Asialoglycoprotein receptor-magnetic dual targeting nanoparticles for delivery of RASSF1A to hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: We developed a nanovector with double targeting properties for efficiently delivering the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A specifically into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by preparing galactosylated-carboxymethyl chitosan-magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs). After conjugating galactose and CMCS to the surface of Fe3O4-NPs, we observed that Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs were round with a relatively stable zeta potential of +6.5 mV and an mean hydrodynamic size of 40.1 ± 5.3 nm. Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs had strong DNA condensing power in pH 7 solution and were largely nontoxic. In vitro experiments demonstrated that Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs were highly selective for HCC cells and liver cells. In vivo experiments showed the specific accumulation of Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs in HCC tissue, especially with the aid of an external magnetic field. Nude mice with orthotopically transplanted HCC received an intravenous injection of the Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs/pcDNA3.1(+)RASSF1A compound and intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin and had an external magnetic field applied to the tumor area. These mice had the smallest tumors, largest percentage of TUNEL-positive cells, and highest caspase-3 expression levels in tumor tissue compared to other groups of treated mice. These results suggest the potential application of Gal-CMCS-Fe3O4-NPs for RASSF1A gene delivery for the treatment of HCC.
Project description:The development of noninvasive imaging techniques for the accurate diagnosis of progressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is of great clinical significance and has always been desired. Herein, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell-targeting fluorescent magnetic nanoparticle (NP) was obtained by conjugating near-infrared fluorescence to the surface of Fe3O4 (NIRF-Fe3O4) NPs, followed by coating the lipids consisting of tumoral hepatocytes-targeting polymer (Gal-P123). This magnetic NP (GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4) with superparamagnetic behavior showed high stability and safety in physiological conditions. In addition, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 achieved more specific uptake of human liver cancer cells than free Fe3O4 NPs. Importantly, with superpara-magnetic iron oxide and strong NIR absorbance, GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs demonstrate prominent tumor-contrasted imaging performance both on fluorescent and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modalities in a living body. The relative MR signal enhancement of GPC@NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs achieved 5.4-fold improvement compared with NIR-Fe3O4 NPs. Therefore, GPC@ NIRF-Fe3O4 NPs may be potentially used as a candidate for dual-modal imaging of tumors with information covalidated and directly compared by combining fluorescence and MR imaging.
Project description:To accomplish effective cancer imaging and integrated therapy, the multifunctional nanotheranostic Fe3O4-MTX@HBc core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were designed. A straightforward method was demonstrated for efficient encapsulation of magnetic NPs into the engineered virus-like particles (VLPs) through the affinity of histidine tags for the methotrexate (MTX)-Ni2+ chelate. HBc144-His VLPs shell could protect Fe3O4-MTX NPs from the recognition by the reticuloendothelial system as well as could increase their cellular uptake efficiency. Through our well-designed tactic, the photothermal efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs were obviously improved in vitro and in vivo upon near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Moreover, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results showed that the Fe3O4-MTX@HBc core-shell NPs were reliable T2-type MRI contrast agents for tumor imaging. Hence the Fe3O4-MTX@HBc core-shell NPs may act as a promising theranostic platform for multimodal cancer treatment.
Project description:Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs) with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs) and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules.
Project description:We report the synthesis of smart nanoparticles (NPs) that generate heat in response to an alternating current magnetic field (ACMF) and that sequentially release an anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX). We further study the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the combination of magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) and chemotherapy using the smart NPs for the treatment of multiple myeloma. The smart NPs are composed of a polymer with a glass-transition temperature (T g) of 44°C, which contains clustered Fe3O4 NPs and DOX. The clustered Fe3O4 NPs produce heat when the ACMF is applied and rise above 44°C, which softens the polymer phase and leads to the release of DOX. The combination of MHT and chemotherapy using the smart NPs destroys cancer cells in the entire tumor and achieves a complete cure in one treatment without the recurrence of malignancy. Furthermore, the smart NPs have no significant toxicity.
Project description:Magnetic nanoparticles with attractive optical properties have been proposed for applications in such areas as separation and magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper, a simple and novel fluorescent sensor of Zn2+ was designed with 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde [DTH] covalently grafted onto the surface of magnetic core/shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles [NPs] (DTH-Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs) using the silanol hydrolysis approach. The DTH-Fe3O4@SiO2 inorganic-organic hybrid material was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray power diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform, UV-visible absorption and emission spectrometry. The compound DTH exhibited fluorescence response towards Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions, but the DTH-Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs only effectively recognized Zn2+ ion by significant fluorescent enhancement in the presence of various ions, which is due to the restriction of the N-C rotation of DTH-Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs and the formation of the rigid plane with conjugation when the DTH-Fe3O4@SiO2 is coordinated with Zn2+. Moreover, this DTH-Fe3O4@SiO2 fluorescent chemosensor also displayed superparamagnetic properties, and thus, it can be recycled by magnetic attraction.
Project description:Self-propelling magnetic nanorobots capable of intrinsic-navigation in biological fluids with enhanced pharmacokinetics and deeper tissue penetration implicates promising strategy in targeted cancer therapy. Here, multi-component magnetic nanobot designed by chemically conjugating magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM mAb) to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) loaded with an anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is reported. Autonomous propulsion of the nanobots and their external magnetic guidance is enabled by enriching Fe3O4 NPs with dual catalytic-magnetic functionality. The nanobots propel at high velocities even in complex biological fluids. In addition, the nanobots preferably release DOX in the intracellular lysosomal compartment of human colorectal carcinoma (HCT116) cells by the opening of Fe3O4 NP gate. Further, nanobot reduce ex vivo HCT116 tumor spheroids more efficiently than free DOX. The multicomponent nanobot's design represents a more pronounced method in targeting tumors with self-assisted anticancer drug delivery for 'far-reaching' sites in treating cancers.
Project description:Hepatocellular cellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most challenging liver cancer subtypes. Due to lack of cell surface biomarkers and highly metastatic nature, early detection and targeted therapy of HCC is an unmet need. Galactosamine (Gal) is among the few selective ligands used for targeting HCCs due to its high binding affinity to asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) overexpressed in HCC. In the present work, we engineered nanoscale G4 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers anchored to galactosamine and loaded with the potent anticancer curcumin derivative (CDF) as a platform for targeted drug delivery to HCC. In vivo targeting ability and bio-distribution of PAMAM-Gal were assessed via its labeling with the clinically used, highly contrast, near infrared (NIR) dye: S0456, with testing of the obtained conjugate in aggressive HCC xenograft model. Our results highlighted the targeted dendrimer PAMAM-Gal ability to achieve selective high cellular uptake via ASGPR mediated endocytosis and significantly enhance the delivery of CDF into the studied HCC cell lines. Cytotoxicity MTT assays in HCC cell lines, interestingly highlighted, the comparative high potency of CDF, where CDF was more potent as a chemotherapeutic anticancer small molecule than the currently in use Doxorubicin, Sorafenib and Cisplatin chemotherapeutic agents. In conclusion the proof-of-concept study using nanoscale PAMAM-Gal dendrimer has demonstrated its competency as an efficient delivery system for selective delivery of potent CDF for HCC anticancer therapy as well as HCC diagnosis via NIR imaging.
Project description:Currently, superparamagnetic functionalized systems of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) are promising options for applications in hyperthermia therapy, drug delivery and diagnosis. Fe3O4 NPs below 20?nm have stable single domains (SSD), which can be oriented by magnetic field application. Dispersion of Fe3O4 NPs in silicon dioxide (SiO2) matrix allows local SSD response with uniaxial anisotropy and orientation to easy axis, 90° <001> or 180° <111>. A successful, easy methodology to produce Fe3O4 NPs (6-17?nm) has been used with the Stöber modification. NPs were embedded in amorphous and biocompatible SiO2 matrix by mechanical stirring in citrate and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Fe3O4 NPs dispersion was sampled in the range of 2-12?h to observe the SiO2 matrix formation as time function. TEM characterization identified optimal conditions at 4?h stirring for separation of SSD Fe3O4 in SiO2 matrix. Low magnetization (Ms) of 0.001?emu and a coercivity (Hc) of 24.75?Oe indicate that the embedded SSD Fe3O4 in amorphous SiO2 reduces the Ms by a diamagnetic barrier. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) showed SSD Fe3O4 of 1.2?nm on average embedded in SiO2 matrix with uniaxial anisotropy response according to Fe3+ and Fe2+ electron spin coupling and rotation by intrinsic Neél contribution.
Project description:Highly crystalline single-domain magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are important, not only for fundamental understanding of magnetic behaviour, but also for their considerable potential applications in biomedicine and industry. Fe3O4 NPs with sizes of 10-300?nm were systematically investigated to reveal the fundamental relationship between the crystal domain structure and the magnetic properties. The examined Fe3O4 NPs were prepared under well-controlled crystal growth conditions using a large-scale liquid precipitation method. The crystallite size of cube-like NPs estimated from X-ray diffraction pattern increased linearly as the particle size (estimated by transmission electron microscopy) increased from 10 to 64.7?nm, which indicates that the NPs have a single-domain structure. This was further confirmed by the uniform lattice fringes. The critical size of approximately 76?nm was obtained by correlating particle size with both crystallite size and magnetic coercivity; this was reported for the first time in this study. The coercivity of cube-like Fe3O4 NPs increased to a maximum of 190?Oe at the critical size, which suggests strong exchange interactions during spin alignment. Compared with cube-like NPs, sphere-like NPs have lower magnetic coercivity and remanence values, which is caused by the different orientations of their polycrystalline structure.
Project description:A highly stable and magnetized citric acid (CA)-functionalized iron oxide aqueous colloidal solution (Fe3O4@CA) was synthesized by using a simple and rapid method of one-step co-participation via a chemical reaction between Fe3+ and Fe2+ in a NaOH solution at 65 °C, followed by CA addition to functionalize the Fe3O4 surface in 25 min. The NPs were synthesized at lower temperatures and shortened time compared with conventional methods. Surface functionalization is highly suggested because bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) are frequently deficient due to their low stability and hydrophilicity. Hence, 19 nm-sized Fe3O4 NPs coated with CA (Fe3O4@CA) were synthesized, and their microstructure, morphology, and magnetic properties were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. CA successfully modified the Fe3O4 surface to obtain a stabilized (homogeneous and well dispersed) aqueous colloidal solution. The Zeta potential value of the as-prepared Fe3O4@CA increases from - 31 to - 45 mV. These CA-functionalized NPs with high magnetic saturation (54.8 emu/g) show promising biomedical applications.