for outflow to lymphatic vessels in mice. We found that after intraventricular injection, a spread of CSF tracers occurs within both the central canal and the spinal subarachnoid space toward the caudal end of the spine. Outflow of CSF tracers from the spinal subarachnoid space occurred predominantly from intravertebral regions of the sacral spine to lymphatic vessels, leading to sacral and iliac LNs. Clearance of CSF from the spine to lymphatic vessels may have significance for many conditions, including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury.
Project description:The relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain interstitial fluid are still being elucidated. It has been proposed that CSF within the subarachnoid space will enter paravascular spaces along arteries to flush through the parenchyma of the brain. However, CSF also directly exits the subarachnoid space through the cribriform plate and other perineural routes to reach the lymphatic system. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the functional relationship between CSF efflux through lymphatics and the potential influx into the brain by assessment of the distribution of CSF-infused tracers in awake and anesthetized mice. Using near-infrared fluorescence imaging, we showed that tracers quickly exited the subarachnoid space by transport through the lymphatic system to the systemic circulation in awake mice, significantly limiting their spread to the paravascular spaces of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy through the skull under anesthetized conditions indicated that tracers remained confined to paravascular spaces on the surface of the brain. Immediately after death, a substantial influx of tracers occurred along paravascular spaces extending into the brain parenchyma. We conclude that under normal conditions a rapid CSF turnover through lymphatics precludes significant bulk flow into the brain.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It has long been known that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), its composition and flow, play an important part in normal brain development, and ependymal cell ciliary beating as a possible driver of CSF flow has previously been studied in mammalian fetuses in vitro. Lower vertebrate animals are potential models for analysis of CSF flow during development because they are oviparous. Albino Xenopus laevis larvae are nearly transparent and have a straight, translucent brain that facilitates the observation of fluid flow within the ventricles. The aim of these experiments was to study CSF flow and circulation in vivo in the developing brain of living embryos, larvae and tadpoles of Xenopus laevis using a microinjection technique. METHODS: The development of Xenopus larval brain ventricles and the patterns of CSF flow were visualised after injection of quantum dot nanocrystals and polystyrene beads (3.1 or 5.8 ?m in diameter) into the fourth cerebral ventricle at embryonic/larval stages 30-53. RESULTS: The fluorescent nanocrystals showed the normal development of the cerebral ventricles from embryonic/larval stages 38 to 53. The polystyrene beads injected into stage 47-49 larvae revealed three CSF flow patterns, left-handed, right-handed and non-biased, in movement of the beads into the third ventricle from the cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius). In the lateral ventricles, anterior to the third ventricle, CSF flow moved anteriorly along the outer wall of the ventricle to the inner wall and then posteriorly, creating a semicircle. In the cerebral aqueduct, connecting the third and fourth cerebral ventricles, CSF flow moved rostrally in the dorsal region and caudally in the ventral region. Also in the fourth ventricle, clear dorso-ventral differences in fluid flow pattern were observed. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first visualisation of the orchestrated CSF flow pattern in developing vertebrates using a live animal imaging approach. CSF flow in Xenopus albino larvae showed a largely consistent pattern, with the exception of individual differences in left-right asymmetrical flow in the third ventricle.
Project description:Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 95% of cases results in long-term disabilities due to brain damage, pathogenesis of which remains uncertain. Hindrance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation along glymphatic pathways is a possible mechanism interrupting drainage of damaging substances from subarachnoid space and parenchyma. We explored changes in CSF circulation at different time following SAH and possible role of brain tissue factor (TF). Fluorescent solute and fluorescent microspheres injected into cisterna magna were used to track CSF flow in mice. SAH induced by perforation of circle of Willis interrupted CSF flow for up to 30 days. Block of CSF flow did not correlate with the size of hemorrhage. Following SAH, fibrin deposits were observed on the brain surface including areas without visible blood. Block of astroglia-associated TF by intracerebroventricular administration of specific antibodies increased size of hemorrhage, decreased fibrin deposition and facilitated spread of fluorophores in sham/naïve animals. We conclude that brain TF plays an important role in localization of hemorrhage and also regulates CSF flow under normal conditions. Targeting of the TF system will allow developing of new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of SAH and pathologies related to CSF flow such as hydrocephalus.
Project description:Circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contributes to body axis formation and brain development. Here, we investigated the unexplained origins of the CSF flow bidirectionality in the central canal of the spinal cord of 30 hpf zebrafish embryos and its impact on development. Experiments combined with modeling and simulations demonstrate that the CSF flow is generated locally by caudally-polarized motile cilia along the ventral wall of the central canal. The closed geometry of the canal imposes the average flow rate to be null, explaining the reported bidirectionality. We also demonstrate that at this early stage, motile cilia ensure the proper formation of the central canal. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the bidirectional flow accelerates the transport of particles in the CSF via a coupled convective-diffusive transport process. Our study demonstrates that cilia activity combined with muscle contractions sustain the long-range transport of extracellular lipidic particles, enabling embryonic growth.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: According to the "glymphatic system" hypothesis, brain waste clearance is mediated by a continuous replacement of the interstitial milieu by a bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Previous reports suggested that this cerebral CSF circulation is only active during general anesthesia or sleep, an effect mediated by the dilatation of the extracellular space. Given the controversies regarding the plausibility of this phenomenon and the limitations of currently available methods to image the glymphatic system, we developed original whole-brain in vivo imaging methods to investigate the effects of general anesthesia on the brain CSF circulation. METHODS: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) after injection of a paramagnetic contrast agent or a fluorescent dye in the cisterna magna, in order to investigate the impact of general anesthesia (isoflurane, ketamine or ketamine/xylazine) on the intracranial CSF circulation in mice. RESULTS:In vivo imaging allowed us to image CSF flow in awake and anesthetized mice and confirmed the existence of a brain-wide CSF circulation. Contrary to what was initially thought, we demonstrated that the parenchymal CSF circulation is mainly active during wakefulness and significantly impaired during general anesthesia. This effect was especially significant when high doses of anesthetic agent were used (3% isoflurane). These results were consistent across the different anesthesia regimens and imaging modalities. Moreover, we failed to detect a significant change in the brain extracellular water volume using diffusion weighted imaging in awake and anesthetized mice. CONCLUSION: The parenchymal diffusion of small molecular weight compounds from the CSF is active during wakefulness. General anesthesia has a negative impact on the intracranial CSF circulation, especially when using a high dose of anesthetic agent.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the ventricular system is driven by motile cilia on ependymal cells of the brain. Disturbed ciliary motility induces the formation of hydrocephalus, a pathological accumulation of CSF resulting in ventricle dilatation and increased intracranial pressure. The mechanism by which loss of motile cilia causes hydrocephalus has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was: (1) to provide a detailed account of the development of ciliation in the brain of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis; and (2) to analyze the relevance of ependymal cilia motility for CSF circulation and brain ventricle morphogenesis in Xenopus. METHODS: Gene expression analysis of foxj1, the bona fide marker for motile cilia, was used to identify potentially ciliated regions in the developing central nervous system (CNS) of the tadpole. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to reveal the distribution of mono- and multiciliated cells during successive stages of brain morphogenesis, which was functionally assessed by bead injection and video microscopy of ventricular CSF flow. An antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated gene knock-down that targeted foxj1 in the CNS was applied to assess the role of motile cilia in the ventricles. RESULTS: RNA transcripts of foxj1 in the CNS were found from neurula stages onwards. Following neural tube closure, foxj1 expression was seen in distinct ventricular regions such as the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), subcommissural organ (SCO), floor plate, choroid plexus (CP), and rhombomere boundaries. In all areas, expression of foxj1 preceded the outgrowth of monocilia and the subsequent switch to multiciliated ependymal cells. Cilia were absent in foxj1 morphants, causing impaired CSF flow and fourth ventricle hydrocephalus in tadpole-stage embryos. CONCLUSIONS: Motile ependymal cilia are important organelles in the Xenopus CNS, as they are essential for the circulation of CSF and maintenance of homeostatic fluid pressure. The Xenopus CNS ventricles might serve as a novel model system for the analysis of human ciliary genes whose deficiency cause hydrocephalus.
Project description:Background: Disruptions in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow during aging could compromise protein clearance from the brain and contribute to the etiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Objective: To determine whether CSF flow is associated with cognitive deficit in elderly patients (>70 years). Methods: We studied 92 patients admitted to our geriatric unit for non-acute reasons using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) to calculate their ventricular and spinal CSF flow, and assessed their global cognitive status, memory, executive functions, and praxis. Multivariable regressions with backward selection (criterion p < 0.15) were performed to determine associations between cognitive tests and ventricular and spinal CSF flow, adjusting for depression, anxiety, and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: The cohort comprised 71 women (77%) and 21 (33%) men, aged 84.1 ± 5.2 years (range, 73-96). Net ventricular CSF flow was 52 ± 40 ?L/cc (range, 0-210), and net spinal CSF flow was 500 ± 295 ?L/cc (range, 0-1420). Ventricular CSF flow was associated with the number of BEC96 figures recognized (? = 0.18, CI, 0.02-0.33; p = 0.025). Spinal CSF flow was associated with the WAIS Digit Span Backward test (? = 0.06, CI, 0.01-0.12; p = 0.034), and categoric verbal fluency (? = 0.53, CI, 0.07-0.98; p = 0.024) and semantic verbal fluency (? = 0.55, CI, 0.07-1.02; p = 0.024). Conclusion: Patients with lower CSF flow had significantly worse memory, visuo-constructive capacities, and verbal fluency. Alterations in CSF flow could contribute to some of the cognitive deficit observed in patients with AD. Diagnosis and treatment of CSF flow alterations in geriatric patients with neurocognitive disorders could contribute to the prevention of their cognitive decline.