Molecular and Phenotypic Characterization of a Highly Evolved Type 2 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Isolated from Seawater in Brazil, 2014.
ABSTRACT: A type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), differing from the Sabin 2 strain at 8.6% (78/903) of VP1 nucleotide positions, was isolated from seawater collected from a seaport in São Paulo State, Brazil. The P1/capsid region is related to the Sabin 2 strain, but sequences within the 5'-untranslated region and downstream of the P1 region were derived from recombination with other members of Human Enterovirus Species C (HEV-C). The two known attenuating mutations had reverted to wild-type (A481G in the 5'-UTR and Ile143Thr in VP1). The VDPV isolate had lost the temperature sensitive phenotype and had accumulated amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic (NAg) sites 3a and 3b. The date of the initiating OPV dose, estimated from the number of synonymous substitutions in the capsid region, was approximately 8.5 years before seawater sampling, a finding consistent with a long time of virus replication and possible transmission among several individuals. Although no closely related type 2 VDPVs were detected in Brazil or elsewhere, this VDPV was found in an area with a mobile population, where conditions may favor both viral infection and spread. Environmental surveillance serves as an important tool for sensitive and early detection of circulating poliovirus in the final stages of global polio eradication.
Project description:From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (?0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead.
Project description:Vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) type 2 strains strongly divergent from the corresponding vaccine strain, Sabin 2, were repeatedly isolated from sewage in Slovakia over a period of 22 months in 2003-2005. Cell cultures of stool specimens from known immune deficient patients and from an identified putative source population of 500 people failed to identify the potential excretor(s) of the virus. The occurrence of VDPV in sewage stopped without any intervention. No paralytic cases were reported in Slovakia during the episode. According to a GenBank search and similarity plotting-analysis, the closest known relative of the first isolate PV2/03/SVK/E783 through all main sections of the genome was the type 2 poliovirus Sabin strain, with nucleotide identities in 5'UTR, P1, P2, P3, and 3'UTR parts of the genome of 88.6, 85.9, 87.3, 88.5, and 94.0 percent, respectively. Phenotypic properties of selected Slovakian aVDPV strains resembled those of VDPV strains isolated from immune deficient individuals with prolonged PV infection (iVDPV), including antigenic changes and moderate neurovirulence in the transgenic mouse model. One hundred and two unique VP1 coding sequences were determined from VDPV strains isolated from 34 sewage specimens. Nucleotide differences from Sabin 2 in the VP1 coding region ranged from 12.5 to 15.6 percent, and reached a maximum of 9.6 percent between the VDPV strains under study. Most of the nucleotide substitutions were synonymous but as many as 93 amino acid positions out of 301 in VP1 showed substitutions. We conclude that (1) individuals with prolonged poliovirus infection are not as rare as suggested by the studies on immune deficient patients known to the health care systems and (2) genetic divergence of VDPV strains may remain extensive during years long replication in humans.
Project description:Two types of vaccine-derived polioviruses have been recently designated to emphasize the different origins of the evolved viruses: circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) associated with outbreaks of paralytic disease and strains isolated from chronically infected immunodeficient individuals (iVDPV). We describe here a type 3 VDPV (PV3/EST/02/E252; later E252) isolated from sewage collected in Tallinn, Estonia, in October 2002. Due to aberrant properties in subtyping, the virus was subjected to detailed characterization. Partial genomic sequencing suggested that the closest relative was the oral vaccine strain PV3/Sabin, but the two virus strains shared only 86.7% of the 900 nucleotides (nt) coding for the capsid protein VP1. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete genome [nt 19 to poly(A)] revealed multiple nucleotide substitutions throughout the genome and a possible Sabin 3/Sabin 1-recombination junction site in the 2C coding region. A calculation based on the estimated mutation frequency of the P1 region of polioviruses suggested that the E252 virus might have replicated in one or more individuals for approximately 10 years. No persons chronically excreting poliovirus are known in Estonia. Amino acid substitutions were seen in all known antigenic sites, which was consistent with the observed aberrant antigenic properties of the virus demonstrated by both monoclonal antibodies and human sera from vaccinated children. In spite of the apparent transmission potential, no evidence was obtained for circulation of the virus in the Estonian population.
Project description:Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and immunodeficient long-term polio excretors constitute a significant public health burden and are a major concern for the WHO global polio eradication endgame.Poliovirus type 3 characterized as Sabin-like was isolated from a 5-month-old Albanian child with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and VAPP after oral polio vaccine administration. Diagnostic workup and treatment were performed in Italy. Poliovirus replicated in the gut for 7 months. The 5' non coding region (NCR), VP1, VP3 capsid proteins and the 3D polymerase genomic regions of sequential isolates were sequenced. Increasing accumulation of nucleotide mutations in the VP1 region was detected over time, reaching 1.0 % of genome variation with respect to the Sabin reference strain, which is the threshold that defines a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). We identified mutations in the 5'NCR and VP3 regions that are associated with reversion to neurovirulence. Despite this, all isolates were characterized as Sabin-like. Several amino acid mutations were identified in the VP1 region, probably involved in growth adaptation and viral persistence in the human gut. Intertypic recombination with Sabin type 2 polio in the 3D polymerase region, possibly associated with increased virus transmissibility, was found in all isolates. Gamma-globulin replacement therapy led to viral clearance and neurological improvement, preventing the occurrence of persistent immunodeficiency-related VDPV.This is the first case of VAPP in an immunodeficient child detected in Albania through the Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance system and the first investigated case of vaccine associated poliomyelitis in Italy since the introduction of an all-Salk schedule in 2002. We discuss over the biological and clinical implications in the context of the Global Polio Eradication Program and emphasize on the importance of the Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance.
Project description:Enormous progress has been made in global efforts to eradicate poliovirus, using live-attenuated Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, as the incidence of disease due to wild poliovirus has declined, vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) has emerged in areas of low-vaccine coverage. Coordinated global cessation of routine, type 2 Sabin OPV (OPV2) use has not resulted in fewer VDPV outbreaks, and continued OPV use in outbreak-response campaigns has seeded new emergences in low-coverage areas. The limitations of existing vaccines and current eradication challenges warranted development of more genetically stable OPV strains, most urgently for OPV2. Here, we report using codon deoptimization to further attenuate Sabin OPV2 by changing preferred codons across the capsid to non-preferred, synonymous codons. Additional modifications to the 5' untranslated region stabilized known virulence determinants. Testing of this codon-deoptimized new OPV2 candidate (nOPV2-CD) in cell and animal models demonstrated that nOPV2-CD is highly attenuated, grows sufficiently for vaccine manufacture, is antigenically indistinguishable from Sabin OPV2, induces neutralizing antibodies as effectively as Sabin OPV2, and unlike Sabin OPV2 is genetically stable and maintains an attenuation phenotype. In-human clinical trials of nOPV2-CD are ongoing, with potential for nOPV strains to serve as critical vaccine tools for achieving and maintaining polio eradication.
Project description:Retrospective molecular and phenotypic characterization of a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) type 1 isolate (7/b/97) isolated from sewage in Athens, Greece, in 1997 is reported. VP1 sequencing of this isolate revealed 1.87% divergence from the VP1 region of reference strain Sabin 1, while further genomic characterization of isolate 7/b/97 revealed a recombination event in the nonstructural part of the genome between a vaccine strain and a nonvaccine strain probably belonging to Enterovirus species C. Amino acid substitutions commonly found in previous studies were identified in the capsid coding region of the isolate, while most of the attenuation and temperature sensitivity determinants were reverted. The ultimate source of isolate 7/b/97 is unknown. The recovery of such a highly divergent derivative of a vaccine strain emphasizes the need for urgent implementation of environmental surveillance as a supportive procedure in the polio surveillance system even in countries with high rates of OPV coverage in order to prevent cases or even outbreaks of poliomyelitis that otherwise would be inevitable.
Project description:An unusual, highly diverged derivative of the Sabin type 2 oral poliovaccine (OPV) strain was recovered from environmental samples during routine screening for wild polioviruses. Virus was cultivated in L20B cells and then passaged on BGM cells at 40 degrees C (RCT [reproductive capacity at supraoptimal temperature]-positive marker) to select against most OPV strains. All but 1 of 25 RCT-positive OPV-derived environmental isolates were antigenically and genetically (>99.5% VP1 sequence match) similar to the respective Sabin strains. However, isolate PV2/4568-1/ISR98 (referred to below as 4568-1) escaped neutralization with Sabin 2-specific monoclonal antibodies and cross-adsorbed sera, and had multiple nucleotide substitutions (220 of 2,646; 8.3%) in the P1 capsid region. Fourteen of the 44 associated amino acid substitutions in the capsid mapped to neutralizing antigenic sites. Neutralizing titers in the sera of 50 Israeli children 15 years old were significantly lower to 4568-1 (geometric mean titer [GMT], 47) than to Sabin 2 (GMT, 162) or to the prototype wild strain, PV2/MEF-1/EGY42 (GMT, 108). Two key attenuating sites had also reverted in 4568-1 (A(481) to G in the 5' untranslated region and the VP1 amino acid I(143) to T), and the isolate was highly neurovirulent for transgenic mice expressing the poliovirus receptor (PVR-Tg21 mice). The extensive genetic divergence of 4568-1 from the parental Sabin 2 strain suggested that the virus had replicated in one or more people for approximately 6 years. The presence in the environment of a highly evolved, neurovirulent OPV-derived poliovirus in the absence of polio cases has important implications for strategies for the cessation of immunization with OPV following global polio eradication.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete genomic sequences revealed their vaccine-related genomic features and showed that their first crossover sites were randomly distributed in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region. The length of donor Sabin 2 sequences ranged from 55 to 136 nucleotides, which is the longest donor sequence reported in the literature for this type of poliovirus recombination. The recombination resulted in the introduction of Sabin 2 neutralizing antigenic site 3a (NAg3a) into a Sabin 3 genomic background in the VP1 coding region, which may have been altered by some of the type 3-specific antigenic properties, but had not acquired any type 2-specific characterizations. NAg3a of the Sabin 3 strain seems atypical; other wild-type poliovirus isolates that have circulated in recent years have sequences of NAg3a more like the Sabin 2 strain. CONCLUSIONS: 10 natural type 3/type 2 intertypic VP1 capsid-recombinant polioviruses, in which the first crossover sites were found to be in the VP1 coding region, were isolated and characterized. In spite of the complete replacement of NAg3a by type 2-specific amino acids, the serotypes of the recombinants were not altered, and they were totally neutralized by polyclonal type 3 antisera but not at all by type 2 antisera. It is possible that recent type 3 wild poliovirus isolates may be a recombinant having NAg3a sequences derived from another strain during between 1967 and 1980, and the type 3/type 2 recombination events in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region may result in a higher fitness.
Project description:Environmental surveillance of poliovirus on sewage has been conducted in Shandong Province, China since 2008. A type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) with 7 mutations in VP1 coding region was isolated from the sewage collected in the city of Jinan in December 2012. The complete genome sequencing analysis of this isolate revealed 25 nucleotide substitutions, 7 of which resulted in amino acid alteration. No evidence of recombination with other poliovirus serotypes was observed. The virus did not lose temperature sensitive phenotype at 40°C. An estimation based on the evolution rate of the P1 coding region suggested that evolution time of this strain might be 160-176 days. VP1 sequence analysis revealed that this VDPV strain is of no close relationship with other local type 2 polioviruses (n=66) from sewage collected between May 2012 and June 2013, suggesting the lack of its circulation in the local population. The person who excreted the virus was not known and no closely related virus was isolated in local population via acute flaccid paralysis surveillance. By far this is the first report of VDPV isolated from sewage in China, and these results underscore the value of environmental surveillance in the polio surveillance system even in countries with high rates of OPV coverage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV or Sabin) is genetically unstable and may mutate to form vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). METHODS:In 2014, two VDPVs type 2 were identified during routine surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. Consequently, a retrospective VDPV survey was conducted to ensure that there was no circulating VDPV in the country. All Sabin poliovirus isolates identified in Uganda 6 months before and 6 months after were re-screened; Sabin 1 and 3 polioviruses were re-screened for Sabin 2 and Sabin 2 polioviruses were re-screened for VDPVs type 2. The Poliovirus rRT-PCR ITD/VDPV 4.0 assay and sequencing were used respectively. RESULTS:The first two VDPVs type2 were identified in Eastern Uganda and the third was identified during the survey from South-western Uganda. These regions had low OPV coverage and poor AFP surveillance indicators. CONCLUSION:The retrospective VDPV survey was a useful strategy to screen for VDPVs more exhaustively. Supplementary surveillance methods need to be encouraged.