Rare Exome Sequence Variants in CLCN6 Reduce Blood Pressure Levels and Hypertension Risk.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Rare genetic variants influence blood pressure (BP). METHODS AND RESULTS:Whole-exome sequencing was performed on DNA samples from 17 956 individuals of European ancestry and African ancestry (14 497, first-stage discovery and 3459, second-stage discovery) to examine the effect of rare variants on hypertension and 4 BP traits: systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure. Tests of ?170 000 common variants (minor allele frequency, ?1%; statistical significance, P?2.9×10(-7)) and gene-based tests of rare variants (minor allele frequency, <1%; ?17 000 genes; statistical significance, P?1.5×10(-6)) were evaluated for each trait and ancestry, followed by multiethnic meta-analyses. In the first-stage discovery, rare coding variants (splicing, stop-gain, stop-loss, nonsynonymous variants, or indels) in CLCN6 were associated with lower diastolic BP (cumulative minor allele frequency, 1.3%; ?=-3.20; P=4.1×10(-6)) and were independent of a nearby common variant (rs17367504) previously associated with BP. CLCN6 rare variants were also associated with lower systolic BP (?=-4.11; P=2.8×10(-4)), mean arterial pressure (?=-3.50; P=8.9×10(-6)), and reduced hypertension risk (odds ratio, 0.72; P=0.017). Meta-analysis of the 2-stage discovery samples showed that CLCN6 was associated with lower diastolic BP at exome-wide significance (cumulative minor allele frequency, 1.1%; ?=-3.30; P=5.0×10(-7)). CONCLUSIONS:These findings implicate the effect of rare coding variants in CLCN6 in BP variation and offer new insights into BP regulation.
Project description:Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10<sup>-8</sup>), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The minor alleles of 3 FOXO3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)- rs2802292 , rs2253310 , and rs2802288 -are associated with human longevity. The aim of the present study was to test these SNPs for association with blood pressure (BP) and essential hypertension (EHT). METHODS:In a primary study involving Americans of Japanese ancestry drawn from the Family Blood Pressure Program II we genotyped 411 female and 432 male subjects aged 40-79 years and tested for statistical association by contingency table analysis and generalized linear models that included logistic regression adjusting for sibling correlation in the data set. Replication of rs2802292 with EHT was attempted in Japanese SONIC study subjects and of each SNP in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of BP in individuals of European ancestry. RESULTS:In Americans of Japanese ancestry, women homozygous for the longevity-associated (minor) allele of each FOXO3 SNP had 6mm Hg lower systolic BP and 3mm Hg lower diastolic BP compared with major allele homozygotes (Bonferroni corrected P < 0.05 and >0.05, respectively). Frequencies of minor allele homozygotes were 3.3-3.9% in women with EHT compared with 9.5-9.6% in normotensive women ( P = 0.03-0.04; haplotype analysis P = 0.0002). No association with BP or EHT was evident in males. An association with EHT was seen for the minor allele of rs2802292 in the Japanese SONIC cohort ( P = 0.03), while in European subjects the minor allele of each SNP was associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP. CONCLUSION:Longevity-associated FOXO3 variants may be associated with lower BP and EHT in Japanese women.
Project description:Genetic determinants of blood pressure are poorly defined. We undertook a large-scale, gene-centric analysis to identify loci and pathways associated with ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We measured 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in 2020 individuals from 520 white European nuclear families (the Genetic Regulation of Arterial Pressure of Humans in the Community Study) and genotyped their DNA using the Illumina HumanCVD BeadChip array, which contains ? 50 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in >2000 cardiovascular candidate loci. We found a strong association between rs13306560 polymorphism in the promoter region of MTHFR and CLCN6 and mean 24-hour diastolic blood pressure; each minor allele copy of rs13306560 was associated with 2.6 mm Hg lower mean 24-hour diastolic blood pressure (P = 1.2 × 10??). rs13306560 was also associated with clinic diastolic blood pressure in a combined analysis of 8129 subjects from the Genetic Regulation of Arterial Pressure of Humans in the Community Study, the CoLaus Study, and the Silesian Cardiovascular Study (P=5.4 × 10??). Additional analysis of associations between variants in gene ontology-defined pathways and mean 24-hour blood pressure in the Genetic Regulation of Arterial Pressure of Humans in the Community Study showed that cell survival control signaling cascades could play a role in blood pressure regulation. There was also a significant overrepresentation of rare variants (minor allele frequency: < 0.05) among polymorphisms showing at least nominal association with mean 24-hour blood pressure indicating that a considerable proportion of its heritability may be explained by uncommon alleles. Through a large-scale gene-centric analysis of ambulatory blood pressure, we identified an association of a novel variant at the MTHFR/CLNC6 locus with diastolic blood pressure and provided new insights into the genetic architecture of blood pressure.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified multiple loci for blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. Six genes--ATP2B1, CACNB2, CYP17A1, JAG1, PLEKHA7, and SH2B3--were evaluated for sequence variation with large effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP).<h4>Methods and results</h4>Targeted genomic sequence was determined in 4,178 European ancestry participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Common variants (?50 minor allele copies) were evaluated individually and rare variants (minor allele frequency, MAF?1%) were aggregated by locus. 464 common variants were identified across the 6 genes. An upstream CYP17A1 variant, rs11191416 (MAF?=?0.09), was the most significant association for SBP (P?=?0.0005); however the association was attenuated (P?=?0.0469) after conditioning on the GWAS index single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A PLEKHA7 intronic variant was the strongest DBP association (rs12806040, MAF?=?0.007, P?=?0.0006) and was not in LD (r²?=?0.01) with the GWAS SNP. A CACNB2 intronic SNP, rs1571787, was the most significant association with PP (MAF?=?0.27, P?=?0.0003), but was not independent from the GWAS SNP (r²?=?0.34). Three variants (rs6163 and rs743572 in the CYP17A1 region and rs112467382 in PLEKHA7) were associated with BP traits (P<0.001). Rare variation, aggregately assessed in the 6 regions, was not significantly associated with BP measures.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Six targeted gene regions, previously identified by GWAS, did not harbor novel variation with large effects on BP in this sample.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> Rare genetic variants in telomere-related genes have been identified in familial, idiopathic, and rheumatoid arthritis-associated pulmonary fibrosis. Short peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) telomere length predicts poor outcomes in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP).<b>Objectives:</b> Determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of rare protein-altering variants in telomere-related genes in patients with CHP.<b>Methods:</b> Next-generation sequences from two CHP cohorts were analyzed to identify variants in <i>TERT</i> (telomerase reverse transcriptase), <i>TERC</i> (telomerase RNA component), <i>DKC1</i> (dyskerin pseudouridine synthase 1), <i>RTEL1</i> (regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1), <i>PARN</i> (poly[A]-specific RNase), and <i>TINF2</i> (TERF1-interacting nuclear factor 2). To qualify, variants were required to have a minor allele frequency less than 0.005 and be predicted to be damaging to protein function. Variant status (binary variable) was used in statistical association tests, including Cox proportional hazard models for transplant-free survival. PBL telomere length was measured using quantitative PCR.<b>Measurements and Main Results:</b> Qualifying variants were identified in 16 of 144 patients (11.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.5-17.4) in the discovery cohort and 17 of 209 patients (8.1%; 95% CI, 4.8-12.7) in the replication cohort. Age- and ancestry-adjusted PBL telomere length was significantly shorter in the presence of a variant in both cohorts (discovery: -561 bp; 95% CI, -933 to -190; <i>P</i> = 0.003; replication: -612 bp; 95% CI, -870 to -354; <i>P</i> = 5.30 × 10<sup>-6</sup>). Variant status was significantly associated with transplant-free survival in both cohorts (discovery: age-, sex-, and ancestry-adjusted hazard ratio, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.92-7.28; <i>P</i> = 0.0001; replication: hazard ratio, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.26-5.88; <i>P</i> = 0.011).<b>Conclusions:</b> A substantial proportion of patients diagnosed with CHP have rare, protein-altering variants in telomere-related genes, which are associated with short peripheral blood telomere length and significantly reduced transplant-free survival.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SZ) genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified common risk variants in >100 susceptibility loci; however, the contribution of rare variants at these loci remains largely unexplored. One of the strongly associated loci spans MIR137 (miR137) and MIR2682 (miR2682), two microRNA genes important for neuronal function. We sequenced ?6.9 kb MIR137/MIR2682 and upstream regulatory sequences in 2,610 SZ cases and 2,611 controls of European ancestry. We identified 133 rare variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.5%. The rare variant burden in promoters and enhancers, but not insulators, was associated with SZ (p = 0.021 for MAF < 0.5%, p = 0.003 for MAF < 0.1%). A rare enhancer SNP, 1:g.98515539A>T, presented exclusively in 11 SZ cases (nominal p = 4.8 × 10(-4)). We further identified its risk allele T in 2 of 2,434 additional SZ cases, 11 of 4,339 bipolar (BP) cases, and 3 of 3,572 SZ/BP study controls and 1,688 population controls; yielding combined p values of 0.0007, 0.0013, and 0.0001 for SZ, BP, and SZ/BP, respectively. The risk allele T of 1:g.98515539A>T reduced enhancer activity of its flanking sequence by >50% in human neuroblastoma cells, predicting lower expression of MIR137/MIR2682. Both empirical and computational analyses showed weaker transcription factor (YY1) binding by the risk allele. Chromatin conformation capture (3C) assay further indicated that 1:g.98515539A>T influenced MIR137/MIR2682, but not the nearby DPYD or LOC729987. Our results suggest that rare noncoding risk variants are associated with SZ and BP at MIR137/MIR2682 locus, with risk alleles decreasing MIR137/MIR2682 expression.
Project description:Blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and more than 200 genetic loci associated with BP are known. Here, we perform a multi-stage genome-wide association study for BP (max N?=?289,038) principally in East Asians and meta-analysis in East Asians and Europeans. We report 19 new genetic loci and ancestry-specific BP variants, conforming to a common ancestry-specific variant association model. At 10 unique loci, distinct non-rare ancestry-specific variants colocalize within the same linkage disequilibrium block despite the significantly discordant effects for the proxy shared variants between the ethnic groups. The genome-wide transethnic correlation of causal-variant effect-sizes is 0.898 and 0.851 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Some of the ancestry-specific association signals are also influenced by a selective sweep. Our results provide new evidence for the role of common ancestry-specific variants and natural selection in ethnic differences in complex traits such as BP.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can improve assessment of low-frequency and rare variants, particularly in non-European populations that have been underrepresented in existing genomic studies. The genetic determinants of C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker of chronic inflammation, have been extensively studied, with existing genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in >200,000 individuals of European ancestry. In order to discover novel loci associated with CRP levels, we examined a multi-ancestry population (n = 23,279) with WGS (?38× coverage) from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We found evidence for eight distinct associations at the CRP locus, including two variants that have not been identified previously (rs11265259 and rs181704186), both of which are non-coding and more common in individuals of African ancestry (?10% and ?1% minor allele frequency, respectively, and rare or monomorphic in 1000 Genomes populations of East Asian, South Asian, and European ancestry). We show that the minor (G) allele of rs181704186 is associated with lower CRP levels and decreased transcriptional activity and protein binding in vitro, providing a plausible molecular mechanism for this African ancestry-specific signal. The individuals homozygous for rs181704186-G have a mean CRP level of 0.23 mg/L, in contrast to individuals heterozygous for rs181704186 with mean CRP of 2.97 mg/L and major allele homozygotes with mean CRP of 4.11 mg/L. This study demonstrates the utility of WGS in multi-ethnic populations to drive discovery of complex trait associations of large effect and to identify functional alleles in noncoding regulatory regions.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with blood pressure (BP), but sequence variation accounts for a small fraction of the phenotypic variance. Epigenetic changes may alter the expression of genes involved in BP regulation and explain part of the missing heritability. We therefore conducted a two-stage meta-analysis of the cross-sectional associations of systolic and diastolic BP with blood-derived genome-wide DNA methylation measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip in 17,010 individuals of European, African American, and Hispanic ancestry. Of 31 discovery-stage cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides, 13 replicated after Bonferroni correction (discovery: N = 9,828, p < 1.0 × 10-7; replication: N = 7,182, p < 1.6 × 10-3). The replicated methylation sites are heritable (h2 > 30%) and independent of known BP genetic variants, explaining an additional 1.4% and 2.0% of the interindividual variation in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Bidirectional Mendelian randomization among up to 4,513 individuals of European ancestry from 4 cohorts suggested that methylation at cg08035323 (TAF1B-YWHAQ) influences BP, while BP influences methylation at cg00533891 (ZMIZ1), cg00574958 (CPT1A), and cg02711608 (SLC1A5). Gene expression analyses further identified six genes (TSPAN2, SLC7A11, UNC93B1, CPT1A, PTMS, and LPCAT3) with evidence of triangular associations between methylation, gene expression, and BP. Additional integrative Mendelian randomization analyses of gene expression and DNA methylation suggested that the expression of TSPAN2 is a putative mediator of association between DNA methylation at cg23999170 and BP. These findings suggest that heritable DNA methylation plays a role in regulating BP independently of previously known genetic variants.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Identifying rare coding variants associated with albuminuria may open new avenues for preventing chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, which are highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes. Efforts to identify genetic susceptibility variants for albuminuria have so far been limited, with the majority of studies focusing on common variants. METHODS:We performed an exome-wide association study to identify coding variants in a two-stage (discovery and replication) approach. Data from 33,985 individuals of European ancestry (15,872 with and 18,113 without diabetes) and 2605 Greenlanders were included. RESULTS:We identified a rare (minor allele frequency [MAF]: 0.8%) missense (A1690V) variant in CUBN (rs141640975, ??=?0.27, p?=?1.3?×?10-11) associated with albuminuria as a continuous measure in the combined European meta-analysis. The presence of each rare allele of the variant was associated with a 6.4% increase in albuminuria. The rare CUBN variant had an effect that was three times stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with those without (pinteraction?=?7.0?×?10-4, ? with diabetes?=?0.69, ? without diabetes?=?0.20) in the discovery meta-analysis. Gene-aggregate tests based on rare and common variants identified three additional genes associated with albuminuria (HES1, CDC73 and GRM5) after multiple testing correction (pBonferroni?<?2.7?×?10-6). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The current study identifies a rare coding variant in the CUBN locus and other potential genes associated with albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes. These genes have been implicated in renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. The findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of albuminuria and highlight target genes and pathways for the prevention of diabetes-related kidney disease.