Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by Vitexin: A combinatorial study with azithromycin and gentamicin.
ABSTRACT: Microbial biofilm are communities of surface-adhered cells enclosed in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Extensive use of antibiotics to treat biofilm associated infections has led to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognised as a model biofilm forming pathogenic bacterium. Vitexin, a polyphenolic group of phytochemical with antimicrobial property, has been studied for its antibiofilm potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin. Vitexin shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 260??g/ml. It's antibiofilm activity was evaluated by safranin staining, protein extraction, microscopy methods, quantification of EPS and in vivo models using several sub-MIC doses. Various quorum sensing (QS) mediated phenomenon such as swarming motility, azocasein degrading protease activity, pyoverdin and pyocyanin production, LasA and LasB activity of the bacteria were also evaluated. Results showed marked attenuation in biofilm formation and QS mediated phenotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in presence of 110??g/ml vitexin in combination with azithromycin and gentamicin separately. Molecular docking of vitexin with QS associated LuxR, LasA, LasI and motility related proteins showed high and reasonable binding affinity respectively. The study explores the antibiofilm potential of vitexin against P. aeruginosa which can be used as a new antibiofilm agent against microbial biofilm associated pathogenesis.
Project description:14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is a biologically active molecule present in the extract of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegh), a classic ethnic herbal formula, which has been used for over thousand years as therapeutics to treat numerous infectious diseases like upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and many more health issues. The present study is designed to ascertain an inhibitor against biofilm formation from the major metabolites of Andrographis paniculata, because the extract of this herb shows inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing (QS) communication and biofilm development against microorganisms. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide at 0.1 mM (sub-MIC dose) with azithromycin (6 ?g/mL, sub-MIC) or gentamicin (4 ?g/mL, sub-MIC) synergistically inhibits 92% biofilm production by a 48-h treatment against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further investigation carried out by atomic force microscopy shows promising reduction in roughness and height of biofilm in the presence of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide compared with the control group. The content of extracellular polymeric substances, level of pyocyanin production, and synthesis of extracellular protease by P. aeruginosa have also been reduced significantly at around 90% in 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide-treated group. In conclusion, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide could be used as a drug molecule against biofilm development by inhibiting QS pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Project description:The quorum sensing (QS) circuit plays a role in the precise regulation of genes controlling virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. QS-controlled biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical settings has remained controversial due to emerging drug resistance; therefore, screening diverse compounds for anti-biofilm or anti-QS activities is important. This study demonstrates the ability of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of baicalin, an active natural compound extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal Scutellaria baicalensis, to inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and enhance the bactericidal effects of various conventional antibiotics in vitro. In addition, baicalin exerted dose-dependent inhibitory effects on virulence phenotypes (LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, motilities and exotoxin A) regulated by QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, the expression levels of QS-regulatory genes, including lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR, pqsR and pqsA, were repressed after sub-MIC baicalin treatment, resulting in significant decreases in the QS signaling molecules 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL, confirming the ability of baicalin-mediated QS inhibition to alter gene and protein expression. In vivo experiments indicated that baicalin treatment reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Greater worm survival in the baicalin-treated group manifested as an increase in the LT50 from 24 to 96 h. In a mouse peritoneal implant infection model, baicalin treatment enhanced the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the implants of mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with the control group. Moreover, the combination of baicalin and antibiotics significantly reduced the numbers of colony-forming units in the implants to a significantly greater degree than antibiotic treatment alone. Pathological and histological analyses revealed mitigation of the inflammatory response and reduced cell infiltration in the peritoneal tissue surrounding the implants after baicalin treatment. Measurement of the cytokine levels in the peritoneal lavage fluid of mice in the baicalin treatment group revealed a decrease in IL-4, an increase in interferon ? (IFN-?), and a reversed IFN-?/IL-4 ratio compared with the control group, indicating that baicalin treatment activated the Th1-induced immune response to expedite bacterial load clearance. Based on these results, baicalin might be a potent QS inhibitor and anti-biofilm agent for combating Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm-related infections.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is a key regulator of virulence factors and biofilm formation in Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microorganisms that inhabit soil are of strategic importance in the discovery of compounds with anti-QS properties. The objective of the study was to test the culture extract of a taxonomically novel species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI for its inhibitory effects on the QS-controlled virulence factors and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa both in vitro and in vivo. The Paenibacillus sp. culture extract was used to test its anti-QS effects on the LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyoverdin production, and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa as well as evaluate its therapeutic effects on lung bacteriology, pathology, hematological profile, and serum antibody responses of experimental animals in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Results showed significant decrease in the activities of QS-controlled LasA protease, LasB elastase pyoverdin, and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa caused by the culture extract. Moreover, the extract significantly prolonged the survival times of rats and facilitated the clearance of biofilm infections from infected lungs. In conclusion, the antiquorum sensing effects of culture extract from a novel species of Paenibacillus provide new insights to combat biofilm-associated infections.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative agent of several life-threatening human infections. Like many other pathogens, P. aeruginosa exhibits quorum sensing (QS) controlled virulence factors such as biofilm during disease progression, complicating treatment with conventional antibiotics. Thus, impeding the pathogen's QS circuit appears as a promising alternative strategy to overcome pseudomonas infections. In the present study, Calpurnia aurea were evaluated for their antibacterial (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC)), anti-quorum sensing/antivirulence (AQS), and antibiofilm potential against P. aeruginosa. AQS and antivirulence (biofilm formation, swimming, and swarming motility) activities of plant extracts were evaluated against Chromobacterium violaceum and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The in vitro AQS potential of the individual compounds were validated using in silico molecular docking. Acetone and ethanolic extracts of C. aurea showed MIC at 1.56 mg/mL. The quantitative violacein inhibition (AQS) assay showed ethyl acetate extracts as the most potent at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. GCMS analysis of C. aurea revealed 17 compounds; four (pentadecanol, dimethyl terephthalate, terephthalic acid, and methyl mannose) showed potential AQS through molecular docking against the CviR protein of C. violaceum. Biofilm of P. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited by ?60% using 1-mg/mL extract of C. aurea. Confocal laser scanning microscopy correlated the findings of crystal violet assay with the extracts significantly altering the swimming motility. C. aurea extracts reduced the virulence of pseudomonas, albeit in a strain- and extract-specific manner, showing their suitability for the identification of lead compounds with QS inhibitory potential for the control of P. aeruginosa infections.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical communication process that Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses to regulate virulence and biofilm formation. Disabling of QS is an emerging approach for combating its pathogenicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely applied as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, but not for the attenuation of bacterial QS. Here we mycofabricated AgNPs (mfAgNPs) using metabolites of soil fungus Rhizopus arrhizus BRS-07 and tested their effect on QS-regulated virulence and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional studies demonstrated that mfAgNPs reduced the levels of LasIR-RhlIR. Treatment of mfAgNPs inhibited biofilm formation, production of several virulence factors (e.g. LasA protease, LasB elastrase, pyocyanin, pyoverdin, pyochelin, rhamnolipid, and alginate) and reduced AHLs production. Further genes quantification analyses revealed that mfAgNPs significantly down-regulated QS-regulated genes, specifically those encoded to the secretion of virulence factors. The results clearly indicated the anti-virulence property of mfAgNPs by inhibiting P. aeruginosa QS signaling.
Project description:The problem of antibiotic resistance among pathogens encourages searching for novel active molecules. The aim of the research was to assay the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibiofilm potential of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil and its main constituent, terpinen-4-ol, to prevent the infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains as an alternate to antibiotics. The tea tree oil (TTO) was evaluated for its potential in inhibiting QS-dependent phenomena such as violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum, swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and biofilm formation in MRSA strains on glass. The results showed that terpinen-4-ol was able to inhibit MRSA strain biofilm formation on the glass strips by 73.70%. TTO inhibited the violacein production at a mean inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.048 mg/mL by 69.3%. At 100 µg/mL TTO and terpinen-4-ol exhibited inhibition in swarming motility of PAO1 by 33.33% and 25%, respectively. TTO revealed anti-QS and anti-biofilm activities at very low concentrations, but it could be further investigated for new molecules useful for the treatment of MRSA infections.
Project description:As a major opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa can produce various virulence factors and form biofilms. These processes are controlled by the quorum sensing (QS) system. Sodium new houttuyfonate (SNH) is an adduct of houttuyfonate, the main component of the common Chinese medicine plant Houttuynia cordata, which has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the effect of SNH on P. aeruginosa biofilms, virulence factors, and transcription. Transcriptome analysis showed that the key rhlI and pqsA genes of the P. aeruginosa QS system were down-regulated after SNH treatment. SNH reduces proteases and pyocyanin production and inhibits biofilm formation by regulating the P. aeruginosa QS system. SNH also changes the expression of genes related to virulence factors and biofilms (lasA, lasB, lecA, phzM, pqsA, and pilG). These results suggested that the mechanism of SNH against P. aeruginosa by affecting the expression of biofilm and virulence factors controlled by quorum sensing.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a number of proteases that are associated with virulence and disease progression. A substrate able to detect P. aeruginosa-specific proteolytic activity could help to rapidly alert clinicians to the virulence potential of individual P. aeruginosa strains. For this purpose we designed a set of P. aeruginosa-specific fluorogenic substrates, comprising fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-labeled peptides, and evaluated their applicability to P. aeruginosa virulence in a range of clinical isolates. A FRET-peptide comprising three glycines (3xGly) was found to be specific for the detection of P. aeruginosa proteases. Further screening of 97 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates showed a wide variation in 3xGly cleavage activity. The absence of 3xGly degradation by a lasI knock out strain indicated that 3xGly cleavage by P. aeruginosa could be quorum sensing (QS)-related, a hypothesis strengthened by the observation of a strong correlation between 3xGly cleavage, LasA staphylolytic activity and pyocyanin production. Additionally, isolates able to cleave 3xGly were more susceptible to the QS inhibiting antibiotic azithromycin (AZM). In conclusion, we designed and evaluated a 3xGly substrate possibly useful as a simple tool to predict virulence and AZM susceptibility.
Project description:The prominent antibacterial and quorum sensing (QS) inhibition activity of aromatic plants can be used as a novel intervention strategy for attenuating bacterial pathogenicity. In the present work, a total of 29 chemical components were identified in the essential oil (EO) of Melaleuca bracteata leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal component was methyleugenol, followed by methyl trans-cinnamate, with relative contents of 90.46% and 4.25%, respectively. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activity and the QS inhibitory activity of M. bracteata EO were first evaluated here. Antibacterial activity assay and MIC detection against seven pathogens (Dickeya dadantii Onc5, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25933, Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Serratia marcescens MG1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC31532) demonstrated that S. aureus ATCC25933 and S. marcescens MG1 had the higher sensitivity to M. bracteata EO, while P. aeruginosa PAO1 displayed the strongest resistance to M. bracteata EO. An anti-QS (anti-quorum sensing) assay revealed that at sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs), M. bracteata EO strongly interfered with the phenotype, including violacein production, biofilm biomass, and swarming motility, as well as N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) production (i.e., a signaling molecule in C. violaceum ATCC31532) of C. violaceum. Detection of C6-HSL indicated that M. bracteata EO was capable of not only inhibiting C6-HSL production in C. violaceum, but also degrading the C6-HSL. Importantly, changes of exogenous C6-HSL production in C. violaceum CV026 revealed a possible interaction between M. bracteata EO and a regulatory protein (cviR). Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis demonstrated that the expression of QS-related genes (cviI, cviR, vioABCDE, hmsNR, lasA-B, pilE1, pilE3, and hcnB) was significantly suppressed. Conclusively, these results indicated that M. bracteata EO can act as a potential antibacterial agent and QS inhibitor (QSI) against pathogens, preventing and controlling bacterial contamination.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is a means of cell-to-cell communication that uses diffusible signaling molecules that are sensed by the population to determine population density, thus allowing co-ordinate gene regulation in response to population density. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, production of the QS signaling molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), co-ordinates expression of key factors of pathogenesis, including biofilm formation and toxin secretion. It is predicted that the inhibition of AHL sensing would provide an effective clinical treatment to reduce the expression of virulence factors and increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. We previously demonstrated that sodium houttuyfonate (SH), commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases, can effectively inhibit QS-regulated processes, including biofilm formation. Here, using a model system, we demonstrate that SH causes the dose-dependent inhibition of AHL production, through down-regulation of the AHL biosynthesis gene, lasI. Addition of SH also resulted in down-regulation of expression of the AHL sensor and transcriptional regulator, LasR, and inhibited the production of the QS-regulated virulence factors, pyocyanin and LasA. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of SH may be due to its ability to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa.