Development of a ten-signature classifier using a support vector machine integrated approach to subdivide the M1 stage into M1a and M1b stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with synchronous metastases to better predict patients' survival.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic classifier and subdivided the M1 stage for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with synchronous metastases (mNPC). A retrospective cohort of 347 mNPC patients was recruited between January 2000 and December 2010. Thirty hematological markers and 11 clinical characteristics were collected, and the association of these factors with overall survival (OS) was evaluated. Advanced machine learning schemes of a support vector machine (SVM) were used to select a subset of highly informative factors and to construct a prognostic model (mNPC-SVM). The mNPC-SVM classifier identified ten informative variables, including three clinical indexes and seven hematological markers. The median survival time for low-risk patients (M1a) as identified by the mNPC-SVM classifier was 38.0 months, and survival time was dramatically reduced to 13.8 months for high-risk patients (M1b) (P < 0.001). Multivariate adjustment using prognostic factors revealed that the mNPC-SVM classifier remained a powerful predictor of OS (M1a vs. M1b, hazard ratio, 3.45; 95% CI, 2.59 to 4.60, P < 0.001). Moreover, combination treatment of systemic chemotherapy and loco-regional radiotherapy was associated with significantly better survival outcomes than chemotherapy alone (the 5-year OS, 47.0% vs. 10.0%, P < 0.001) in the M1a subgroup but not in the M1b subgroup (12.0% vs. 3.0%, P = 0.101). These findings were validated by a separate cohort. In conclusion, the newly developed mNPC-SVM classifier led to more precise risk definitions that offer a promising subdivision of the M1 stage and individualized selection for future therapeutic regimens in mNPC patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In 2009, the American Joint Committee on Cancer version 7 staging system introduced the M1 subclassifications M1a (single metastatic site) and M1b (peritoneal or multiple metastatic sites). The study objectives were to evaluate the prognostic effect of site of metastasis and M1a/b category among patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer and synchronous metastasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed pathologic or clinical category M1 colorectal cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency between 1999 and 2007 were included. Demographic, tumor, treatment, and outcome data were prospectively collected, and prognostic factors were identified. Univariate Cox models were used to assess the prognostic impact of individual sites of metastasis and to determine the effect of M1a/b category on overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among 2,049 eligible patients, 70% had M1a and 30% M1b category disease. The most common sites of common single sites of metastasis included liver (56%), lung (5.3%), and peritoneum (3.6%). Metastasis to a single organ or site, including peritoneum, was associated with improved OS compared with multiple sites of metastasis. In multivariate analysis, M1b category conferred inferior survival and hazard ratio (HR) 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22, 1.55), along with age >70 and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 3-4. Resection of primary tumor was associated with improved survival, HR 0.46 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.52). Results were similar in subgroup analysis of patients undergoing resection of their primary tumor when histology, tumor, and node category were included. CONCLUSION: The results lend support to the introduction of M1a/b colorectal cancer categories. Consideration may be given to classifying patients with solitary peritoneal metastasis only as M1a rather than M1b category. Further refinement of category M1a to reflect resectability of metastasis at initial diagnosis may improve prognostication.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With the improvement of treatment and prognosis for patients with late malignant diseases, certain malignancies with distant metastasis (M1 category) have been further classified into M1a (single metastatic site) and M1b (multiple metastatic sites) category in the staging system. We aimed to assess the feasibility of sub-classifying metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPA) into M1a and M1b category depending on the number of metastatic organs. METHODS:Patient records were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2010-2015). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using the Cox regression model. Then survival analysis was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS:A total of 11,885 patients were included in this analysis, including 9425 patients with single metastasis and 2460 patients with multiple metastases. Multivariable analysis showed that gender, age, marital status, grade, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were independent prognostic factors for patients with single metastasis; gender, age, marital status, grade, chemotherapy and radiotherapy were independent prognostic factors for patients with multiple metastases. Notably, surgery was an independent prognostic factor for patients with single metastasis (P?<?0.001) but not for patients with multiple metastases (P?=?0.134). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with single metastasis (M1a) had better survival outcomes than patients with multiple metastases (M1b) (P?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:PA patients with M1 diseases could be divided into M1a (single metastasis) category and M1b (multiple metastases) category by the number of metastatic organs. The subclassification would facilitate individualized treatment for late PA patients. Surgery was associated with lower mortality in M1a patients but not significantly in M1b patients.
Project description:Contralateral lung tumors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are classified as stage M1a yet may represent hematogenous metastases or synchronous primary tumors. The impact of these tumors on overall survival (OS) is poorly understood. Here, we aim to determine whether NSCLC patients with M1a disease due only to a contralateral tumor nodule exhibit a favorable prognosis relative to other M1a or M1b patients.Retrospective evaluation of the impact of contralateral tumor nodules on OS in NSCLC stratified by primary tumor size and N stage attained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.Of 173,640 patients, 5161 M1a-contra patients were identified. Median and 3-year OS for these patients exceeded that of patients with M1b (p < 0.0001) or other M1a disease (p < 0.0001). Primary tumor size and N stage were strongly associated with OS in M1a-contra patients. Three-year OS demonstrated a delayed convergence between M1a-contra and other M1a patients with primary tumors greater than or equal to 3 cm or mediastinal lymph node involvement. Proportional hazard modeling indicated that T1-2N0-1M1a-contra patients exhibit OS not significantly different (p = 0.258) from that predicted with comparable T and N stage disease plus a second early-stage primary.Contralateral tumors in NSCLC carry a more favorable prognosis than other M1a or M1b disease. Primary tumor size and N stage may help distinguish M1a-contra patients with hematogenous metastasis from those with a synchronous, second primary.
Project description:To determine whether p21-activated Kinase (PAK) 6 is a prognostic and predictive marker in gastric cancer (GC) and to construct a classifier that can identify a subset of patients who are highly sensitive to 5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the expression levels of PAK6, cyclooxygenase 2, p21WAF1, Ki-67, excision repair cross-complementing gene 1, and thymidylate synthase in 242 paraffin-embedded GC specimens of the training cohort by immunohistochemistry. Then, we used support vector machine (SVM)-based methods to develop a predictive classifier for chemotherapy (chemotherapy score - CS-SVM classifier). Further validation was performed in an independent cohort of 279 patients. High PAK6 expression was associated with poor prognosis and increased chemoresistance to 5-FU/oxaliplatin chemotherapy. The CS-SVM classifier distinguished patients with stage II and III GC into low- and high-CS-SVM groups, with significant differences in the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in chemotherapy patients. Moreover, chemotherapy significantly prolonged the DFS and OS of the high CS-SVM patients in the training and validation cohorts. In conclusion, PAK6 was an independent prognostic factor and increased chemoresistance. The CS-SVM classifier distinguished a subgroup of stage II and III patients who would highly benefit from chemotherapy, thus facilitating patient counseling and individualizing the management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aims to identify a predictive model to predict survival outcomes of osteosarcoma (OS) patients. METHODS:A RNA sequencing dataset (the training set) and a microarray dataset (the validation set) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, respectively. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between metastatic and non-metastatic OS samples were identified in training set. Prognosis-related DEGs were screened and optimized by support vector machine (SVM) recursive feature elimination. A SVM classifier was built to classify metastatic and non-metastatic OS samples. Independent prognosic genes were extracted by multivariate regression analysis to build a risk score model followed by performance evaluation in two datasets by Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis. Independent clinical prognostic indicators were identified followed by nomogram analysis. Finally, functional analyses of survival-related genes were conducted. RESULT:Totally, 345 DEGs and 45 prognosis-related genes were screened. A SVM classifier could distinguish metastatic and non-metastatic OS samples. An eight-gene signature was an independent prognostic marker and used for constructing a risk score model. The risk score model could separate OS samples into high and low risk groups in two datasets (training set: log-rank p?<?0.01, C-index?=?0.805; validation set: log-rank p?<?0.01, C-index?=?0.797). Tumor metastasis and RS model status were independent prognostic factors and nomogram model exhibited accurate survival prediction for OS. Additionally, functional analyses of survival-related genes indicated they were closely associated with immune responses and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway. CONCLUSION:An eight-gene predictive model and nomogram were developed to predict OS prognosis.
Project description:Background:In this study, we retrospectively evaluated a series of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC) patients who received oral maintenance chemotherapy using S-1/capecitabine after systemic chemotherapy and local radiation therapy, and aimed to explore potential efficient treatment strategies for this subset of patients. Patients and Methods:Thirty-seven patients with mNPC (19 newly diagnosed metastatic patients and 18 metastatic cases after definitive chemoradiotherapy) who received the treatment strategies mentioned above were analyzed. Results:After a median follow-up time of 37 months, the 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 47.6% and 87.7%, respectively. The median time to progression was 27.6 months, while the median OS was not reached at time of last follow-up. The most common acute adverse events were hematological and gastrointestinal toxicity, and all were tolerable and curable. Conclusion:Oral maintenance chemotherapy using S-1/capecitabine in mNPC patients after systemic chemotherapy could yield a superb outcome. Further multicenter prospective clinical trials are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To explore the prognostic value of early radiological response (ERR) to first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy in patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC), as well as its correlation with the best radiological response (BRR). PATIENTS AND METHODS:A total of 756 mNPC patients with measurable lesions who received first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. ERR was defined as complete or partial response after 6 weeks of chemotherapy according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. We performed survival analyses according to the radiological response after repeated chemotherapy. Log-rank test and Cox regression were used to analyze the survival data. RESULTS:About 470 patients achieved ERR and 78 patients achieved subsequent response (objective response after repeated chemotherapy). ERR patients had better OS (P < .001, median OS: 34.3 vs 22.2 months) and PFS (P < .001, median PFS: 10.2 vs 7.4 months) than non-ERR ones. ERR (OS: HR = 0.591, 95% CI, 0.495-0.705, P < .001, PFS: HR = 0.586, 95% CI, 0.500-0.686, P < .001) was independently prolonged survival compared with non-ERR ones. Besides, ERR was significantly correlated with the BRR (Kappa: 0.73; Pearson: 0.74, P < .001), and had significantly longer OS and PFS than patients with subsequent response, respectively. CONCLUSION:ERR is an independent prognostic factor in determining survival in mNPC patients received first-line platinum-containing chemotherapy, which may be a more sensitive predictor to assess overall efficacy of systemic treatment than BRR in mNPC. Prospective validation studies are needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Oral maintenance chemotherapy can effectively prolong overall survival (OS) in many types of metastatic cancer, but its role in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (mNPC) is unclear. In this study, the efficacy of oral maintenance chemotherapy in mNPC and the effectiveness of circulating tumor EBV-DNA for screening patients were evaluated. METHODS:Between June 2016 and December 2017, 141 patients with mNPC who received platinum-based systemic chemotherapy were included (median follow-up time, 21 months). Patients were classified into two groups according to the administration of oral maintenance chemotherapy. Plasma samples were collected before, during, and after treatment for the measurement of circulating EBV DNA. RESULTS:The 2-year OS was higher for patients who received maintenance chemotherapy than for patients without maintenance chemotherapy (78.9% vs 62.7%, P = .016). Patients with undetectable posttreatment EBV-DNA after 4-6 cycles of systemic chemotherapy (n = 73) had a higher 2-year OS than that of patients with detectable EBV-DNA (n = 68) (82.16% vs 51.45%, P = .001). For patients with undetectable posttreatment EBV-DNA, OS was better for those with maintenance chemotherapy than for those without (86.7% vs 73%, P = .027). For patients with detectable posttreatment EBV-DNA, maintenance chemotherapy did not improve outcomes (49.5% vs 55.4%, P = .824). The most common acute events were hematological toxicity, and all were tolerable and curable. CONCLUSIONS:Oral maintenance chemotherapy with S1 or capecitabine can improve OS in mNPC. Posttreatment EBV-DNA was not only an independent prognosis factor for mNPC but also can screen out beneficiaries of maintenance chemotherapy.
Project description:Two metabolites (M4 and M1b) in plasma and four metabolites (M4, M6, M1a and M1b) in faeces were detected through the human ADME study following a single oral administration of [14C]alectinib, a small-molecule anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, to healthy subjects. In the present study, M1a and M1b, which chemical structures had not been identified prior to the human ADME study, were identified as isomers of a carboxylate metabolite oxidatively cleaved at the morpholine ring. In faeces, M4 and M1b were the main metabolites, which shows that the biotransformation to M4 and M1b represents two main metabolic pathways for alectinib. In plasma, M4 was a major metabolite and M1b was a minor metabolite. The contribution to in vivo pharmacological activity of these circulating metabolites was assessed from their in vitro pharmacological activity and plasma protein binding. M4 had a similar cancer cell growth inhibitory activity and plasma protein binding to that of alectinib, suggesting its contribution to the antitumor activity of alectinib, whereas the pharmacological activity of M1b was insignificant.
Project description:Background:Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is typically categorized according to disease extent as limited or extensive, and utility of the 8th TNM classification, recommended for lung cancer staging, which demonstrates a strong association with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) management, remains unclear. Methods:This retrospective study included 277 consecutive SCLC patients treated at a single institution between 2008 and 2016. Results:According to the currently used two-stage system, 186 (65.7%) of the patients were classified as having extensive disease (ED)-SCLC. Among the ED-SCLC patients, ten (5.3%), 38 (20.4%), 32 (17.2%), and 106 (57.0%) were categorized into stages M0, M1a, M1b, and M1c, respectively, according to the 8th TNM classification. There was a significant difference in overall survival based on the M descriptors: 15.8 (95% CI 9.4-22.2) months in the M1b group vs 7.3 (95% CI 5.7-8.9) months in the M1c group (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that in addition to the known prognostic factors such as performance status, serum albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase, M descriptor was a prognostic factor (HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.38-2.77; P<0.001). Conclusion:The 8th TNM classification has a prognostic value in SCLC. Similarly to NSCLC, treatment approaches should be considered on the basis of the 8th TNM classification, especially stage IVA separate from stage IVB in ED-SCLC patients.