Evaluation of autologous platelet rich plasma for cardiac surgery: outcome analysis of 2000 patients.
ABSTRACT: Deep and superficial sternal wound infections (DSWI & SWI) following cardiac surgery increase morbidity, mortality and cost. Autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) derived from the patient's own blood has been used in other surgical settings to promote successful wound healing. The goal of this study was to analyze the addition of PRP using a rapid point of care bedside system to standard wound care in all patients undergoing sternotomy for cardiac surgical procedures.Over a 7 year period, 2000 patients undergoing open cardiac operations requiring sternotomy were enrolled. One thousand patients received standard of care sternal closure. The other 1000 patients received standard of care sternal closure plus PRP applied to the sternum at the time of closure. The outcomes related to wound healing, infection, readmissions, and costs were analyzed.In the 2000 patients, there were more ventricular assist device implants/heart transplants and emergency operations in the PRP group; otherwise there were no significant differences. The use of PRP reduced the incidence of DSWI from 2.0 to 0.6 %, SWI from 8.0 to 2.0 %, and the readmission rate from 4.0 to 0.8 %. The use of PRP reduced the costs associated with the development of deep and superficial wound complications from $1,256,960 to $593,791.The use of PRP decreases the incidence and costs of sternal wound complications following cardiac surgery. The routine use of platelet rich plasma should be considered for all patients undergoing sternotomy for cardiac surgical procedures.Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT00130377 ) for the data registry.
Project description:Deep sternal wound infections (DSWI), although an infrequent complication, significantly impair postoperative outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Among several preventive strategies, topical antibiotic therapy immediately before sternal closure has been strongly advocated. In this retrospective analysis, the incidence of DSWI in 517 patients undergoing isolated CABG and receiving rifampicin irrigation of mediastinum, sternum and suprasternal tissues was compared to an historical consecutive cohort of 448 patients. To account for the inherent selection bias, a 1:1 propensity matched analysis was performed. Patients receiving topical rifampicin experienced significantly less occurrence of postoperative DSWI (0.2% vs 2.5%, p?=?0.0016 in the unmatched analysis; 0.3% vs 2.1%, p?=?0.0391 in the matched analysis). Intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, and operative mortality were similar between groups. This study shows that topical rifampicin in combination with commonly prescribed preventative strategies significantly reduces the incidence of DSWI to less than 0.3% in unselected patients undergoing a full median sternotomy for CABG. Further studies, including a larger number of patients and with a randomization design, would establish the potential preventative role of topical rifampicin in reducing the occurrence of DSWI.
Project description:Background:Rigid plate fixation (RPF) is the cornerstone in managing fractures and osteotomies except for sternotomy, where most cardiac surgeons continue to use wire cerclage (WC). Results of a multicenter randomized trial evaluating sternal healing, sternal complications, patient reported outcome measures (PROMs), and costs after sternotomy closure with RPF or WC are summarized here. Methods:Twelve US centers randomized 236 patients to either RPF (n=116) or WC (n=120). The primary endpoint, sternal healing at 6 months, was evaluated by a core laboratory using computed tomography and a validated 6-point scale (greater scores represent greater healing). Secondary endpoints assessed through 6 months included sternal complications and PROMs. Costs from the time of sternal closure through 90 days and 6 months were analyzed by a health economic core laboratory. Results:RPF compared to WC resulted in better sternal healing scores at 3 (2.6±1.1 vs. 1.8±1.0; P<0.0001) and 6 months (3.8±1.0 vs. 3.3±1.1; P=0.0007) and higher sternal union rates at 3 [41% (42/103) vs. 16% (16/102); P<0.0001] and 6 months [80% (81/101) vs. 67% (67/100); P=0.03]. There were fewer sternal complications with RPF through 6 months [0% (0/116) vs. 5% (6/120); P=0.03] and a trend towards fewer sternal wound infections [0% (0/116) vs. 4.2% (5/120); P=0.06]. All PROMs including sternal pain, upper extremity function (UEF), and quality-of-life scores were numerically better in RPF patients compared to WC patients at all follow-up time points. Although RPF was associated with a trend toward higher index hospitalization costs, a trend towards lower follow-up costs resulted in total costs that were $1,888 less at 90 days in RPF patients compared to WC patients (95% CI: -$8,889 to $4,273; P=0.52) and $1,646 less at 6 months (95% CI: -$9,127 to $4,706; P=0.61). Conclusions:Sternotomy closure with RPF resulted in significantly better sternal healing, fewer sternal complications, improved PROMs and was cost neutral through 90 days and 6 months compared to WC.
Project description:Management of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) in cardiac surgical patients still remains challenging. A variety of treatment strategies has been described. Aim of this cohort study was to analyse two different treatment strategies for DSWI: titanium sternal plating system (TSFS) and muscle flap coverage (MFC).Between January 2007 and December 2011, from 3122 patients undergoing cardiac surgery 42 were identified with DSWI and treated with one of the above mentioned strategies. In-hospital data were collected, follow-up performed by telephone and assessment of Quality of Life (QoL) using the SF-12 Health Survey Questionnaire.20 patients with deep sternal wound infection were stabilized with TSFS and 22 patients treated with MFC. Preoperative demographics and risk factors did not reveal any significant differences. Patients treated with TSFS had a significantly shorter operation time (p<0.05) and shorter hospitalization (p<0.05). A tendency towards lower mortality rate (p = n.s.) and less re-interventions were also noted (plating 0.6 vs. flap 1.17 per patient, n.s.). Quality of Life in the TSFS group for the physical-summary-score was significantly elevated compared to the MFC group (p<0.05). Relating to chest stability and cosmetic result the treatment with TSFS showed superior results, but the usage of MFC gave the patients more freedom in breathing and less chest pain.Our results demonstrate that the use of TSFS is a feasible and safe alternative in DSWI. However, MFC remains an absolutely essential option for complicated DSWI since the amount of perfused tissue can be the key for infection control.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate the impact of delayed flap closure on mortality and resource use for treatment of deep sternal wound infection.The authors analyzed the Truven MarketScan Databases from 2009 to 2013 to identify adult patients who developed deep sternal wound infection after open cardiac surgery and who underwent flap closure for treatment. A multivariable logistic regression model was created to evaluate the relationship between mortality and flap timing. Multivariable Poisson regressions were used to investigate the relationship between flap timing and number of procedures, number of hospitalizations, and length of stay outcomes. A multivariable log-linear regression model was created for cost analysis. All analyses were adjusted for patient risk factors and treatment characteristics.The authors identified 612 patients with deep sternal wound infection who underwent flap closure. The timing of flap closure was delayed more than 7 days after diagnosis in 39 percent of patients. Delayed time to flap closure greater than 3 days after diagnosis of infection was associated with higher mortality odds for delay 4 to 7 days (OR, 2.94) and delay greater than 7 days (OR, 2.75; p < 0.03), greater additional procedures for delay 4 to 7 days (incidence rate ratio, 1.72) and delay greater than 7 days (incidence rate ratio, 1.93; p < 0.001), and up to 43 percent longer hospital length of stay and 37 percent greater costs compared with patients undergoing flap closure 0 to 3 days after diagnosis.Delay in flap closure was associated with greater mortality and resource use. Prompt involvement of reconstructive surgeons may improve quality and efficiency of deep sternal wound infection care.Therapeutic, III.
Project description:Background:Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a life-threatening complication after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of reconstructing infected poststernotomy wounds with either vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) after previous debridement or bilateral pectoralis major muscle flaps (BPMMFs). Methods:In total, 565 patients with postoperative DSWI were enrolled in this study from January 1, 2014, to June 1, 2018. Of these patients, 247 received BPMMFs. To address the indicated biases, a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort was created based on age, body mass index, preoperative diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), internal thoracic artery grafting (ITAG), type of cardiac surgery, time before treatment for DSWI and wound classification. After matching, 132 patients who had similar risk profiles were enrolled in the study population (66 in the VAC group: 66 in the BPMMF group). Results:At 21.9±12.1 (median: 24, IQR: 14-28) months of follow-up, the survival rate was 93.9% in the BPMMF group and 74.4% in the VAC group (P<0.01). Compared with the VAC group, the BPMMF group had a significantly decreased length of hospital stay (P<0.01). At the spirometry assessment, the forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1), vital capacity (VC), and FEV1/VC ratio showed no significant differences in survival between the VAC group and BPMMF group. Conclusions:In our study, compared with VAC therapy, BPMMFs guaranteed better early- and late-term outcomes, as shown by less length of hospital stay, a higher rate of long-term survival and unimpaired respiratory function.
Project description:Sternal wound infection is a life-threatening complication after cardiac surgery associated with high morbidity and mortality. Past treatment options have included closed suction and continuous irrigation. Current paradigms in the management of sternal wound infection include surgical debridement, vacuum-assisted closure therapy, flap coverage, and sternal plating. We provide a general overview of sternal wound infection and treatment options for the plastic surgeon.
Project description:Background:Medial sternotomy is commonly used in cardiac surgery, although it results in intense post-operative pain. The placement of a sternal wound catheter for the administration of local anesthetic represents an effective technique. An initial bolus of tramadol in the sternal wound catheter could potentiate the effect of the local anesthetic and decrease both the post-operative pain and the morphine consumption. Patients and methods:We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study at the University Hospital Center, Dijon, France. Patients requiring scheduled or non-extreme emergency surgery for valve disease, aorta disease, atrial myxoma, or coronary artery bypass graft via sternotomy were included. A sternal wound catheter was inserted at the end of the surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a 2 mg/kg bolus of tramadol (n=80) or a placebo (n=80) in the wound catheter. The bolus administration was followed by a continuous infusion of 1.25% levobupivacaine for the first 48 hrs following surgery. The patients' morphine consumption during the first 48 hrs after extubation was recorded. The other investigated variables were the patients' rescue analgesia, arterial blood gasses, and length of stay in the intensive care unit and in hospital, as well as the incidence of chronic pain at the four-month follow-up point. Results:The morphine consumption was found to be comparable in the two groups (38 mg vs 32 mg, p=0.102). No effect was found in terms of the arterial blood gasses, lengths of stay, or incidence of chronic pain. Conclusion:The addition of tramadol to the local anesthetic delivered via a wound catheter following sternotomy did not reduce the patients' post-operative morphine consumption. Trial registration:Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02851394.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This meta-analysis was designed to assess whether center experience affects the short- and long-term results and the relative benefits of bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) for coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS AND RESULTS:MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify all articles reporting the outcome of BITA in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The BITA center experience was gauged according to the percentage use of BITA in the institutional overall coronary artery bypass grafting population (%BITA). The primary outcome was long-term all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were operative mortality, perioperative myocardial infarction, perioperative stroke, deep sternal wound infections (DSWIs), and major postoperative adverse event. The rates of the primary and secondary outcomes were calculated after adjusting for %BITA. Primary and secondary outcomes were also compared between the BITA and the single internal thoracic artery arms in the adjusted studies. Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of %BITA on the primary and secondary outcomes. Thirty-four studies (27 894 patients undergoing BITA) were included. In the pooled analysis, the incidence rate for long-term mortality was 2.83% (95% confidence interval, 2.21%-3.61%). %BITA was significantly and inversely associated with long-term mortality and the rate of DSWI. In the pairwise comparison, %BITA was significantly and inversely associated with the risk of long-term mortality and DSWI in the group undergoing BITA. CONCLUSIONS:BITA series with higher %BITA report significantly lower long-term mortality and DSWI rate as well as higher long-term survival advantage and lower relative risk of DSWI in their BITA cohort. These findings suggest that a specific volume-outcome relationship exists for BITA grafting.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: We examined the impact of the bioresorbable osteosynthesis sternal pin (Super Fixsorb 30) on sternal healing after median sternotomy. METHODS: Sixty-three patients who underwent aortic surgery through median sternotomy between January 2006 and March 2009 were analysed. Sternal pins were utilized in 36 patients in addition to the standard closure of the sternum with Ethibond sutures (Group A), and 27 patients received no pins with the standard Ethibond sternal closure (Group B). The occurrence of transverse sternal dehiscence, anterior-posterior displacement and complete fusion of the sternum were evaluated by a computed tomography scan. The cross-sectional cortical bone density area (CBDA) of the sternum was examined to evaluate the osteoconductivity of the sternal pin over a 12-month period. RESULTS: There was no sternal displacement (0%) observed in Group A at discharge. Meanwhile, five displacements (18.5%) were observed in Group B (P = 0.007). The complete sternal fusion rates at 12 months postoperatively were 100% in Group A, and 21.6% in Group B (P < 0.001). A significant increase in the CBDA was observed in Group A (P < 0.001; between CBDA at discharge and 12 months postoperatively). CONCLUSIONS: The Super Fixsorb 30 sternal pin reduced an anterior-posterior sternal displacement and facilitated an earlier sternal fusion. The pin may have the potential to promote osteogenesis.
Project description:Deep sternal wound infection is a devastating complication of cardiac surgery. In the current era of increasing patient comorbidity, newer techniques must be evaluated in attempts to reduce the rates of deep sternal wound infection.A randomized controlled trial comparing sternal closure with traditional sternal wires in figure-8 formation with the Pioneer cabling system® from Medigroup after adult cardiac surgery was performed.A total of 273 patients were enrolled with 137 and 135 patients randomized to sternal wires and cables group, respectively. Baseline characteristics between the two groups were well balanced. Deep sternal wound infection occurred in 0.7% of patients in the wires group and 3.7% of patients in the cables group (absolute risk difference = -3.0%, 95% confidence interval: -7.7 to 0.9%; P = 0.12). Patients in the cables group were extubated slightly earlier than those in the sternal wires group postoperatively (9.7 vs 12.8 h; P = 0.03). There was, however, no significant difference in hospital and follow-up pain scores or analgesia requirements.The Pioneer sternal cabling system appears to facilitate early extubation after adult cardiac surgery, but it does not reduce the rate of deep sternal infectionAustralian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ANZCTR-ACTRN12615000973516.