A nonlinear mechanics model of bio-inspired hierarchical lattice materials consisting of horseshoe microstructures.
ABSTRACT: Development of advanced synthetic materials that can mimic the mechanical properties of non-mineralized soft biological materials has important implications in a wide range of technologies. Hierarchical lattice materials constructed with horseshoe microstructures belong to this class of bio-inspired synthetic materials, where the mechanical responses can be tailored to match the nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves of human skins. The underlying relations between the J-shaped stress-strain curves and their microstructure geometry are essential in designing such systems for targeted applications. Here, a theoretical model of this type of hierarchical lattice material is developed by combining a finite deformation constitutive relation of the building block (i.e., horseshoe microstructure), with the analyses of equilibrium and deformation compatibility in the periodical lattices. The nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves and Poisson ratios predicted by this model agree very well with results of finite element analyses (FEA) and experiment. Based on this model, analytic solutions were obtained for some key mechanical quantities, e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, peak modulus, and critical strain around which the tangent modulus increases rapidly. A negative Poisson effect is revealed in the hierarchical lattice with triangular topology, as opposed to a positive Poisson effect in hierarchical lattices with Kagome and honeycomb topologies. The lattice topology is also found to have a strong influence on the stress-strain curve. For the three isotropic lattice topologies (triangular, Kagome and honeycomb), the hierarchical triangular lattice material renders the sharpest transition in the stress-strain curve and relative high stretchability, given the same porosity and arc angle of horseshoe microstructure. Furthermore, a demonstrative example illustrates the utility of the developed model in the rapid optimization of hierarchical lattice materials for reproducing the desired stress-strain curves of human skins. This study provides theoretical guidelines for future designs of soft bio-mimetic materials with hierarchical lattice constructions.
Project description:Based on the first-principles evolutionary materials design, we report a stable boron Kagome lattice composed of triangles in triangles on a two-dimensional sheet. The Kagome lattice can be synthesized on a silver substrate, with selecting Mg atoms as guest atoms. While the isolated Kagome lattice is slightly twisted without strain, it turns into an ideal triangular Kagome lattice under tensile strain. In the triangular Kagome lattice, we find the exotic electronic properties, such as topologically non-trivial flat band near the Fermi energy and half-metallic ferromagnetism, and predict the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the presence of spin-orbit coupling.
Project description:Geometric frustration, in which competing interactions give rise to degenerate ground states, potentially induces various exotic quantum phenomena in magnetic materials. Minimal models comprising triangular units, such as triangular and Kagome lattices, have been investigated for decades to realize novel quantum phases, such as quantum spin liquid. A pentagon is the second-minimal elementary unit for geometric frustration. The realization of such systems is expected to provide a distinct platform for studying frustrated magnetism. Here, we present a spin-1/2 quantum pentagonal lattice in the new organic radical crystal ?-2,6-Cl2-V [=?-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,5-diphenylverdazyl]. Its unique molecular arrangement allows the formation of a partially corner-shared pentagonal lattice (PCPL). We find a clear 1/3 magnetization plateau and an anomalous change in magnetization in the vicinity of the saturation field, which originate from frustrated interactions in the PCPL.
Project description:Quantum magnets provide the simplest example of strongly interacting quantum matter, yet they continue to resist a comprehensive understanding above one spatial dimension. We explore a promising framework in two dimensions, the Dirac spin liquid (DSL) - quantum electrodynamics (QED3) with 4 Dirac fermions coupled to photons. Importantly, its excitations include magnetic monopoles that drive confinement. We address previously open key questions - the symmetry actions on monopoles on square, honeycomb, triangular and kagome lattices. The stability of the DSL is enhanced on triangular and kagome lattices compared to bipartite (square and honeycomb) lattices. We obtain the universal signatures of the DSL on triangular and kagome lattices, including those of monopole excitations, as a guide to numerics and experiments on existing materials. Even when unstable, the DSL helps unify and organize the plethora of ordered phases in correlated two-dimensional materials.
Project description:The energy dispersion of fermions or bosons vanishes in momentum space if destructive quantum interference occurs in a frustrated Kagome lattice with only nearest-neighbor hopping. A discrete flat band (FB) without any dispersion is consequently formed, promising the emergence of fractional quantum Hall states at high temperatures. Here, we report the experimental realization of an FB with possible nontrivial topology in an electronic Kagome lattice on twisted multilayer silicene. Because of the unique low-buckled two-dimensional structure of silicene, a robust electronic Kagome lattice has been successfully induced by moiré patterns after twisting the silicene multilayers. The electrons are localized in the Kagome lattice because of quantum destructive interference, and thus, their kinetic energy is quenched, which gives rise to an FB peak in the density of states. A robust and pronounced one-dimensional edge state has been revealed at the Kagome edge, which resides at higher energy than the FB. Our observations of the FB and the exotic edge state in electronic Kagome lattice open up the possibility that fractional Chern insulators could be realized in two-dimensional materials.
Project description:Soft adaptable materials that change their shapes, volumes, and properties in response to changes under ambient conditions have important applications in tissue engineering, soft robotics, biosensing, and flexible displays. Upon water absorption, most existing soft materials, such as hydrogels, show a positive volume change, corresponding to a positive swelling. By contrast, the negative swelling represents a relatively unusual phenomenon that does not exist in most natural materials. The development of material systems capable of large or anisotropic negative swelling remains a challenge. We combine analytic modeling, finite element analyses, and experiments to design a type of soft mechanical metamaterials that can achieve large effective negative swelling ratios and tunable stress-strain curves, with desired isotropic/anisotropic features. This material system exploits horseshoe-shaped composite microstructures of hydrogel and passive materials as the building blocks, which extend into a periodic network, following the lattice constructions. The building block structure leverages a sandwiched configuration to convert the hydraulic swelling deformations of hydrogel into bending deformations, thereby resulting in an effective shrinkage (up to around -47% linear strain) of the entire network. By introducing spatially heterogeneous designs, we demonstrated a range of unusual, anisotropic swelling responses, including those with expansion in one direction and, simultaneously, shrinkage along the perpendicular direction. The design approach, as validated by experiments, allows the determination of tailored microstructure geometries to yield desired length/area changes. These design concepts expand the capabilities of existing soft materials and hold promising potential for applications in a diverse range of areas.
Project description:Quantum entanglement in magnetic materials is expected to yield a quantum spin liquid (QSL), in which strong quantum fluctuations prevent magnetic ordering even at zero temperature. This topic has been one of the primary focuses of condensed-matter science since Anderson first proposed the resonating valence bond state in a certain spin-1/2 frustrated magnet in 1973. Since then, several candidate materials featuring frustration, such as triangular and kagome lattices, have been reported to exhibit liquid-like behavior. However, the mechanisms that stabilize the liquid-like states have remained elusive. Here, we present a QSL state in a spin-1/2 honeycomb lattice with randomness in the exchange interaction. That is, we successfully introduce randomness into the organic radial-based complex and realize a random-singlet (RS) state (or valence bond glass). All magnetic and thermodynamic experimental results indicate the liquid-like behaviors, which are consistent with those expected in the RS state. Our results suggest that the randomness or inhomogeneity in the actual systems stabilize the RS state and yield liquid-like behavior.
Project description:Model lattices consisting of balls connected by central-force springs provide much of our understanding of mechanical response and phonon structure of real materials. Their stability depends critically on their coordination number z. d-dimensional lattices with z = 2d are at the threshold of mechanical stability and are isostatic. Lattices with z < 2d exhibit zero-frequency "floppy" modes that provide avenues for lattice collapse. The physics of systems as diverse as architectural structures, network glasses, randomly packed spheres, and biopolymer networks is strongly influenced by a nearby isostatic lattice. We explore elasticity and phonons of a special class of two-dimensional isostatic lattices constructed by distorting the kagome lattice. We show that the phonon structure of these lattices, characterized by vanishing bulk moduli and thus negative Poisson ratios (equivalently, auxetic elasticity), depends sensitively on boundary conditions and on the nature of the kagome distortions. We construct lattices that under free boundary conditions exhibit surface floppy modes only or a combination of both surface and bulk floppy modes; and we show that bulk floppy modes present under free boundary conditions are also present under periodic boundary conditions but that surface modes are not. In the long-wavelength limit, the elastic theory of all these lattices is a conformally invariant field theory with holographic properties (characteristics of the bulk are encoded on the sample boundary), and the surface waves are Rayleigh waves. We discuss our results in relation to recent work on jammed systems. Our results highlight the importance of network architecture in determining floppy-mode structure.
Project description:With the advanced investigations into low-dimensional systems, it has become essential to find materials having interesting lattices that can be exfoliated down to monolayer. One particular important structure is a kagome lattice with its potentially diverse and vibrant physics. We report a van-der-Waals kagome lattice material, Pd<sub>3</sub>P<sub>2</sub>S<sub>8,</sub> with several unique properties such as an intriguing flat band. The flat band is shown to arise from a possible compact-localized state of all five 4d orbitals of Pd. The diamagnetic susceptibility is precisely measured to support the calculated susceptibility obtained from the band structure. We further demonstrate that Pd<sub>3</sub>P<sub>2</sub>S<sub>8</sub> can be exfoliated down to monolayer, which ultimately will allow the possible control of the localized states in this two-dimensional kagome lattice using the electric field gating.
Project description:A new semiconducting phase of two-dimensional phosphorous in the Kagome lattice is proposed from first-principles calculations. The band gaps of the monolayer (ML) and bulk Kagome phosphorous (Kagome-P) are 2.00 and 1.11 eV, respectively. The magnitude of the band gap is tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. High optical absorption coefficients at the visible light region are predicted for multilayer Kagome-P, indicating potential applications for solar cell devices. The nearly dispersionless top valence band of the ML Kagome-P with high density of states at the Fermi level leads to superconductivity with Tc of ~9 K under the optimal hole doping concentration. We also propose that the Kagome-P can be fabricated through the manipulation of the substrate-induced strain during the process of the sample growth. Our work demonstrates the high applicability of the Kagome-P in the fields of electronics, photovoltaics, and superconductivity.
Project description:Many biological tissues offer J-shaped stress-strain responses, since their microstructures exhibit a three-dimensional (3D) network construction of curvy filamentary structures that lead to a bending-to-stretching transition of the deformation mode under an external tension. The development of artificial 3D soft materials and device systems that can reproduce the nonlinear, anisotropic mechanical properties of biological tissues remains challenging. Here we report a class of soft 3D network materials that can offer defect-insensitive, nonlinear mechanical responses closely matched with those of biological tissues. This material system exploits a lattice configuration with different 3D topologies, where 3D helical microstructures that connect the lattice nodes serve as building blocks of the network. By tailoring geometries of helical microstructures or lattice topologies, a wide range of desired anisotropic J-shaped stress-strain curves can be achieved. Demonstrative applications of the developed conducting 3D network materials with bio-mimetic mechanical properties suggest potential uses in flexible bio-integrated devices.