Characterization of Iron-Imido Species Relevant for N-Group Transfer Chemistry.
ABSTRACT: A sterically accessible tert-butyl-substituted dipyrrinato di-iron(II) complex [((tBu)L)FeCl]2 possessing two bridging chloride atoms was synthesized from the previously reported solvento adduct. Upon treatment with aryl azides, the formation of high-spin Fe(III) species was confirmed by (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Crystallographic characterization revealed two possible oxidation products: (1) a terminal iron iminyl from aryl azides bearing ortho isopropyl substituents, ((tBu)L)FeCl((•)NC6H3-2,6-(i)Pr2); or (2) a bridging di-iron imido arising from reaction with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)aryl azide, [((tBu)L)FeCl]2(?-NC6H3-3,5-(CF3)2). Similar to the previously reported ((Ar)L)FeCl((•)NC6H4-4-(t)Bu), the monomeric iron imido is best described as a high-spin Fe(III) antiferromagnetically coupled to an iminyl radical, affording an S = 2 spin state as confirmed by SQUID magnetometry. The di-iron imido possesses an S = 0 ground state, arising from two high-spin Fe(III) centers weakly antiferromagnetically coupled through the bridging imido ligand. The terminal iron iminyl complex undergoes facile decomposition via intra- or intermolecular hydrogen-atom abstraction (HAA) from an imido aryl ortho isopropyl group, or from 1,4-cyclohexadiene, respectively. The bridging di-iron imido is a competent N-group transfer reagent to cyclic internal olefins as well as styrene. Although solid-state magnetometry indicates an antiferromagnetic interaction between the two iron centers (J = -108.7 cm(-1)) in [((tBu)L)FeCl]2(?-NC6H3-3,5-(CF3)2), we demonstrate that in solution the bridging imido can facilitate HAA as well as dissociate into a terminal iminyl species, which then can promote HAA. In situ monitoring reveals the di-iron bridging imido is a catalytically competent intermediate, one of several iron complexes observed in the amination of C-H bond substrates or styrene aziridination.
Project description:Reduction of previously reported iminyl radical (ArL)FeCl(•N(C6H4-p-tBu)) (2) with potassium graphite furnished the corresponding high-spin (S = 5/2) imido (ArL)Fe(N(C6H4-p-tBu)) (3) (ArL = 5-mesityl-1,9-(2,4,6-Ph3C6H2)dipyrrin). Oxidation of the three-coordinate imido (ArL)Fe(NAd) (5) with chlorotriphenylmethane afforded (ArL)FeCl(•NAd) (6) with concomitant expulsion of Ph3C(C6H5)CPh2. The respective aryl/alkyl imido/iminyl pairs (3, 2; 5, 6) have been characterized by EPR, zero-field 57Fe Mössbauer, magnetometry, single crystal X-ray diffraction, XAS, and EXAFS for 6. The high-spin (S = 5/2) imidos exhibit characteristically short Fe-N bonds (3: 1.708(4) Å; 5: 1.674(11) Å), whereas the corresponding iminyls exhibit elongated Fe-N bonds (2: 1.768(2) Å; 6: 1.761(6) Å). Comparison of the pre-edge absorption feature (1s ? 3d) in the X-ray absorption spectra reveals that the four imido/iminyl complexes share a common iron oxidation level consistent with a ferric formulation (3: 7111.5 eV, 2: 7111.5 eV; 5: 7112.2 eV, 6: 7112.4 eV) as compared with a ferrous amine adduct (ArL)FeCl(NH2Ad) (7: 7110.3 eV). N K-edge X-ray absorption spectra reveal a common low-energy absorption present only for the iminyl species 2 (394.5 eV) and 6 (394.8 eV) that was assigned as a N 1s promotion into a N-localized, singly occupied iminyl orbital. Kinetic analysis of the reaction between the respective iron imido and iminyl complexes with toluene yielded the following activation parameters: Ea (kcal/mol) 3: 12.1, 2: 9.2; 5: 11.5, 6: 7.1. The attenuation of the Fe-N bond interaction on oxidation from an imido to an iminyl complex leads to a reduced enthalpic barrier [?(?H‡) ? 5 kcal/mol]; the alkyl iminyl 6 has a reduced enthalpic barrier (1.84 kcal/mol) as compared with the aryl iminyl 2 (3.84 kcal/mol), consistent with iminyl radical delocalization into the aryl substituent in 2 as compared with 6.
Project description:Dicopper complexes templated by dinucleating, pacman dipyrrin ligand scaffolds (Mesdmx, tBudmx: dimethylxanthine-bridged, cofacial bis-dipyrrin) were synthesized by deprotonation/metalation with mesitylcopper (CuMes; Mes: mesityl) or by transmetalation with cuprous precursors from the corresponding deprotonated ligand. Neutral imide complexes (Rdmx)Cu2(?2-NAr) (R: Mes, tBu; Ar: 4-MeOC6H4, 3,5-(F3C)2C6H3) were synthesized by treatment of the corresponding dicuprous complexes with aryl azides. While one-electron reduction of (Mesdmx)Cu2(?2-N(C6H4OMe)) with potassium graphite initiates an intramolecular, benzylic C-H amination at room temperature, chemical reduction of (tBudmx)Cu2(?2-NAr) leads to isolable [(tBudmx)Cu2(?2-NAr)]- product salts. The electronic structures of the thermally robust [(tBudmx)Cu2(?2-NAr)]0/- complexes were assessed by variable-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Cu L2,3/K-edge, N K-edge), optical spectroscopy, and DFT/CASSCF calculations. These data indicate that the formally Class IIIA mixed valence complexes of the type [(Rdmx)Cu2(?2-NAr)]- feature significant NAr-localized spin following reduction from electronic population of the [Cu2(?2-NAr)] ?* manifold, contrasting previous methods for engendering iminyl character through chemical oxidation. The reactivity of the isolable imido and iminyl complexes are examined for prototypical radical-promoted reactivity (e.g., nitrene transfer and H-atom abstraction), where the divergent reactivity is rationalized by the relative degree of N-radical character afforded from different aryl substituents.
Project description:Reduction of previously reported (ArL)FeCl with potassium graphite furnished a low-spin (S = 1/2) iron complex (ArL)Fe which features an intramolecular ?6-arene interaction and can be utilized as an FeI synthon (ArL = 5-mesityl-1,9-(2,4,6-Ph3C6H2)dipyrrin). Treatment of (ArL)Fe with adamantyl azide or mesityl azide led to the formation of the high-spin (S = 5/2), three-coordinate imidos (ArL)Fe(NAd) and (ArL)Fe(NMes), respectively, as determined by EPR, zero-field 57Fe Mössbauer, magnetometry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The high-spin iron imidos are reactive with a variety of substrates: (ArL)Fe(NAd) reacts with azide yielding a ferrous tetrazido (ArL)Fe(?2-N4Ad2), undergoes intermolecular nitrene transfer to phosphine, abstracts H atoms from weak C-H bonds (1,4-cyclohexadiene, 2,4,6-tBu3C6H2OH) to afford ferrous amido product (ArL)Fe(NHAd), and can mediate intermolecular C-H amination of toluene [PhCH3/PhCD3 kH/kD: 15.5(3); PhCH2D kH/kD: 11(1)]. The C-H bond functionalization reactivity is rationalized from a two-step mechanism wherein each step occurs via maximal energy and orbital overlap between the imido fragment and the C-H bond containing substrate.
Project description:A new bimetallic platform comprising a six-coordinate Fe(ONO)<sub>2</sub> unit bound to an (ONO)M (M = Fe, Zn) has been discovered ((ONO<sup>cat</sup>)H<sub>3</sub> = bis(3,5-di-<i>tert</i>-butyl-2-phenol)amine). Reaction of Fe(ONO)<sub>2</sub> with either (ONO<sup>cat</sup>)Fe(py)<sub>3</sub> or with (ONO<sup>q</sup>)FeCl<sub>2</sub> under reducing conditions led to the formation of the bimetallic complex Fe<sub>2</sub>(ONO)<sub>3</sub>, which includes unique five- and six-coordinate iron centers. Similarly, the reaction of Fe(ONO)<sub>2</sub> with the new synthon (ONO<sup>sq</sup>˙)Zn(py)<sub>2</sub> led to the formation of the heterobimetallic complex FeZn(ONO)<sub>3</sub>, with a six-coordinate iron center and a five-coordinate zinc center. Both bimetallic complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies, solid-state magnetic measurements, and multiple spectroscopic techniques. The magnetic data for FeZn(ONO)<sub>3</sub> are consistent with a ground state <i>S</i> = 3/2 spin system, generated from a high-spin iron(ii) center that is antiferromagnetically coupled to a single (ONO<sup>sq</sup>˙)<sup>2-</sup> radical ligand. In the case of Fe<sub>2</sub>(ONO)<sub>3</sub>, the magnetic data revealed a ground state <i>S</i> = 7/2 spin system arising from the interactions of one high-spin iron(ii) center, one high-spin iron(iii) center, and two (ONO<sup>sq</sup>˙)<sup>2-</sup> radical ligands.
Project description:Iron terminal imido species are typically implicated as reaction intermediates in iron-catalyzed transformations. While a large body of work has been devoted to mid- and high-valent iron imidos, to date the chemistry of iron(II) imidos has remained largely unexplored due to the difficulty in accessing them. Herein, we present a study on the two-coordinate iron(II) imido complex [(IPr)Fe(NArTrip)] (3; IPr = 1,3-bis(2',6'-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; ArTrip = 2,6-bis(2',4',6'-triisopropylphenyl)phenyl) prepared from the reaction of an iron(0) complex with the bulky azide ArTripN3. Spectroscopic investigations in combination with DFT calculations established a high-spin S = 2 ground spin state for 3, consistent with its long Fe-N multiple bond of 1.715(2) Å revealed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Complex 3 exhibits unusual activity of nitrene transfer and C-H bond activation in comparison to the reported iron imido complexes. Specifically, the reactions of 3 with CH2?CHArCF3, an electron-deficient alkene, and CO, a strong ? acid, readily afford nitrene transfer products, ArCF3CH?CHNHArTrip and ArTripNCO, respectively, yet no similar reaction occurs when 3 is treated with electron-rich alkenes and PMe3. Moreover, 3 is inert toward the weak C(sp3)-H bonds in 1,4-cyclohexadiene, THF, and toluene, whereas it can cleave the stronger C(sp)-H bond in p-trifluoromethylphenylacetylene to form an iron(II) amido alkynyl complex. Interestingly, intramolecular C(sp3)-H bond functionalization was observed by adding ( p-Tol)2CN2 to 3. The unique reactivity of 3 is attributed to its low-coordinate nature and the high negative charge population on the imido N atom, which render its iron-imido unit nucleophilic in nature.
Project description:A mononuclear nonheme iron(V)-imido complex bearing a tetraamido macrocyclic ligand (TAML), [FeV(NTs)(TAML)]- (1), was oxidized by one-electron oxidants, affording formation of an iron(V)-imido TAML cation radical species, [FeV(NTs)(TAML+•)] (2); 2 is a diamagnetic (S = 0) complex, resulting from the antiferromagnetic coupling of the low-spin iron(V) ion (S = 1/2) with the one-electron oxidized ligand (TAML+•). 2 is a competent oxidant in C-H bond functionalization and nitrene transfer reaction, showing that the reactivity of 2 is greater than that of 1.
Project description:In order to assess the sensitivity and complementarity of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies for determining changes in the metal ligation sphere, a systematic experimental and theoretical study of iron model complexes has been carried out. A series of high-spin ferrous complexes, in which the ligation sphere has been varied from a three-coordinate complex, [L(tBu)Fe(SPh)] (1) (where L(tBu) = bulky ?-diketiminate ligand; SPh = phenyl thiolate) to four-coordinate complexes [L(tBu)Fe(SPh)(X)] (where X = CN(t)Bu (2); 1-methylimidazole (3); or N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) (4)), has been investigated using a combination of Fe K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) and K? X-ray emission (XES) spectroscopies. The Fe K XAS pre-edge and edge of all four complexes are consistent with a high-spin ferrous assignment, with the largest differences in the pre-edge intensities attributed to changes in covalency of the fourth coordination site. The X-ray emission spectra show pronounced changes in the valence to core region (V2C) as the identity of the coordinated ligand is varied. The experimental results have been correlated to density functional theory (DFT) calculations, to understand key molecular orbital contributions to the observed absorption and emission features. The calculations also have been extended to a series of hypothetical high-spin iron complexes to understand the sensitivity of XAS and XES techniques to different ligand protonation states ([L(tBu)Fe(II)(SPh)(NHn)](3-n) (n = 3, 2, 1, 0)), metal oxidation states [L(tBu)Fe(SPh)(N)](n-) (n = 3, 2, 1), and changes in the ligand identity [L(tBu)Fe(IV)(SPh)(X)](n-) (X = C(4-), N(3-), O(2-); n = 2, 1, 0). This study demonstrates that XAS pre-edge data have greater sensitivity to changes in oxidation state, while valence to core (V2C) XES data provide a more sensitive probe of ligand identity and protonation state. The combination of multiple X-ray spectroscopic methods with DFT results thus has the potential to provide for detailed characterization of complex inorganic systems in both chemical and biological catalysis.
Project description:Chelating phosphines are effective additives and supporting ligands for a wide array of iron-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. While recent studies have begun to unravel the nature of the in situ-formed iron species in several of these reactions, including the identification of the active iron species, insight into the origin of the differential effectiveness of bisphosphine ligands in catalysis as a function of their backbone and peripheral steric structures remains elusive. Herein, we report a spectroscopic and computational investigation of well-defined FeCl2(bisphosphine) complexes (bisphosphine = SciOPP, dpbz, (tBu)dppe, or Xantphos) and known iron(I) variants to systematically discern the relative effects of bisphosphine backbone character and steric substitution on the overall electronic structure and bonding within their iron complexes across oxidation states implicated to be relevant in catalysis. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and density functional theory (DFT) studies demonstrate that common o-phenylene and saturated ethyl backbone motifs result in small but non-negligible perturbations to 10Dq(Td) and iron-bisphosphine bonding character at the iron(II) level within isostructural tetrahedra as well as in five-coordinate iron(I) complexes FeCl(dpbz)2 and FeCl(dppe)2. Notably, coordination of Xantphos to FeCl2 results in a ligand field significantly reduced relative to those of its iron(II) partners, where a large bite angle and consequent reduced iron-phosphorus Mayer bond orders (MBOs) could play a role in fostering the unique ability of Xantphos to be an effective additive in Kumada and Suzuki-Miyaura alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings. Furthermore, it has been found that the peripheral steric bulk of the SciOPP ligand does little to perturb the electronic structure of FeCl2(SciOPP) relative to that of the analogous FeCl2(dpbz) complex, potentially suggesting that differences in the steric properties of these ligands might be more important in determining in situ iron speciation and reactivity.
Project description:Decarboxylative coupling reactions of alkynyl carboxylic acids with aryl tosylates were developed in the presence of a palladium catalyst. Among the commercially available phosphine ligands, only 1-dicyclohexylphosphino-2-(di-tert-butylphosphino-ethyl)ferrocene (CyPF-tBu) showed good reactivity. The reaction took place smoothly and gave the decarboxylative coupled products in moderate to good yields. This demonstrates the excellent functional group tolerance toward alkyl, alkoxy, fluoro, thiophenyl, ester, and ketone groups. In addition, alkyl-substituted propiolic acids, such as octynoic and hexynoic acids, were coupled with phenyl tosylate to provide the desired products. We found that the electronic properties of the substituents on the phenyl ring in arylpropiolic acids are an important factor. The order of reactivity was found to be aryl iodide > aryl bromide > aryl tosylate > aryl chloride. However, aryl chloride-bearing electron-withdrawing groups showed higher reactivity than those bearing aryl tosylates.
Project description:Metalation of the deprotonated dipyrrin (<sup>AdF</sup>L)Li with NiCl<sub>2</sub>(py)<sub>2</sub> afforded the divalent Ni product (<sup>AdF</sup>L)NiCl(py)<sub>2</sub> (<b>1</b>) (<sup>AdF</sup>L: 1,9-di(1-adamantyl)-5-perfluorophenyldipyrrin; py: pyridine). To generate a reactive synthon on which to explore oxidative group transfer, we used potassium graphite to reduce <b>1</b>, affording the monovalent Ni synthon (<sup>AdF</sup>L)Ni(py) (<b>2</b>) and concomitant production of a stoichiometric equivalent of KCl and pyridine. Slow addition of mesityl- or 1-adamantylazide in benzene to <b>2</b> afforded the oxidized Ni complexes (<sup>AdF</sup>L)Ni(NMes) (<b>3</b>) and (<sup>AdF</sup>L)Ni(NAd) (<b>4</b>), respectively. Both <b>3</b> and <b>4</b> were characterized by multinuclear NMR, EPR, magnetometry, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, theoretical calculations, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to provide a detailed electronic structure picture of the nitrenoid adducts. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) on the Ni reveals higher energy Ni 1s → 3d transitions (<b>3</b>: 8333.2 eV; <b>4</b>: 8333.4 eV) than Ni<sup>I</sup> or unambiguous Ni<sup>II</sup> analogues. N K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy performed on <b>3</b> and <b>4</b> reveals a common low-energy absorption present only for <b>3</b> and <b>4</b> (395.4 eV) that was assigned <i>via</i> TDDFT as an N 1s promotion into a predominantly N-localized, singly occupied orbital, akin to metal-supported iminyl complexes reported for iron. On the continuum of imido (<i>i.e.</i>, NR<sup>2-</sup>) to iminyl (<i>i.e.</i>, <sup>2</sup>NR<sup>-</sup>) formulations, the complexes are best described as Ni<sup>II</sup>-bound iminyl species given the N K-edge and TDDFT results. Given the open-shell configuration (<i>S</i> = 1/2) of the iminyl adducts, we then examined their propensity to undergo nitrenoid-group transfer to organic substrates. The adamantyl complex <b>4</b> readily consumes 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD) <i>via</i> H-atom abstraction to afford the amide (<sup>AdF</sup>L)Ni(NHAd) (<b>5</b>), whereas no reaction was observed upon treatment of the mesityl variant <b>3</b> with excess amount of CHD over 3 hours. Toluene can be functionalized by <b>4</b> at room temperature, exclusively affording the <i>N</i>-1-adamantyl-benzylidene (<b>6</b>). Slow addition of the organoazide substrate (4-azidobutyl)benzene (<b>7</b>) with <b>2</b> exclusively forms 4-phenylbutanenitrile (<b>8</b>) as opposed to an intramolecular cyclized pyrrolidine, resulting from facile β-H elimination outcompeting H-atom abstraction from the benzylic position, followed by rapid H<sub>2</sub>-elimination from the intermediate Ni hydride ketimide intermediate.