A Molecular Method to Discriminate between Mass-Reared Sterile and Wild Tsetse Flies during Eradication Programmes That Have a Sterile Insect Technique Component.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The Government of Senegal has embarked several years ago on a project that aims to eradicate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area. The removal of the animal trypanosomosis would allow the development more efficient livestock production systems. The project was implemented using an area-wide integrated pest management strategy including a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The released sterile male flies originated from a colony from Burkina Faso. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Monitoring the efficacy of the sterile male releases requires the discrimination between wild and sterile male G. p. gambiensis that are sampled in monitoring traps. Before being released, sterile male flies were marked with a fluorescent dye powder. The marking was however not infallible with some sterile flies only slightly marked or some wild flies contaminated with a few dye particles in the monitoring traps. Trapped flies can also be damaged due to predation by ants, making it difficult to discriminate between wild and sterile males using a fluorescence camera and / or a fluorescence microscope. We developed a molecular technique based on the determination of cytochrome oxidase haplotypes of G. p. gambiensis to discriminate between wild and sterile males. DNA was isolated from the head of flies and a portion of the 5' end of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I was amplified to be finally sequenced. Our results indicated that all the sterile males from the Burkina Faso colony displayed the same haplotype and systematically differed from wild male flies trapped in Senegal and Burkina Faso. This allowed 100% discrimination between sterile and wild male G. p. gambiensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:This tool might be useful for other tsetse control campaigns with a SIT component in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) and, more generally, for other vector or insect pest control programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes that cause human and African animal trypanosomosis, a debilitating disease of humans (sleeping sickness) and livestock (nagana). An area-wide integrated pest management campaign against Glossina palpalis gambiensis has been implemented in Senegal since 2010 that includes a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The SIT can only be successful when the sterile males that are destined for release have a flight ability, survival and competitiveness that are as close as possible to that of their wild male counterparts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Tests were developed to assess the quality of G. p. gambiensis males that emerged from pupae that were produced and irradiated in Burkina Faso and Slovakia (irradiation done in Seibersdorf, Austria) and transported weekly under chilled conditions to Dakar, Senegal. For each consignment a sample of 50 pupae was used for a quality control test (QC group). To assess flight ability, the pupae were put in a cylinder filtering emerged flies that were able to escape the cylinder. The survival of these flyers was thereafter monitored under stress conditions (without feeding). Remaining pupae were emerged and released in the target area of the eradication programme (RF group). The following parameter values were obtained for the QC flies: average emergence rate more than 69%, median survival of 6 days, and average flight ability of more than 35%. The quality protocol was a good proxy of fly quality, explaining a large part of the variances of the examined parameters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:The quality protocol described here will allow the accurate monitoring of the quality of shipped sterile male tsetse used in operational eradication programmes in the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tsetse flies are vectors of African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause sleeping sickness (or human African trypanosomosis) in humans and nagana (or animal African trypanosomosis) in livestock. In addition to trypanosomes, four symbiotic bacteria Wigglesworthia glossinidia, Sodalis glossinidius, Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and one pathogen, the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), have been reported in different tsetse species. We evaluated the prevalence and coinfection dynamics between Wolbachia, trypanosomes, and SGHV in four tsetse species (Glossina palpalis gambiensis, G. tachinoides, G. morsitans submorsitans, and G. medicorum) that were collected between 2008 and 2015 from 46 geographical locations in West Africa, i.e. Burkina Faso, Mali, Ghana, Guinea, and Senegal. RESULTS:The results indicated an overall low prevalence of SGHV and Wolbachia and a high prevalence of trypanosomes in the sampled wild tsetse populations. The prevalence of all three infections varied among tsetse species and sample origin. The highest trypanosome prevalence was found in Glossina tachinoides (61.1%) from Ghana and in Glossina palpalis gambiensis (43.7%) from Senegal. The trypanosome prevalence in the four species from Burkina Faso was lower, i.e. 39.6% in Glossina medicorum, 18.08%; in Glossina morsitans submorsitans, 16.8%; in Glossina tachinoides and 10.5% in Glossina palpalis gambiensis. The trypanosome prevalence in Glossina palpalis gambiensis was lowest in Mali (6.9%) and Guinea (2.2%). The prevalence of SGHV and Wolbachia was very low irrespective of location or tsetse species with an average of 1.7% for SGHV and 1.0% for Wolbachia. In some cases, mixed infections with different trypanosome species were detected. The highest prevalence of coinfection was Trypanosoma vivax and other Trypanosoma species (9.5%) followed by coinfection of T. congolense with other trypanosomes (7.5%). The prevalence of coinfection of T. vivax and T. congolense was (1.0%) and no mixed infection of trypanosomes, SGHV and Wolbachia was detected. CONCLUSION:The results indicated a high rate of trypanosome infection in tsetse wild populations in West African countries but lower infection rate of both Wolbachia and SGHV. Double or triple mixed trypanosome infections were found. In addition, mixed trypanosome and SGHV infections existed however no mixed infections of trypanosome and/or SGHV with Wolbachia were found.
Project description:Tsetse flies are the sole vectors of human and animal trypanosomosis. In Burkina Faso, a project aiming to create zones free of tsetse flies and trypanosomosis was executed from June 2006 to December 2013. After the determination of tsetse distribution in the intervention area from December 2007 to November 2008, the control campaign was launched in November 2009 and ended in December 2013. The goal was to eliminate tsetse flies from 40,000 km2 of area, through an integrated control campaign including insecticide targets, traps and cattle, sequential aerial treatment (SAT) and the mass treatment of livestock using trypanocides. The campaign involved assistance of the beneficiary communities at all the steps of the control strategy with insecticide impregnated targets.This study was carried out to assess the impact of the control project on tsetse apparent density per trap per day (ADT). To evaluate the effectiveness of tsetse control, 201 sites were selected based on the baseline survey results carried out from December 2007 to November 2008. These sites were monitored bi-monthly from January 2010 to November 2012. At the end-of-study in 2013 a generalized entomological survey was carried out in 401 infested sites found during the longitudinal survey done before the control. Barrier and tsetse persistence areas were treated by ground spraying and evaluated. Controls were also done before and after aerial spraying.In the insecticide-impregnated target area, the control showed that ADT of tsetse flies declined from 10.73 (SD 13.27) to 0.43 (SD 2.51) fly/trap/day from the third month of campaign onwards (P?<?0.0001) and remained low thereafter. At the end of the campaign in 2013, an 83% reduction of ADT was observed for Glossina palpalis gambiensis and a 92% reduction for G. tachinoides. Tsetse flies were captured only in 29% of the sites found infested in 2008.Tsetse flies could be suppressed efficiently but their elimination from the targeted area may require the use integrated methods including the Sterile Insect Technique, which is programmed through the development of the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC Burkina) insectarium. The challenge will remain the sustainability of the achievement.
Project description:African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank and Glossina tachinoides Westwood are the major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their removal will in most cases only be sustainable if the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area.In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides inhabiting four adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso, i.e. the Mouhoun, the Comoé, the Niger and the Sissili River Basins. Isolation by distance was significant for both species across river basins, and dispersal of G. tachinoides was ?3 times higher than that of G. p. gambiensis. Thus, the data presented indicate that no strong barriers to gene flow exists between riverine tsetse populations in adjacent river basins, especially so for G. tachinoides.Therefore, potential re-invasion of flies from adjacent river basins will have to be prevented by establishing buffer zones between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s), in the framework of the PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign) eradication project that is presently targeting the northern part of the Mouhoun River Basin. We argue that these genetic analyses should always be part of the baseline data collection before any tsetse control project is initiated.
Project description:Tsetse flies are cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomosis and nagana or African Animal Trypanosomosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Insectarium de Bobo-Dioulasso (IBD) was created and equipped in the frame of Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) with the main goal to provide sterile males for the different eradication programs in West Africa which is already the case with the ongoing eradication program in Senegal. The aim of this study was to identify the best feeding regime in mass-rearing colonies of Glossina palpalis gambiensis to optimize the yield of sterile males. We investigated the mortality and fecundity for various feeding regimes and day alternation (3×: Monday-Wednesday-Friday, 4×: Monday-Wednesday-Friday-Saturday, 4×: Monday-Wednesday-Thursday-Friday and 6×: all days except Sunday) on adult tsetse flies in routine rearing over 60 days after emergence. The day alternation in the 4 blood meals per week (feeding regimes 2 and 3) had no effect on tsetse fly mortality and fecundity. The best feeding regime was the regime of 4 blood meals per week which resulted in higher significant fecundity (PPIF = 2.5; P = 0.003) combined with lower mortality of females (P = 0.0003) than the 3 blood meals per week (PPIF = 2.0) and in similar fecundity (PPIF = 2.6; P = 0.70) and mortality (P = 0.51) than the 6 blood meals per week. This feeding regime was extended to the whole colonies, resulting in an improved yield of sterile males for the ongoing eradication program in Senegal and would be more cost-effective for the implementation of the next-coming sterile insect technique (SIT) programs in West Africa.
Project description:Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the main vectors of animal and human trypanosomoses in Africa. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has proven effective in controlling tsetse flies when applied to isolated populations but necessitates the production of large numbers of sterile males. A new approach, called boosted SIT, combining SIT with the contamination of wild females by sterile males coated with biocides has been proposed for large-scale control of vector populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate this new approach using pyriproxyfen on the riverine species Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Vanderplank, 1949) in the laboratory. The contamination dose and persistence of pyriproxyfen on sterile males, the impact of pyriproxyfen on male survival, and the dynamics of pyriproxyfen transfer from a sterile male to a female during mating, as well as the impact of pyriproxyfen on pupal production and adult emergence, were evaluated in the laboratory. For this purpose, a method of treatment by impregnating sterile males with a powder containing 40% pyriproxyfen has been developed. The results showed that the pyriproxyfen has no impact on the survival of sterile males. Pyriproxyfen persisted on sterile males for up to 10 days at a dose of 100?ng per fly. In addition, the horizontal transfer of pyriproxyfen from a treated sterile male to a female during mating could be measured with an average of 50?ng of pyriproxyfen transferred. After contacts without mating, the average quantity transferred was more than 10?ng. Finally, the pyriproxyfen powder was very effective on G. p. gambiensis leading to 0% emergence of the pupae produced by contaminated females. These promising results must be confirmed in the field. A large-scale assessment of this boosted pyriproxyfen-based SIT approach will be carried out against tsetse flies in Senegal (West Africa).
Project description:BACKGROUND:African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) is a major constraint to sustainable development of cattle farming in sub-Saharan Africa. The habitat of the tsetse fly vector is increasingly fragmented owing to demographic pressure and shifts in climate, which leads to heterogeneous risk of cyclical transmission both in space and time. In Burkina Faso and Ghana, the most important vectors are riverine species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides, which are more resilient to human-induced changes than the savannah and forest species. Although many authors studied the distribution of AAT risk both in space and time, spatio-temporal models allowing predictions of it are lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We used datasets generated by various projects, including two baseline surveys conducted in Burkina Faso and Ghana within PATTEC (Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign) national initiatives. We computed the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) or tsetse challenge using a range of environmental data. The tsetse apparent density and their infection rate were separately estimated and subsequently combined to derive the EIR using a "one layer-one model" approach. The estimated EIR was then projected into suitable habitat. This risk index was finally validated against data on bovine trypanosomosis. It allowed a good prediction of the parasitological status (r2 = 67%), showed a positive correlation but less predictive power with serological status (r2 = 22%) aggregated at the village level but was not related to the illness status (r2 = 2%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:The presented spatio-temporal model provides a fine-scale picture of the dynamics of AAT risk in sub-humid areas of West Africa. The estimated EIR was high in the proximity of rivers during the dry season and more widespread during the rainy season. The present analysis is a first step in a broader framework for an efficient risk management of climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases.
Project description:Tsetse eradication continues to be a top priority for African governments including that of Senegal, which embarked on a project to eliminate Glossina palpalis gambiensis from the Niayes area, following an area-wide integrated pest management approach with an SIT component. A successful SIT programme requires competitive sterile males of high biological quality. This may be hampered by handling processes including irradiation and the release mechanisms, necessitating continued improvement of these processes, to maintain the quality of flies. A new prototype of an automated chilled adult release system (Bruno Spreader Innovation, (BSI™)) for tsetse flies was tested for its accuracy (in counting) and release rate consistency. Also, its impact on the quality of the released sterile males was evaluated on performance indicators, including flight propensity, mating competitiveness, premating and mating duration, insemination rate of mated females and survival of male flies. The BSITM release system accurately counted and homogenously released flies at the lowest motor speed set (0.6 rpm), at a consistent rate of 60±9.58 males/min. Also, the release process, chilling (6 ± 1°C) and passing of flies through the machine) had no significant negative impact on the male flight propensity, mating competitiveness, premating and mating durations and the insemination rates. Only the survival of flies was negatively affected whether under feeding or starvation. The positive results of this study show that the BSI™ release system is promising for use in future tsetse SIT programmes. However, the negative impact of the release process on survival of flies needs to be addressed in future studies and results of this study confirmed under operational field conditions in West Africa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires mass-rearing of the target species, irradiation to induce sexual sterility and transportation from the mass-rearing facility to the target site. Those treatments require several steps that may affect the biological quality of sterile males. This study has been carried out to evaluate the relative impact of chilling, irradiation and transport on emergence rate, flight ability and survival of sterile male Glossina palpalis gambiensis. RESULTS:Chilling, irradiation and transport all affected the quality control parameters studied. The emergence rate was significantly reduced by long chilling periods and transport, i.e. from 92% at the source insectary in Burkina Faso to 78% upon arrival in Senegal. Flight ability was affected by all three parameters with 31% operational flies lost between the production facility and the destination site. Only survival under stress was not affected by any of the treatments. CONCLUSION:The chilling period and transport were the main factors that impacted significantly the quality of sterile male pupae. Therefore, in the operational programme, the delivery of sterile male pupae was divided over two shipments per week to reduce the chilling time and improve the quality of the sterile males. Quality of the male pupae may further be improved by reducing the transport time and vibrations during transport.
Project description:Control of the Riverine (Palpalis) group of tsetse flies is normally achieved with stationary artificial devices such as traps or insecticide-treated targets. The efficiency of biconical traps (the standard control device), 1×1 m black targets and small 25×25 cm targets with flanking nets was compared using electrocuting sampling methods. The work was done on Glossina tachinoides and G. palpalis gambiensis (Burkina Faso), G. fuscipes quanzensis (Democratic Republic of Congo), G. f. martinii (Tanzania) and G. f. fuscipes (Kenya). The killing effectiveness (measured as the catch per m(2) of cloth) for small targets plus flanking nets is 5.5-15X greater than for 1 m(2) targets and 8.6-37.5X greater than for biconical traps. This has important implications for the costs of control of the Riverine group of tsetse vectors of sleeping sickness.