Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors.
ABSTRACT: African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4(+) T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4(+) T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals.African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other molecules, such as GPR15 and CXCR6, also function as SIV coreceptors in vitro. In this study, we investigated whether SIV from vervet AGM can use non-CCR5 entry pathways, as has been observed in sooty mangabeys. We found that SIVagmVer efficiently replicated in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, suggesting that non-CCR5 entry pathways can support SIVagm entry. We found that AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 support SIVagmVer entry in vitro and may serve as entry coreceptors for SIVagm in vivo, since their mRNAs were detected in AGM memory CD4(+) T cells, the preferred target cells of SIV.
Project description:African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that do not progress to AIDS when infected with their species-specific viruses. Natural hosts of SIV express very low levels of the canonical entry coreceptor CCR5, and recent studies have shown that CCR5 is dispensable for SIV infection of SM in vivo and that blocking of CCR5 does not prevent ex vivo infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from SM or vervet AGM. In both hosts, CXCR6 is an efficient entry pathway in vitro Here we investigated the use of species-matched CXCR6 and other alternative coreceptors by SIVagmSab, which infects sabaeus AGM. We cloned sabaeus CD4 and 10 candidate coreceptors. Species-matched CXCR6, CCR5, and GPR15 mediated robust entry into transfected cells by pseudotypes carrying SIVagmSab92018ivTF Env, with lower-level entry through GPR1 and APJ. We cloned genetically divergent env genes from the plasma of two wild-infected sabaeus AGM and found similar patterns of coreceptor use. Titration experiments showed that CXCR6 and CCR5 were more efficient than other coreceptors when tested at limiting CD4/coreceptor levels. Finally, blocking of CXCR6 with its ligand CXCL16 significantly inhibited SIVagmSab replication in sabaeus PBMC and had a greater impact than did the CCR5 blocker maraviroc, confirming the use of CXCR6 in primary lymphocyte infection. These data suggest a new paradigm for SIV infection of natural host species, whereby a shared outcome of virus-host coevolution is the use of CXCR6 or other alternative coreceptors for entry, which may direct SIV toward CD4+ T cell subsets and anatomical sites that support viral replication without disrupting immune homeostasis and function. IMPORTANCE:Natural hosts of SIV do not progress to AIDS, in stark contrast to pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-human and SIVmac-macaque infections. Identifying how natural hosts avoid immunodeficiency can elucidate key mechanisms of pathogenesis. It is known that despite high viral loads, natural hosts have a low frequency of CD4+ cells expressing the SIV coreceptor CCR5. In this study, we demonstrate the efficient use of the coreceptor CXCR6 by SIVagmSab to infect sabaeus African green monkey lymphocytes. In conjunction with studies of SIVsmm, which infects sooty mangabeys, and SIVagmVer, which infects vervet monkeys, our data suggest a unifying model whereby in natural hosts, in which the CCR5 expression level is low, the use of CXCR6 or other coreceptors to mediate infection may target SIV toward distinct cell populations that are able to support high-level viral replication without causing a loss of CD4+ T cell homeostasis and lymphoid tissue damage that lead to AIDS in HIV-1 and SIVmac infections.
Project description:Pandemic HIV-1 originated from the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz, which infects chimpanzees, while SIVcpz itself emerged following the cross-species transmission and recombination of monkey SIVs, with env contributed by the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that infects greater spot-nosed, mustached and mona monkeys. SIVcpz and HIV-1 are pathogenic in their respective hosts, while the phenotype of their SIVgsn/mus/mon ancestors is unknown. However, two well-studied SIV infected natural hosts, sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs), typically remain healthy despite high viral loads; these species express low levels of the canonical coreceptor CCR5, and recent work shows that CXCR6 is a major coreceptor for SIV in these hosts. It is not known what coreceptors were used by the precursors of SIVcpz, whether coreceptor use changed during emergence of the SIVcpz/HIV-1 lineage, and what T cell subsets express CXCR6 in natural hosts. Using species-matched coreceptors and CD4, we show here that SIVcpz uses only CCR5 for entry and, like HIV-1, cannot use CXCR6. In contrast, SIVmus efficiently uses both CXCR6 and CCR5. Coreceptor selectivity was determined by Env, with CXCR6 use abrogated by Pro326 in the V3 crown, which is absent in monkey SIVs but highly conserved in SIVcpz/HIV-1. To characterize which cells express CXCR6, we generated a novel antibody that recognizes CXCR6 of multiple primate species. Testing lymphocytes from SM, the best-studied natural host, we found that CXCR6 is restricted to CD4+ effector memory cells, and is expressed by a sub-population distinct from those expressing CCR5. Thus, efficient CXCR6 use, previously identified in SM and AGM infection, also characterizes a member of the SIV lineage that gave rise to SIVcpz/HIV-1. Loss of CXCR6 usage by SIVcpz may have altered its cell tropism, shifting virus from CXCR6-expressing cells that may support replication without disrupting immune function or homeostasis, towards CCR5-expressing cells with pathogenic consequences.
Project description:T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a specialized subset of memory CD4(+) T cells that are found exclusively within the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid tissues and are important for adaptive antibody responses and B cell memory. Tfh cells do not express CCR5, the primary entry coreceptor for both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and therefore, we hypothesized that these cells would avoid infection. We studied lymph nodes and spleens from pigtail macaques infected with pathogenic strain SIVmac239 or SIVmac251, to investigate the susceptibility of Tfh cells to SIV infection. Pigtail macaque PD-1(high) CD127(low) memory CD4(+) T cells have a phenotype comparable to that of human Tfh cells, expressing high levels of CXCR5, interleukin-21 (IL-21), Bcl-6, and inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS). As judged by either proviral DNA or cell-associated viral RNA measurements, macaque Tfh cells were infected with SIV at levels comparable to those in other CD4(+) memory T cells. Infection of macaque Tfh cells was evident within weeks of inoculation, yet we confirmed that Tfh cells do not express CCR5 or either of the well-known alternative SIV coreceptors, CXCR6 and GPR15. Mutations in the SIV envelope gp120 region occurred in chronically infected macaques but were uniform across each T cell subset investigated, indicating that the viruses used the same coreceptors to enter different cell subsets. Early infection of Tfh cells represents an unexpected focus of viral infection. Infection of Tfh cells does not interrupt antibody production but may be a factor that limits the quality of antibody responses and has implications for assessing the size of the viral reservoir.
Project description:It has been established that many simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolates utilize the orphan receptors GPR15 and STRL33 about as efficiently as the chemokine receptor CCR5 for entry into target cells. Most studies were performed, however, with coreceptors of human origin. We found that SIV from captive rhesus macaques (SIVmac) can utilize both human and simian CCR5 and GPR15 with comparable efficiencies. Strikingly, however, only human STRL33 (huSTRL33), not rhesus macaque STRL33 (rhSTRL33), functioned efficiently as an entry cofactor for a variety of isolates of SIVmac and SIV from sooty mangabeys. A single amino acid substitution of S30R in huSTRL33 impaired coreceptor activity, and the reverse change in rhSTRL33 greatly increased coreceptor activity. In comparison, species-specific sequence variations in N-terminal tyrosines in STRL33 had only moderate effects on SIV entry. These results show that a serine residue located just outside of the cellular membrane in the N terminus of STRL33 is critical for SIV coreceptor function. Interestingly, STRL33 derived from sooty mangabeys, a natural host of SIV, also contained a serine at the corresponding position and was used efficiently as an entry cofactor. These results suggest that STRL33 is not a relevant coreceptor in the SIV/macaque model but may play a role in SIV replication and transmission in naturally infected sooty mangabeys.
Project description:Clinical isolates of primate immunodeficiency viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), enter target cells by sequential binding to CD4 and the chemokine receptor CCR5, a member of the seven-transmembrane receptor family. HIV-1 variants which use additional chemokine receptors are present in the central nervous system or emerge during the course of infection. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) have been shown to use CCR5 as a coreceptor, but no other receptors for these viruses have been identified. Here we show that two orphan seven-transmembrane segment receptors, gpr1 and gpr15, serve as coreceptors for SIV, and are expressed in human alveolar macrophages. The more efficient of these, gpr15, is also expressed in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes and activated rhesus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The gpr15 and gpr1 proteins lack several hallmarks of chemokine receptors, but share with CCR5 an amino-terminal motif rich in tyrosine residues. These results underscore the potential diversity of seven-transmembrane segment receptors used as entry cofactors by primate immunodeficiency viruses, and may contribute to an understanding of viral variation and pathogenesis.
Project description:African green monkeys (AGM) do not develop overt signs of disease following simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. While it is still unknown how natural hosts like AGM can cope with this lentivirus infection, a large number of investigations have shown that CD8(+) T-cell responses are critical for the containment of AIDS viruses in humans and Asian nonhuman primates. Here we have compared the phenotypes of T-cell subsets and magnitudes of SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in vervet AGM chronically infected with SIVagm and rhesus monkeys (RM) infected with SIVmac. In comparison to RM, vervet AGM exhibited weaker signs of immune activation and associated proliferation of CD8(+) T cells as detected by granzyme B, Ki-67, and programmed death 1 staining. By gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intracellular cytokine staining, SIV Gag- and Env-specific immune responses were detectable at variable but lower levels in vervet AGM than in RM. These observations demonstrate that natural hosts like SIV-infected vervet AGM develop SIV-specific T-cell responses, but the disease-free course of infection does not depend on the generation of robust CD8(+) T-cell responses.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C viruses with different coreceptor usage profiles were isolated from 29 South African patients with advanced AIDS. All 24 R5 isolates were inhibited by the CCR5-specific agents, PRO 140 and RANTES, while the two X4 viruses and the three R5X4 viruses were sensitive to the CXCR4-specific inhibitor, AMD3100. The five X4 or R5X4 viruses were all able to replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells that did not express CCR5. When tested using coreceptor-transfected cell lines, one R5 virus was also able to use CXCR6, and another R5X4 virus could use CCR3, BOB/GPR15, and CXCR6. The R5X4 and X4 viruses contained more-diverse V3 loop sequences, with a higher overall positive charge, than the R5 viruses. Hence, some HIV-1 subtype C viruses are able to use CCR5, CXCR4, or both CXCR4 and CCR5 for entry, and they are sensitive to specific inhibitors of entry via these coreceptors. These observations are relevant to understanding the rapid spread of HIV-1 subtype C in the developing world and to the design of intervention and treatment strategies.
Project description:African green monkeys (AGMs) infected with the AGM type of SIV (SIVagm) do not develop chronic immune activation and AIDS, despite viral loads similar to those detected in humans infected with HIV-1 and rhesus macaques (RMs) infected with the RM type of SIV (SIVmac). Because chronic immune activation drives progressive CD4+ T cell depletion and immune cell dysfunctions, factors that characterize disease progression, we sought to understand the molecular basis of this AGM phenotype. To this end, we longitudinally assessed the gene expression profiles of blood- and lymph node-derived CD4+ cells from AGMs and RMs in response to SIVagm and SIVmac infection, respectively, using a genomic microarray platform. The molecular signature of acute infection was characterized, in both species, by strong upregulation of type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). ISG expression returned to basal levels after postinfection day 28 in AGMs but was sustained in RMs, especially in the lymph node-derived cells. We also found that SIVagm induced IFN-alpha production by AGM cells in vitro and that low IFN-alpha levels were sufficient to induce strong ISG responses. In conclusion, SIV infection triggered a rapid and strong IFN-alpha response in vivo in both AGMs and RMs, with this response being efficiently controlled only in AGMs, possibly as a result of active regulatory mechanisms.
Project description:In contrast to HIV infection in humans and SIV in macaques, SIV infection of natural hosts including sooty mangabeys (SM) is non-pathogenic despite robust virus replication. We identified a novel SM CCR5 allele containing a two base pair deletion (?2) encoding a truncated molecule that is not expressed on the cell surface and does not support SIV entry in vitro. The allele was present at a 26% frequency in a large SM colony, along with 3% for a CCR5?24 deletion allele that also abrogates surface expression. Overall, 8% of animals were homozygous for defective CCR5 alleles and 41% were heterozygous. The mutant allele was also present in wild SM in West Africa. CD8+ and CD4+ T cells displayed a gradient of CCR5 expression across genotype groups, which was highly significant for CD8+ cells. Remarkably, the prevalence of natural SIVsmm infection was not significantly different in animals lacking functional CCR5 compared to heterozygous and homozygous wild-type animals. Furthermore, animals lacking functional CCR5 had robust plasma viral loads, which were only modestly lower than wild-type animals. SIVsmm primary isolates infected both homozygous mutant and wild-type PBMC in a CCR5-independent manner in vitro, and Envs from both CCR5-null and wild-type infected animals used CXCR6, GPR15 and GPR1 in addition to CCR5 in transfected cells. These data clearly indicate that SIVsmm relies on CCR5-independent entry pathways in SM that are homozygous for defective CCR5 alleles and, while the extent of alternative coreceptor use in SM with CCR5 wild type alleles is uncertain, strongly suggest that SIVsmm tropism and host cell targeting in vivo is defined by the distribution and use of alternative entry pathways in addition to CCR5. SIVsmm entry through alternative pathways in vivo raises the possibility of novel CCR5-negative target cells that may be more expendable than CCR5+ cells and enable the virus to replicate efficiently without causing disease in the face of extremely restricted CCR5 expression seen in SM and several other natural host species.
Project description:While the circumstances surrounding the origin and spread of HIV are becoming clearer, the particulars of the origin of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) are still unknown. Specifically, the age of SIV, whether it is an ancient or recent infection, has not been resolved. Although many instances of cross-species transmission of SIV have been documented, the similarity between the African green monkey (AGM) and SIVagm phylogenies has long been held as suggestive of ancient codivergence between SIVs and their primate hosts. Here, we present well-resolved phylogenies based on full-length AGM mitochondrial genomes and seven previously published SIVagm genomes; these allowed us to perform the first rigorous phylogenetic test to our knowledge of the hypothesis that SIVagm codiverged with the AGMs. Using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test, we show that the AGM mitochondrial genomes and SIVagm did not evolve along the same topology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SIVagm topology can be explained by a pattern of west-to-east transmission of the virus across existing AGM geographic ranges. Using a relaxed molecular clock, we also provide a date for the most recent common ancestor of the AGMs at approximately 3 million years ago. This study substantially weakens the theory of ancient SIV infection followed by codivergence with its primate hosts.