Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Perinatally HIV-Infected, Treatment-Naive Adolescents in Asia.
ABSTRACT: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ?6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ?200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.
Project description:To conduct two economic analyses addressing whether to: routinely monitor HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinically or with laboratory tests; continue or stop cotrimoxazole prophylaxis when children become stabilized on ART.The ARROW randomized trial investigated alternative strategies to deliver paediatric ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in 1206 Ugandan/Zimbabwean children. Incremental cost-effectiveness and value of implementation analyses were undertaken. Scenario analyses investigated whether laboratory monitoring (CD4 tests for efficacy monitoring; haematology/biochemistry for toxicity) could be tailored and targeted to be delivered cost-effectively. Cotrimoxazole use was examined in malaria-endemic and non-endemic settings.Using all trial data, clinical monitoring delivered similar health outcomes to routine laboratory monitoring, but at a reduced cost, so was cost-effective. Continuing cotrimoxazole improved health outcomes at reduced costs. Restricting routine CD4 monitoring to after 52 weeks following ART initiation and removing toxicity testing was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $6084 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) across all age groups, but was much lower for older children (12+ years at initiation; incremental cost-effectiveness ratio?=?$769/QALY). Committing resources to improve cotrimoxazole implementation appears cost-effective. A healthcare system that could pay $600/QALY should be willing to spend up to $12.0 per patient-year to ensure continued provision of cotrimoxazole.Clinically driven monitoring of ART is cost-effective in most circumstances. Routine laboratory monitoring is generally not cost-effective at current prices, except possibly CD4 testing amongst adolescents initiating ART. Committing resources to ensure continued provision of cotrimoxazole in health facilities is more likely to represent an efficient use of resources.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate whether cotrimoxazole prophylaxis prevents common skin conditions in HIV-infected children.<h4>Design</h4>Open-label randomized controlled trial of continuing versus stopping daily cotrimoxazole (post-hoc analysis).<h4>Setting</h4>Three sites in Uganda and one in Zimbabwe.<h4>Participants</h4>A total of 758 children aged more than 3 years receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than 96 weeks in the ARROW trial were randomized to stop (n?=?382) or continue (n?=?376) cotrimoxazole after median (interquartile range) 2.1(1.8, 2.2) years on ART.<h4>Intervention</h4>Continuing versus stopping daily cotrimoxazole.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Nurses screened for signs/symptoms at 6-week visits. This was a secondary analysis of ARROW trial data, with skin complaints categorized blind to randomization as bacterial, fungal, or viral infections; dermatitis; pruritic papular eruptions (PPEs); or others (blisters, desquamation, ulcers, and urticaria). Proportions ever reporting each skin complaint were compared across randomized groups using logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>At randomization, median (interquartile range) age was 7 (4, 11) years and CD4 was 33% (26, 39); 73% had WHO stage 3/4 disease. Fewer children continuing cotrimoxazole reported bacterial skin infections over median 2 years follow-up (15 versus 33%, respectively; P?<?0.001), with similar trends for PPE (P?=?0.06) and other skin complaints (P?=?0.11), but not for fungal (P?=?0.45) or viral (P?=?0.23) infections or dermatitis (P?=?1.0). Bacterial skin infections were also reported at significantly fewer clinic visits (1.2 versus 3.0%, P?<?0.001). Independent of cotrimoxazole, bacterial skin infections were more common in children aged 6-8 years, with current CD4 cell count less than 500 cells/?l, WHO stage 3/4, less time on ART, and lower socio-economic status.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Long-term cotrimoxazole prophylaxis reduces common skin complaints, highlighting an additional benefit for long-term prophylaxis in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection.We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged < 20 years at the start of ART for those with perinatal infection and 15-29 years for those with heterosexual infection, with ART containing at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a boosted protease inhibitor (bPI), were followed from ART initiation until the most recent viral load (VL) measurement. Virological failure of a drug was defined as VL > 500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL despite ? 4 months of use. TCVF was defined as cumulative failure of two NRTIs, an NNRTI and a bPI.The median number of weeks between diagnosis and the start of ART was higher in participants with perinatal HIV infection compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART was 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-12.3%] in participants with perinatally acquired infection and 4.7% (95% CI 3.9-5.5%) in participants with heterosexually acquired infection, and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years when starting ART (27.7%; 95% CI 13.2-42.1%). Across all participants, significant predictors of TCVF were those with perinatal HIV aged 10-14 years, African origin, pre-ART AIDS, NNRTI-based initial regimens, higher pre-ART viral load and lower pre-ART CD4.The results suggest a beneficial effect of starting ART before adolescence, and starting young people on boosted PIs, to maximize treatment response during this transitional stage of development.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate CD4 cell count recovery following ART initiation in perinatally HIV-infected children diagnosed in later childhood.<h4>Design</h4>Observational prospective cohort study of newly diagnosed children aged 6-15 in Harare, Zimbabwe.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants were enrolled into a cohort at seven primary healthcare clinics between January 2013 and January 2015. ART was initiated according to national guidelines and CD4 cell counts were performed 6-monthly over 18 months. The relationship between CD4 cell count and time on ART was investigated using regression analysis with fixed (population) and random (individual) effects, and age at ART initiation as a covariate.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 307 participants who initiated ART, the median age at initiation was 11.7 years (interquartile range 9.6-13.8). The addition of an individual intercept and slope as random effects significantly improved the model fit compared with a fixed effects-only model. CD4 response (using a square-root transformation) was best modelled using a two-knot linear spline, with significant effects of time on ART and age at ART initiation. Younger children had a higher CD4 cell count at ART initiation (-17.9?cells/?l per year of age), an accelerated increase during the first 3 months on ART (-38.9?cells/?l per year of age at day 84), and a sustained higher CD4 cell count.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Earlier ART initiation in older children is associated with accelerated CD4 cell count recovery and lasting immune reconstitution. Our findings support WHO guidance recommending ART initiation in all children, irrespective of disease stage and CD4 cell count.
Project description:Background:In sub-Saharan Africa, 20%-25% of people starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) have severe immunosuppression; approximately 10% die within 3 months. In the Reduction of EArly mortaLITY (REALITY) randomized trial, a broad enhanced anti-infection prophylaxis bundle reduced mortality vs cotrimoxazole. We investigate the contribution and timing of different causes of mortality/morbidity. Methods:Participants started ART with a CD4 count <100 cells/µL; enhanced prophylaxis comprised cotrimoxazole plus 12 weeks of isoniazid + fluconazole, single-dose albendazole, and 5 days of azithromycin. A blinded committee adjudicated events and causes of death as (non-mutually exclusively) tuberculosis, cryptococcosis, severe bacterial infection (SBI), other potentially azithromycin-responsive infections, other events, and unknown. Results:Median pre-ART CD4 count was 37 cells/µL. Among 1805 participants, 225 (12.7%) died by week 48. Fatal/nonfatal events occurred early (median 4 weeks); rates then declined exponentially. One hundred fifty-four deaths had single and 71 had multiple causes, including tuberculosis in 4.5% participants, cryptococcosis in 1.1%, SBI in 1.9%, other potentially azithromycin-responsive infections in 1.3%, other events in 3.6%, and unknown in 5.0%. Enhanced prophylaxis reduced deaths from cryptococcosis and unknown causes (P < .05) but not tuberculosis, SBI, potentially azithromycin-responsive infections, or other causes (P > .3); and reduced nonfatal/fatal tuberculosis and cryptococcosis (P < .05), but not SBI, other potentially azithromycin-responsive infections, or other events (P > .2). Conclusions:Enhanced prophylaxis reduced mortality from cryptococcosis and unknown causes and nonfatal tuberculosis and cryptococcosis. High early incidence of fatal/nonfatal events highlights the need for starting enhanced-prophylaxis with ART in advanced disease. Clinical Trials Registration:ISRCTN43622374.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the weight evolution but its effect on height remains unclear. We described patterns of height evolution and identified predictors of catch-up growth in HIV-infected children on ART. METHODS:To describe the height evolution from birth to adulthood, we developed a nonlinear mixed effect model using data from perinatally HIV-infected children who initiated ART from 1999 to 2013 in a prospective cohort study in Thailand. The main covariates of interest were: sex, ART regimen (dual nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-, or protease inhibitor (PI)-based), baseline CD4 percentage, HIV-RNA load and CDC HIV Classification stage and occurrence of AIDS-defining events. RESULTS:A total 477 children (43% boys) contributed 18,596 height measurements over a median duration of 6.3?years on ART (interquartile range, 3.0 to 8.3). At ART initiation, median age was 6.2?years (1.8 to 9.6), 16% of children were underweight (weight-for-age z-score?<?-?2), 49% presented stunting (height-for-age z-score?<?-?2), and 7% wasting (weight-for-height z-score?<?-?2). The most frequent regimen at ART initiation was NNRTI-based (79%). A model with 4 components, birth length and 3 exponential functions of age accounting for the 3 growth phases was developed and show that the height-growth velocity was inversely associated with the age at ART initiation, the adult height was significantly lower in those who had experienced at least one AIDS-defining event while, as expected, the model found that adult height in females was lower than in males. Age at ART initiation, type of ART regimen, CDC stage, CD4 percentages, and HIV-RNA load were not associated with the final height. CONCLUSIONS:The younger the children at ART initiation, the greater the effect on height-growth velocity, supporting the World Health Organization's recommendation to start ART as early as possible. However, final adult height was not linked to the age at ART initiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART. METHODS:Patients from TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (September 2015 data transfer) aged 18 years and older with a CD4 count <50 cells/mm at ART initiation were included. The effect of macrolide prophylaxis on HIV-associated mortality or AIDS-defining conditions (as a combined outcome) and HIV-associated mortality alone were evaluated using competing risk regression. Sensitivity analysis was conducted in patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation. RESULTS:Of 1345 eligible patients, 10.6% received macrolide prophylaxis. The rate of the combined outcome was 7.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.04 to 8.95] per 100 patient-years, whereas the rate of HIV-associated mortality was 3.14 (95% CI: 2.35 to 4.19) per 100 patient-years. Macrolide use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of HIV-associated mortality (hazard ratio 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.80, P = 0.031) but not with the combined outcome (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI: 0.32 to 2.229, P = 0.764). Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results among patients with a CD4 <100 cells/mm at ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS:Macrolide prophylaxis is associated with improved survival among Asian HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts and on ART. This study suggests the increased usage and coverage of macrolide prophylaxis among people living with HIV in Asia.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Stunting is a key issue for adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (APH) that needs to be better understood. As part of the IeDEA multiregional consortium, we described growth evolution during adolescence for APH on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS:We included data from sub-Saharan Africa, the Asia-Pacific, and the Caribbean, Central and South America regions collected between 2003 and 2016. Adolescents on ART, reporting perinatally acquired infection or entering HIV care before 10 years of age, with at least one height measurement between 10 and 16 years of age, and followed in care until at least 14 years of age were included. Characteristics at ART initiation and at 10 years of age were compared by sex. Correlates of growth defined by height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) between ages 10 and 19 years were studied separately for males and females, using linear mixed models. RESULTS:Overall, 8737 APH were included, with 46% from Southern Africa. Median age at ART initiation was 8.1 years (interquartile range (IQR) 6.1 to 9.6), 50% were females, and 41% were stunted (HAZ<-2 SD) at ART initiation. Males and females did not differ by age and stunting at ART initiation, CD4 count over time or retention in care. At 10 years of age, 34% of males were stunted versus 39% of females (p < 0.001). Females had better subsequent growth, resulting in a higher prevalence of stunting for males compared to females by age 15 (48% vs. 25%) and 18 years (31% vs. 15%). In linear mixed models, older age at ART initiation and low CD4 count were associated with poor growth over time (p < 0.001). Those stunted at 10 years of age or at ART initiation had the greatest growth improvement during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS:Prevalence of stunting is high among APH worldwide. Substantial sex-based differences in growth evolution during adolescence were observed in this global cohort, which were not explained by differences in age of access to HIV care, degree of immunosuppression or region. Other factors influencing growth differences in APH, such as differences in pubertal development, should be better documented, to guide further research and inform interventions to optimize growth and health outcomes among APH.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Weight gain following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is common, potentially predisposing some persons with HIV (PWH) to cardio-metabolic disease. We assessed relationships between ART drug class and weight change among treatment-naïve PWH initiating ART in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). METHODS:Adult, treatment-naïve PWH in NA-ACCORD initiating integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), protease inhibitor (PI) or non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART on/after 1 January 2007 were followed through 31 December 2016. Multivariate linear mixed effects models estimated weight up to five years after ART initiation, adjusting for age, sex, race, cohort site, HIV acquisition mode, treatment year, and baseline weight, plasma HIV-1 RNA level and CD4+ cell count. Due to shorter follow-up for PWH receiving newer INSTI drugs, weights for specific INSTIs were estimated at two years. Secondary analyses using logistic regression and all covariates from primary analyses assessed factors associated with >10% weight gain at two and five years. RESULTS:Among 22,972 participants, 87% were male, and 41% were white. 49% started NNRTI-, 31% started PI- and 20% started INSTI-based regimens (1624 raltegravir (RAL), 2085 elvitegravir (EVG) and 929 dolutegravir (DTG)). PWH starting INSTI-based regimens had mean estimated five-year weight change of +5.9kg, compared to +3.7kg for NNRTI and +5.5kg for PI. Among PWH starting INSTI drugs, mean estimated two-year weight change was +7.2kg for DTG, +5.8kg for RAL and +4.1kg for EVG. Women, persons with lower baseline CD4+ cell counts, and those initiating INSTI-based regimens had higher odds of >10% body weight increase at two years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.20 to 1.56 vs. NNRTI). CONCLUSIONS:PWH initiating INSTI-based regimens gained, on average, more weight compared to NNRTI-based regimens. This phenomenon may reflect heterogeneous effects of ART agents on body weight regulation that require further exploration.
Project description:Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis can reduce mortality from untreated HIV infection in Africa; whether benefits occur alongside combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear. We estimated the effect of prophylaxis after ART initiation in adults.Participants in our observational analysis were from the DART randomised trial of management strategies in HIV-infected, symptomatic, previously untreated African adults starting triple-drug ART with CD4 counts lower than 200 cells per muL. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was not routinely used or randomly allocated, but was variably prescribed by clinicians. We estimated effects on clinical outcomes, CD4 cell count, and body-mass index (BMI) using marginal structural models to adjust for time-dependent confounding by indication. DART was registered, number ISRCTN13968779.3179 participants contributed 14 214 years of follow-up (8128 [57%] person-years on co-trimoxazole). Time-dependent predictors of co-trimoxazole use were current CD4 cell count, haemoglobin concentration, BMI, and previous WHO stage 3 or 4 events on ART. Present prophylaxis significantly reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.85; p=0.001). Mortality risk reduction on ART was substantial to 12 weeks (0.41, 0.27-0.65), sustained from 12-72 weeks (0.56, 0.37-0.86), but not evident subsequently (0.96, 0.63-1.45; heterogeneity p=0.02). Variation in mortality reduction was not accounted for by time on co-trimoxazole or current CD4 cell count. Prophylaxis reduced frequency of malaria (0.74, 0.63-0.88; p=0.0005), an effect that was maintained with time, but we observed no effect on new WHO stage 4 events (0.86, 0.69-1.07; p=0.17), CD4 cell count (difference vs non-users, -3 cells per muL [-12 to 6]; p=0.50), or BMI (difference vs non-users, -0.04 kg/m(2) [-0.20 to 0.13); p=0.68].Our results reinforce WHO guidelines and provide strong motivation for provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for at least 72 weeks for all adults starting combination ART in Africa.UK Medical Research Council, the UK Department for International Development, the Rockefeller Foundation, GlaxoSmithKline, Gilead Sciences, Boehringer-Ingelheim, and Abbott Laboratories.