Chondroitin sulfate is involved in the hypercalcification of the organic matrix of bovine peritubular dentin.
ABSTRACT: Apatitic mineral of dentin forms within the collagenous matrix (intertubular dentin, ITD) secreted from the odontoblastic processes (OP). Highly calcified mineral (peritubular dentin, PTD) is deposited at the interface between the ITD and each process membrane, creating a tubular system penetrating the dentin that extends from the dentino-enamel junction to the predentin-dentin junction. We focus on determining the composition of the PTD both with regard to its organic matrix and the inorganic phase. A laser capture technique has been adapted for the isolation of the mineralized PTD free from the ITD, and for the analysis of the PTD by SEM, TEM, and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), these data were subsequently compared with similar analyses of intact dentin slices containing ITD bounded-PTD annuli. Elemental line scans reveal clearly marked boundaries between ITD, PTD, and OP components, and illustrate the differences in composition, and topographical surface roughness. The organic matrix of the PTD was shown to be sulfur rich, and further antibody labeling showed the sulfated organic component to be chondroitin sulfate [corrected]. In this PTD organic matrix the S/Ca and Ca/P ratios were distinctly higher than in the ITD, indicating that polysaccharide bound S supplies the anionic counterion facilitating the formation of the apatitic PTD mineral.
Project description:Dentin contains 1-2?m diameter tubules extending from the pulp cavity to near the junction with enamel. Peritubular dentin (PTD) borders the tubule lumens and is surrounded by intertubular dentin (ITD). Differences in PTD and ITD composition and microstructure remain poorly understood. Here, a (?200nm)(2), 10.1keV synchrotron X-ray beam maps X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction simultaneously around tubules in 15-30?m thick bovine and equine specimens. Increased Ca fluorescence surrounding tubule lumens confirms that PTD is present, and the relative intensities in PTD and ITD correspond to carbonated apatite (cAp) volume fraction of ?0.8 in PTD vs. 0.65 assumed for ITD. In the PTD near the lumen edges, Zn intensity is strongly peaked, corresponding to a Zn content of ?0.9mgg(-1) for an assumed concentration of ?0.4mgg(-1) for ITD. In the equine specimen, the Zn K-edge position indicates that Zn(2+) is present, similar to bovine dentin (Deymier-Black et al., 2013), and the above edge structure is consistent with spectra from macromolecules related to biomineralization. Transmission X-ray diffraction shows only cAp, and the 00.2 diffraction peak (Miller-Bravais indices) width is constant from ITD to the lumen edge. The cAp 00.2 average preferred orientation is axisymmetric (about the tubule axis) in both bovine and equine dentin, and the axisymmetric preferred orientation continues from ITD through the PTD to the tubule lumen. These data indicate that cAp structure does not vary from PTD to ITD.
Project description:Human dentin, as an important calcified tissue in the body, plays significant roles in withstanding masticatory forces and has a complex hierarchical organization. Understanding the composition and ultrastructure of dentin is critical for elucidating mechanisms of biomineralization under healthy and pathological states. Here, atomic force microscope infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) and AFM-based amplitude modulation-frequency modulation (AM-FM) techniques were utilized to detect the heterogeneity in chemical composition and mechanical properties between peritubular and intertubular dentin at the nanoscale. AFM-IR spectra collected from peritubular and intertubular dentin contained similar vibrational bands in the amide regions (I, II and III), suggesting that collagen may exist in both structures. A distinctive band at 1336 cm-1 indicative of S[bond, double bond]O stretching vibrations was detected only in peritubular dentin. AFM-IR imaging showed an uneven distribution of chemical components at different locations, confirming the heterogeneity of dentin. The Young's modulus of peritubular dentin was higher, and was associated to a higher mineral content. This study demonstrated distinctive chemical and mechanical properties of peritubular dentin, implying the different development and mineralization processes between peritubular and intertubular dentin. AFM-IR is useful to provide compositional information on the heterogeneity of human dentin, helping to understand the mineral deposition mechanisms of dentin.
Project description:Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1), the essential noncollagenous proteins in dentin and bone, is believed to play an important role in the mineralization of these tissues, although the mechanisms of its action are not fully understood. To gain insight into DMP1 functions in dentin mineralization we have performed immunomapping of DMP1 in fully mineralized rat incisors and in vitro calcium phosphate mineralization experiments in the presence of DMP1. DMP1 immunofluorescene was localized in peritubular dentin (PTD) and along the dentin-enamel boundary. In vitro phosphorylated DMP1 induced the formation of parallel arrays of crystallites with their c-axes co-aligned. Such crystalline arrangement is a hallmark of mineralized collagen fibrils of bone and dentin. Interestingly, in DMP1-rich PTD, which lacks collagen fibrils, the crystals are organized in a similar manner. Based on our findings we hypothesize, that in vivo DMP1 controls the mineral organization outside of the collagen fibrils and plays a major role in the mineralization of PTD.
Project description:To better understand the nature of the relationships between mineral phases at the dentino-enamel boundary (DEB), we performed electron tomography (ET) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) of the apical portions of rat incisors. The ET studies of the DEB at the secretory stage of amelogenesis revealed that nascent enamel crystals are co-aligned and closely associated with dentin crystallites in the mineralized von Korff fibers, with the distances between dentin and enamel crystals in the nanometer range. We have further studied the relationships between dentin and enamel crystals using HR-TEM lattice imaging of the DEB. Among dozens of high-resolution micrographs taken from the DEB we were able to identify only one case of lattice continuity between dentin and enamel crystals, indicating direct epitaxy. In other cases, although there was no direct continuity between the crystalline lattices, power spectra analysis of lattice images revealed a very high level of co-alignment between dentin and enamel crystals. Hence, we propose here that the high degree of alignment and integration between dentin and enamel mineral can be established either by epitaxy or without direct interactions between crystalline lattices, probably via regulation of mineral formation and organization by integrated organic matrices of dentin and enamel at the DEB.
Project description:In clinical dentistry, since fracture is a major cause of tooth loss, better understanding of mechanical properties of teeth structures is important. Dentin, the major hard tissue of teeth, has similar composition to bone. In this study, we investigated the mechanical properties of human dentin not only in terms of mineral density but also using structural and quality parameters as recently accepted in evaluating bone strength. Aged crown and root dentin (age ? 40) exhibited significantly lower flexural strength and toughness than young dentin (age < 40). Aged dentin, in which the dentinal tubules were occluded with calcified material, recorded the highest mineral density; but showed significantly lower flexural strength than young dentin. Dentin with strong alignment of the c-axis in hydroxyapatite exhibited high fracture strength, possibly because the aligned apatite along the collagen fibrils may reinforce the intertubular dentin. Aged dentin, showing a high advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) level in its collagen, recorded low flexural strength. We first comprehensively identified significant factors, which affected the inferior mechanical properties of aged dentin. The low mechanical strength of aged dentin is caused by the high mineral density resulting from occlusion of dentinal tubules and accumulation of AGEs in dentin collagen.
Project description:The biomineralisation of radicular dentin involves complex molecular signalling. Providing evidence of protein binding sites for calcium ions and mineral precipitation is essential for a better understanding of the remineralisation process. This study aimed to evaluate the functional relationship of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) with mineral initiation and maturation during the biomineralisation of radicular dentin. A standardized demineralisation procedure was performed to radicular dentin slices. Samples were remineralised in a PBS-bioactive material system for different periods of time. Assessments of ion exchange, Raman analysis, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the remineralisation process. Immunohistochemistry and zymography were performed to analyse NCPs and MMPs expression. SEM evaluation showed that the mineral nucleation and growth occurs, exclusively, on the demineralised radicular dentin surface. Raman analysis of remineralised dentin showed intense peaks at 955 and 1063 cm-1, which can be attributed to carbonate apatite formation. Immunohistochemistry of demineralised samples revealed the presence of DMP1-CT, mainly in intratubular dentin, whereas DSPP in intratubular and intertubular dentin. DMP1-CT and DSPP binding sites control carbonate apatite nucleation and maturation guiding the remineralisation of radicular dentin.
Project description:This in vitro study aimed to accelerate the remineralization of a completely demineralized dentine collagen block in order to regenerate the dentinal microstructure of calcified collagen fibrils by a novel electric field-aided biomimetic mineralization system in the absence of non-collagenous proteins. Completely demineralized human dentine slices were prepared using ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and treated with guanidine hydrochloride to extract the bound non-collagenous proteins. The completely demineralized dentine collagen blocks were then remineralized in a calcium chloride agarose hydrogel and a sodium hydrogen phosphate and fluoride agarose hydrogel. This process was accelerated by subjecting the hydrogels to electrophoresis at 20 mA for 4 and 12 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the resultant calcification of the dentin collagen matrix. SEM indicated that mineral particles were precipitated on the intertubular dentin collagen matrix; these densely packed crystals mimicked the structure of the original mineralized dentin. However, the dentinal tubules were not occluded by the mineral crystals. XRD and EDX both confirmed that the deposited crystals were fluorinated hydroxyapatite. TEM revealed the existence of intrafibrillar and interfibrillar mineralization of the collagen fibrils. A novel electric field-aided biomimetic mineralization system was successfully developed to remineralize a completely demineralized dentine collagen matrix in the absence of non-collagenous proteins. This study developed an accelerated biomimetic mineralization system which can be a potential protocol for the biomineralization of dentinal defects.
Project description:Collagen and amelogenin are two major extracellular organic matrix proteins of dentin and enamel, the mineralized tissues comprising a tooth crown. They both are present at the dentin-enamel boundary (DEB), a remarkably robust interface holding dentin and enamel together. It is believed that interactions of dentin and enamel protein assemblies regulate growth and structural organization of mineral crystals at the DEB, leading to a continuum at the molecular level between dentin and enamel organic and mineral phases. To gain insight into the mechanisms of the DEB formation and structural basis of its mechanical resiliency we have studied the interactions between collagen fibrils, amelogenin assemblies, and forming mineral in vitro, using electron microscopy. Our data indicate that collagen fibrils guide assembly of amelogenin into elongated chain or filament-like structures oriented along the long axes of the fibrils. We also show that the interactions between collagen fibrils and amelogenin-calcium phosphate mineral complexes lead to oriented deposition of elongated amorphous mineral particles along the fibril axes, triggering mineralization of the bulk of collagen fibril. The resulting structure was similar to the mineralized collagen fibrils found at the DEB, with arrays of smaller well organized crystals inside the collagen fibrils and bundles of larger crystals on the outside of the fibrils. These data suggest that interactions between collagen and amelogenin might play an important role in the formation of the DEB providing structural continuity between dentin and enamel.
Project description:Dentin, one of the four mineralized tissues of the craniofacial complex, forms sequentially from the deposition of an organic matrix to the nucleation of an inorganic phase within the matrix scaffold. Several promoters and inhibitors of mineralization support and regulate mineral nucleation. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and phosphate-regulating neutral endopeptidase (PHEX) cooperate and are necessary for the formation of a cohesive dentin layer. The following study investigates the effect of PHEX loss-of-function on dentin matrix formation preceding mineralization. Using the Hyp mouse, an animal model for X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), we identified an irregular distribution of dentin extracellular matrix proteins. Likewise, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) from XLH patients exhibited altered proteolytic events with disrupted extracellular matrix deposition. Further differentiation assays demonstrated that XLH DPSCs exhibited impaired matrix mineralization. Overexpression of DMP1 in XLH DPSCs restored the irregular protein processing patterns to near-physiological levels. Our results support the hypothesis that hypophosphatemia resulting from PHEX loss-of-function affects the integrity of the organization of the dentin matrix and suggests that exogenous DMP1 can restore physiological processing of matrix proteins, in addition to its canonical role in mineralization.
Project description:Microcalcifications (MCs) are routinely used to detect breast cancer in mammography. Little is known, however, about their materials properties and associated organic matrix, or their correlation to breast cancer prognosis. We combine histopathology, Raman microscopy, and electron microscopy to image MCs within snap-frozen human breast tissue and generate micron-scale resolution correlative maps of crystalline phase, trace metals, particle morphology, and organic matrix chemical signatures within high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive cancer. We reveal the heterogeneity of mineral-matrix pairings, including punctate apatitic particles (<2?µm) with associated trace elements (e.g., F, Na, and unexpectedly Al) distributed within the necrotic cores of DCIS, and both apatite and spheroidal whitlockite particles in invasive cancer within a matrix containing spectroscopic signatures of collagen, non-collagen proteins, cholesterol, carotenoids, and DNA. Among the three DCIS samples, we identify key similarities in MC morphology and distribution, supporting a dystrophic mineralization pathway. This multimodal methodology lays the groundwork for establishing MC heterogeneity in the context of breast cancer biology, and could dramatically improve current prognostic models.