Characterization and Vaccine Potential of Outer Membrane Vesicles Produced by Haemophilus parasuis.
ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the upper respiratory tract of swine and is capable of causing a systemic infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. H. parasuis isolates display a wide range of virulence and virulence factors are largely unknown. Commercial bacterins are often used to vaccinate swine against H. parasuis, though strain variability and lack of cross-reactivity can make this an ineffective means of protection. Outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are spherical structures naturally released from the membrane of bacteria and OMV are often enriched in toxins, signaling molecules and other bacterial components. Examination of OMV structures has led to identification of virulence factors in a number of bacteria and they have been successfully used as subunit vaccines. We have isolated OMV from both virulent and avirulent strains of H. parasuis, have examined their protein content and assessed their ability to induce an immune response in the host. Vaccination with purified OMV derived from the virulent H. parasuis Nagasaki strain provided protection against challenge with a lethal dose of the bacteria.
Project description:Haemophilus parasuis is a respiratory pathogen of swine and the etiological agent of Glässer's disease. H. parasuis isolates can exhibit different virulence capabilities ranging from lethal systemic disease to subclinical carriage. To identify genomic differences between phenotypically distinct strains, we obtained the closed whole-genome sequence annotation and genome-wide methylation patterns for the highly virulent Nagasaki strain and for the non-virulent D74 strain. Evaluation of the virulence-associated genes contained within the genomes of D74 and Nagasaki led to the discovery of a large number of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems within both genomes. Five predicted hemolysins were identified as unique to Nagasaki and seven putative contact-dependent growth inhibition toxin proteins were identified only in strain D74. Assessment of all potential vtaA genes revealed thirteen present in the Nagasaki genome and three in the D74 genome. Subsequent evaluation of the predicted protein structure revealed that none of the D74 VtaA proteins contain a collagen triple helix repeat domain. Additionally, the predicted protein sequence for two D74 VtaA proteins is substantially longer than any predicted Nagasaki VtaA proteins. Fifteen methylation sequence motifs were identified in D74 and fourteen methylation sequence motifs were identified in Nagasaki using SMRT sequencing analysis. Only one of the methylation sequence motifs was observed in both strains indicative of the diversity between D74 and Nagasaki. Subsequent analysis also revealed diversity in the restriction-modification systems harbored by D74 and Nagasaki. The collective information reported in this study will aid in the development of vaccines and intervention strategies to decrease the prevalence and disease burden caused by H. parasuis.
Project description:Pigs possess a microbiota in the upper respiratory tract that includes Haemophilus parasuis. Pigs are also considered the reservoir of influenza viruses and infection with this virus commonly results in increased impact of bacterial infections, including those by H. parasuis. However, the mechanisms involved in host innate responses towards H. parasuis and their implications in a co-infection with influenza virus are unknown. Therefore, the ability of a non-virulent H. parasuis serovar 3 (SW114) and a virulent serovar 5 (Nagasaki) strains to interact with porcine bone marrow dendritic cells (poBMDC) and their modulation in a co-infection with swine influenza virus (SwIV) H3N2 was examined. At 1 hour post infection (hpi), SW114 interaction with poBMDC was higher than that of Nagasaki, while at 8 hpi both strains showed similar levels of interaction. The co-infection with H3N2 SwIV and either SW114 or Nagasaki induced higher levels of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 compared to mock or H3N2 SwIV infection alone. Moreover, IL-12 and IFN-? secretion differentially increased in cells co-infected with H3N2 SwIV and Nagasaki. These results pave the way for understanding the differences in the interaction of non-virulent and virulent strains of H. parasuis with the swine immune system and their modulation in a viral co-infection.
Project description:Haemophilus parasuis is the cause of Glässer's disease in swine, which is characterized by systemic infection resulting in polyserositis, meningitis, and arthritis. Investigation of this animal disease is complicated by the enormous differences in the severity of disease caused by H. parasuis strains, ranging from lethal systemic disease to subclinical carriage. To identify differences in genotype that could account for virulence phenotypes, we established the virulence of, and performed whole genome sequence analysis on, 11 H. parasuis strains. Virulence was assessed by evaluating morbidity and mortality following intranasal challenge of Caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (CDCD) pigs. Genomic DNA from strains Nagasaki (serotype 5), 12939 (serotype 1), SW140 (serotype 2), 29755 (serotype 5), MN-H (serotype 13), 84-15995 (serotype 15), SW114 (serotype 3), H465 (serotype 11), D74 (serotype 9), and 174 (serotype 7) was used to generate Illumina paired-end libraries for genomic sequencing and de novo assembly. H. parasuis strains Nagasaki, 12939, SH0165 (serotype 5), SW140, 29755, and MN-H exhibited a high level of virulence. Despite minor differences in expression of disease among these groups, all pigs challenged with these strains developed clinical signs consistent with Glässer's disease between 1-7 days post-challenge. H. parasuis strains 84-15995 and SW114 were moderately virulent, in that approximately half of the pigs infected with each developed Glässer's disease. H. parasuis strains H465, D74, and 174 were minimally virulent or avirulent in the CDCD pig model. Comparative genomic analysis among strains identified several noteworthy differences in coding regions. These coding regions include predicted outer membrane, metabolism, and pilin or adhesin related genes, some of which likely contributed to the differences in virulence and systemic disease observed following challenge. These data will be useful for identifying H. parasuis virulence factors and vaccine targets.
Project description:Haemophilus parasuis, a member of the family Pasteurellaceae, is a common inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract of healthy pigs and the etiological agent of Glässer's disease. As other virulent Pasteurellaceae, H. parasuis can prevent phagocytosis, but the bacterial factors involved in this virulence mechanism are not known. In order to identify genes involved in phagocytosis resistance, we constructed a genomic library of the highly virulent reference strain Nagasaki and clones were selected by increased survival after incubation with porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM). Two clones containing two virulent-associated trimeric autotransporter (VtaA) genes, vtaA8 and vtaA9, respectively, were selected by this method. A reduction in the interaction of the two clones with the macrophages was detected by flow cytometry. Monoclonal antibodies were produced and used to demonstrate the presence of these proteins on the bacterial surface of the corresponding clone, and on the H. parasuis phagocytosis-resistant strain PC4-6P. The effect of VtaA8 and VtaA9 in the trafficking of the bacteria through the endocytic pathway was examined by fluorescence microscopy and a delay was detected in the localization of the vtaA8 and vtaA9 clones in acidic compartments. These results are compatible with a partial inhibition of the routing of the bacteria via the degradative phagosome. Finally, antibodies against a common epitope in VtaA8 and VtaA9 were opsonic and promoted phagocytosis of the phagocytosis-resistant strain PC4-6P by PAM. Taken together, these results indicate that VtaA8 and VtaA9 are surface proteins that play a role in phagocytosis resistance of H. parasuis.
Project description:Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer's disease in pigs and 15 standard serovars were identified. The widespread disease causes great economic loss in the swine industry worldwide. Aiming to investigate the differences in genome composition and functions among various strains, a highly virulent strain ZJ0906 of H. parasuis serovar 12 from China was analyzed and compared with serovar 5 SH0165. Strain ZJ0906 genome is 2,324,740 base pairs with 40.06% genomic GC content. It contains 2,484 open reading frames (ORF) predicted by Glimmer 3.02, of which 2,352 (?94.7%) were annotated by NCBI nr blast, 1,745 by COG database and 1,829 by KEGG database. 109 potential virulence factors were annotated in strain ZJ0906 and 3 of which are potentially related to antibiotic resistance. Strain ZJ0906 genome is ?55 kilobases longer than SH0165 genome, with an extra 211 predicted ORFs. VFDB, ARDB, and PAIDB blast searches showed that ZJ0906 and SH0165 shared a nearly identical panel of potential virulence factors, drug resistant genes and four PAI-like regions which showed high homology to Enterococcus, Escherichia and Salmonella. Synteny analysis showed that gene rearrangements are frequent between the two strains, which may lead to variations in pathogenicity and cross-protection among serovars. KEGG pathway analyses showed strain ZJ0906 shared similar metabolic pathways to strain SH0165. Molecular identification of these genomic elements and potential virulence factors pave the way to the better understanding of mechanisms underlying metabolic capabilities and pathogenicity of H. parasuis and prospective vaccine targets besides the widely used method of inactivated bacteria.
Project description:Glaesserella parasuis is the cause of Gl?sser's disease in pigs and is a significant contributor to post-weaning mortality in the swine industry. Prevention of G. parasuis disease relies primarily on bacterin vaccines, which have shown good homologous protection and variable heterologous protection. Bacterin production involves large scale growth of the bacteria and proteins produced during the proliferation phase of production become important antigens that stimulate the immune response. In order to evaluate genes activated during G. parasuis growth on different media substrates, the transcriptome of broth and agar grown G. parasuis strain 29755 were sequenced and compared. The transcription of most purported virulence genes were comparable between broth and agar grown G. parasuis; however, four virulence-associated genes, including ompA and vapD, had elevated expression under agar growth, while six virulence-associate genes had elevated expression during broth growth, including several protease genes. Additionally, there were metabolic shifts toward increased protein and lipid production and increased cellular division in broth grown G. parasuis. The results contribute to the understanding of how growth substrate alters gene transcription and protein expression, which may impact vaccine efficacy if immunogens important to the protective immune response are not produced under specific in vitro conditions. While the results of this work are unable to fully elucidate which growth medium presents a transcriptome more representative of in vivo samples or best suited for bacterin production, it forms a foundation that can be used for future comparisons and provides a better understanding of the metabolic differences in broth and agar grown bacteria.
Project description:Haemophilus parasuis is a common inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract of pigs, and the causative agent of Glässer's disease. This disease is characterized by polyserositis and arthritis, produced by the severe inflammation caused by the systemic spread of the bacterium. After an initial colonization of the upper respiratory tract, H. parasuis enters the lung during the early stages of pig infection. In order to study gene expression at this location, we sequenced the ex vivo and in vivo H. parasuis Nagasaki transcriptome in the lung using a metatranscriptomic approach. Comparison of gene expression under these conditions with that found in conventional plate culture showed generally reduced expression of genes associated with anabolic and catabolic pathways, coupled with up-regulation of membrane-related genes involved in carbon acquisition, iron binding and pathogenesis. Some of the up-regulated membrane genes, including ABC transporters, virulence-associated autotransporters (vtaAs) and several hypothetical proteins, were only present in virulent H. parasuis strains, highlighting their significance as markers of disease potential. Finally, the analysis also revealed the presence of numerous antisense transcripts with possible roles in gene regulation. In summary, this data sheds some light on the scarcely studied in vivo transcriptome of H. parasuis, revealing nutritional virulence as an adaptive strategy for host survival, besides induction of classical virulence factors.
Project description:The causative agent of Glasser's disease in swine is Haemophilus parasuis. Commercial bacterins are widely used for protection of the swine population. However, cross protection is limited because H. parasuis has more than 15 serovars. Transferrin-binding protein A has shown potential as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate against homologous and heterologous strains. Here we amplified the full-length tbpA gene from an H. parasuis serovar 13 isolate and cloned it into a pET-SUMO expression vector. We then expressed and purified the TbpA protein by Ni affinity chromatography. First, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the protein were evaluated in guinea pigs by two subcutaneous immunizations with different doses of Montanide IMS 206 VG adjuvant. The immunized guinea pigs were, respectively, challenged on week 3 after a booster immunization with homologous strain LJ3 (serovar 13) and heterologous strain FX1 (serovar 4), and vaccine-inoculated groups were compared with nonvaccinated controls. All immunized groups showed serum antibody titers higher than those of negative-control groups. Furthermore, the cytokine and chemokine levels were evaluated at the transcriptional level by the real-time PCR analysis of six cytokines and chemokines. Gamma interferon and interleukin-5 in groups immunized with 100 ?g were elevated more than 15-fold over those in negative-control groups. The protection rates were 80 and 60% after a challenge with strains LJ3 and FX1, respectively, in the groups vaccinated with 100 ?g of recombinant TbpA protein. Subsequently, the data showed that guinea pigs immunized with a single dose (100 ?g) were protected at levels of 80, 80, and 60% against LJ3, FX1, and another heterologous strain, SZ (serovar 14), respectively. The results indicate for the first time that TbpA protein cross protects guinea pigs against serovars 13, 4, and 14 of H. parasuis. Taken together, these results suggest that the recombinant TbpA protein is a promising vaccine candidate that needs to be confirmed in a swine population.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of Glässer's disease, is prevalent in swine herds and clinical signs associated with this disease are meningitis, polyserositis, polyarthritis, and bacterial pneumonia. Six to eight week old pigs in segregated early weaning herds are particularly susceptible to the disease. Insufficient colostral antibody at weaning or the mixing of pigs with heterologous virulent H. parasuis strains from other farm sources in the nursery or grower-finisher stage are considered to be factors for the outbreak of Glässer's disease. Previously, a Mu-like bacteriophage portal gene was detected in a virulent swine isolate of H. parasuis by nested polymerase chain reaction. Mu-like bacteriophages are related phyologenetically to enterobacteriophage Mu and are thought to carry virulence genes or to induce host expression of virulence genes. This study characterizes the Mu-like bacteriophage, named SuMu, isolated from a virulent H. parasuis isolate. RESULTS: Characterization was done by genomic comparison to enterobacteriophage Mu and proteomic identification of various homologs by mass spectrometry. This is the first report of isolation and characterization of this bacteriophage from the Myoviridae family, a double-stranded DNA bacteriophage with a contractile tail, from a virulent field isolate of H. parasuis. The genome size of bacteriophage SuMu was 37,151?bp. DNA sequencing revealed fifty five open reading frames, including twenty five homologs to Mu-like bacteriophage proteins: Nlp, phage transposase-C-terminal, COG2842, Gam-like protein, gp16, Mor, peptidoglycan recognition protein, gp29, gp30, gpG, gp32, gp34, gp36, gp37, gpL, phage tail tube protein, DNA circulation protein, gpP, gp45, gp46, gp47, COG3778, tail fiber protein gp37-C terminal, tail fiber assembly protein, and Com. The last open reading frame was homologous to IS1414. The G?+?C content of bacteriophage SuMu was 41.87% while its H. parasuis host genome's?G?+?C content was 39.93%. Twenty protein homologs to bacteriophage proteins, including 15 structural proteins, one lysogeny-related and one lysis-related protein, and three DNA replication proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. One of the tail proteins, gp36, may be a virulence-related protein. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteriophage SuMu was characterized by genomic and proteomic methods and compared to enterobacteriophage Mu.
Project description:Glaesserella (formerly Haemophilus) parasuis causes Glässer's disease, which results in high economic loss in the swine industry. To understand the polymicrobial interactions of G. parasuis and the nasal microbiota, the statistical association patterns of nasal colonizing bacteria with virulent and non-virulent strains of G. parasuis were studied accounting for the farm management practices as potential risk factors for the occurrence of Glässer's disease. The nasal microbiota from 51 weaned-piglets from four farms with Glässer's disease and three farms with no respiratory diseases was previously characterized and included in this study. The presence of virulent and/or non-virulent G. parasuis strains in the nasal cavities was determined in order to establish the potential association with other members of the nasal microbiota. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were performed among the various members of nasal microbiota and G. parasuis. The multi-site production system and disease presence in the farm were both significantly associated with the presence of G. parasuis virulent strains in the nose of the piglets. Differential bacterial associations were observed with virulent or non-virulent G. parasuis. Chitinophagaceae, Corynebacteriaceae and Corynebacterium were positively associated with the virulent G. parasuis strains, while Enterobacteriaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridium XI, and Escherichia/Shigella were negatively associated with virulent G. parasuis. On the other hand, Flavobacteriaceae, Planobacterium, and Phascolarctobacterium were positively associated with the non-virulent G. parasuis strains, while Rikenellaceae, Enterococcaceae, Odoribacter, and Corynebacterium were negatively associated with non-virulent G. parasuis. In conclusion, the nasal microbiota communities showed variations in the association with the G. parasuis strains type.