Excision of the urachal remnant using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy: A case report.
ABSTRACT: Here, we report the surgical excision of the urachal remnant using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy with a camera port in the umbilicus, combined with a small Pfannenstiel incision to optimally treat the bladder apex.A 21-year-old woman presented with periumbilical discharge and pain on urination. Contrast enhanced CT and MRI showed an abscess in the umbilical region that was connected to the bladder via a long tube-like structure. It was diagnosed as an infected urachal sinus. Partial excision of the umbilical fossa followed by dissection of the urachal remnant was easily performed using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy from the umbilicus down to the bladder without pneumoperitoneum or additional trocar placement. A Pfannenstiel incision was made above the pubis to get access to the junction between the urachal remnant and the bladder. Under direct vision, we succeeded in accurately dividing the remnant tract, and we adequately closed the bladder opening with absorbable sutures. This method has the advantage of easily closing peritoneal defects after excision of the urachal remnant with direct sutures under a laparoscopic view from the umbilicus. Cosmetic satisfaction was obtained postoperatively.Urachal sinus excision using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy seems to surpass the previously reported methods in term of safety, cosmetics, and adequacy of surgical procedures.
Project description:Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is an uncommon affliction in adolescence. It is usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. The disease is caused by lymphohaematogenous spread after primary infection in the lung or ingestion of infected sputum and has a typically protean and nonspecific presentation. The occurrence of TB in an urachal remnant is probably from the contiguous spread of an abdominal focus or mesenteric lymph node. Urachal TB is a rare entity, with only two reported cases in the literature. We report here a case of clinically silent pulmonary and abdominal TB that manifested in the infection of an urachal sinus and highlight the role of laparoscopy in its diagnosis and treatment.A 14-year-old boy presented to our institution with peri-umbilical swelling and purulent discharge from his umbilicus for 2 weeks duration. There were no radiological, microbiological or clinical evidences of TB in the initial presentation, though he had close social contact with someone who had TB. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen confirmed the diagnosis of an urachal abscess. An incision and drainage procedure was performed followed by a course of antibiotics. A scheduled laparoscopic approach later showed that the peritoneum and serosal surface of the small and large intestines were studded with nodules of variable sizes, in addition to the urachal sinus. The histology of the resected tissues (urachal sinus and nodules) was consistent of TB infection. He recovered fully after completing 6 months of anti-tuberculous therapy.This report highlights a rare case of TB urachal abscess in an adolescent boy, the difficulties in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis, the need to consider TB as a cause of urachal infection in endemic areas and the use of laparoscopy in both diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Urachal adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the bladder. Most of these tumors arise from urachal remnants in the dome of the bladder and extend into the umbilicus. These tumors can recur and most commonly metastasize to lymph nodes, retroperitoneum, lungs, liver and bone. Here we report a case of an urachal adenocarcinoma followed for seven years with lung metastasis for three years.
Project description:Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas are usually managed by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), often followed by intravesical chemotherapy to minimize recurrence. Open surgery is the gold standard procedure for RNU, but it associates with high morbidity, and it has been increasingly replaced by minimally invasive strategies, such as laparoscopy and endoscopy. Although effective, endoscopic ureteral excision leaves the bladder unsutured, increasing the risk of tumor spillage, and precluding the immediate administration of intravesical chemotherapy. Here we describe a new method to close the bladder wall after ureteral excision, using barbed sutures via the endoscopic access. Our results in 8 female pigs demonstrate that this method is effective to close the bladder wall. The procedure was completed in a median time of 24?min, and no adverse events were registered in the follow-up or at the three-week necropsy. This technique improves a previous approach described by our group because the device is more flexible and allows to tie the knots inside the bladder. Barbed sutures have been used in the clinical practice for other types of surgeries, and therefore this method can further be adapted to human patients with no safety concerns. Its use may allow to administer intravesical chemotherapy, which reduces tumor recurrence and improves patient outcomes.
Project description:Infantile abdominoscrotal hydrocele (ASH) is a rare condition characterized by a dumbbell-shaped cystic mass extending from the scrotum to the abdomen. We present the case of a 4-month-old infant who presented with progressively enlarging bilateral scrotal swelling and a tense, ballotable right-sided abdominal mass with extension into the scrotum. Scrotal ultrasound revealed bilateral hydroceles but exam and ultrasound could not rule out communication. At the time of planned hydrocelectomy, initial diagnostic laparoscopy was used to identify a massive right-sided ASH extending from the internal ring to the umbilicus and a large noncommunicating left-sided hydrocele that was visible with application of pressure to the left side of the scrotum. Following confirmation of anatomy with diagnostic laparoscopy, a scrotal approach to hydrocelectomy was performed as well as bilateral orchidopexy.
Project description:Urachal adenocarcinoma is a rare bladder malignancy arising from the urachal remnant. Given its rarity and the lack of knowledge about its genetic characteristics, optimal management of this cancer is not well defined. Practice patterns vary and outcomes remain poor. In order to identify the genomic underpinnings of this malignancy, we performed whole exome sequencing using seven tumor/normal pairs of formalin fixed archival specimens. We identified recurrent evidence of MAP-kinase pathway activation as three patients had neurofibromin 1 (NF1) mutations, with one of these patients also harboring an oncogenic KRAS G13D mutation. We also observed recurrent evidence of Wnt/?-catenin pathway activation as three patients had oncogenic mutations in APC or RNF43. In addition, somatic copy number analysis revealed focal chromosome 12p amplifications in three samples, resembling findings from testicular germ cell tumors. We describe the genomic landscape of this malignancy in our institutional cohort and propose investigation of the therapeutic potential for MAP-K pathway inhibition in the subset of patients who show evidence of its activation.
Project description:Background: Bladder adenocarcinoma (AC) is a scarce histological variant and there are few studies on its proper management. No previous case reports present the management of a urachal tumor and the incidental finding of bladder adenocarcinoma. Clinical case: We present the case of a young woman with nonspecific symptoms, who presented with a prior history of dysuria, bladder tenesmus, suprapubic pain and urinary urgency for one year, which had been treated as recurrent urinary tract infection. A partial cystectomy plus extended lymphadenectomy was scheduled. We found a bladder tumor with characteristics of a urachal tumor and the pathological report indicated a primary bladder AC. The patient had a complete recovery at one year of follow-up. Conclusions: A patient can present with a tumor with urachal characteristics; however, the pathology report can show primary AC. The decision to perform partial cystectomy was an appropriate option for the location of this tumor, with optimal surgical results. Still, a long-term follow-up is necessary. More specific management guidelines are required for the treatment of AC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ex vivo drug screening refers to the out-of-body assessment of drug efficacy in patient derived vital tumor cells. The purpose of these methods is to enable functional testing of patient specific efficacy of anti-cancer therapeutics and personalized treatment strategies. Such approaches could prove powerful especially in context of rare cancers for which demonstration of novel therapies is difficult due to the low numbers of patients. Here, we report comparison of different ex vivo drug screening methods in a metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma, a rare and aggressive non-urothelial bladder malignancy that arises from the remnant embryologic urachus in adults. METHODS:To compare the feasibility and results obtained with alternative ex vivo drug screening techniques, we used three different approaches; enzymatic cell viability assay of 2D cell cultures and image-based cytometry of 2D and 3D cell cultures in parallel. Vital tumor cells isolated from a biopsy obtained in context of a surgical debulking procedure were used for screening of 1160 drugs with the aim to evaluate patterns of efficacy in the urachal cancer cells. RESULTS:Dose response data from the enzymatic cell viability assay and the image-based assay of 2D cell cultures showed the best consistency. With 3D cell culture conditions, the proliferation rate of the tumor cells was slower and potency of several drugs was reduced even following growth rate normalization of the responses. MEK, mTOR, and MET inhibitors were identified as the most cytotoxic targeted drugs. Secondary validation analyses confirmed the efficacy of these drugs also with the new human urachal adenocarcinoma cell line (MISB18) established from the patient's tumor. CONCLUSIONS:All the tested ex vivo drug screening methods captured the patient's tumor cells' sensitivity to drugs that could be associated with the oncogenic KRASG12V mutation found in the patient's tumor cells. Specific drug classes however resulted in differential dose response profiles dependent on the used cell culture method indicating that the choice of assay could bias results from ex vivo drug screening assays for selected drug classes.
Project description:Introduction:Whilst endometriosis is a relatively common condition, deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) of the bladder is less so, and when medical treatment fails, surgical management is an effective option. We present a case report and surgical video of a patient undergoing combined laparoscopic and cystoscopic excision of deeply infiltrating endometriosis of the bladder. Design:Case report (Canadian Task Force Classification III) and step-by-step explanation of the surgery using video. Exemption was granted from the local institutional review board. Presentation of case:We present a case report and surgical video of a 36-year-old nulliparous patient presenting with a 12-month history of sudden onset cyclical dysuria and haematuria. Imaging demonstrated a deeply infiltrating endometriotic nodule involving the bladder. The patient underwent a combined laparoscopic and cystoscopic excision of deeply infiltrating endometriosis of the bladder. The procedure was uneventful and the patient progressed to a full recovery. Discussion:DIE is a highly invasive form of endometriosis which is defined arbitrarily as endometriosis infiltrating beneath the peritoneum by 5mm or greater. When medical therapy is declined or fails, surgical excision by partial cystectomy would appear to be the most effective management option. A combination of cystoscopy and laparoscopy has been shown to be a safe and feasible procedure, with a low rate of complications. It represents the ideal way by which to identify the resection limits for complete excision of the lesion, and allows for optimal repair of the bladder defect. Conclusion:Combined laparoscopic and cystoscopic partial cystectomy for excision of deeply infiltrating bladder endometriosis is a safe and feasible procedure in our institution.
Project description:Advantages of laparoscopic approach in Hirschsprung disease have been already published decreasing the hospital stay and postoperative adhesions. To our knowledge, we report the first case of postoperative abdominal cellulitis after laparoscopic procedure. A laparoscopic Duhamel pull through was done on a 3-month-old child. Full-thickness biopsy under laparoscopy was performed with intraperitoneal inoculation. Large peritoneal irrigation was used. Abdominal necrotizing cellulitis starting from a port site occurred few days after the procedure requiring repeat surgical excision, broad spectrum antibiotics, and hyperbaric oxygen.
Project description:A 35-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for urachal carcinoma with oligometastatic bone disease. He received a surgical resection through the umbilical area, urachal ligament and bladder dome (partial cystectomy) and adjuvant chemotherapy based on cisplatin-gemcitabine regimens together zoledronic acid with a good tolerance, no toxicity. Nine months after surgery, our patient presented no symptoms and the metastasis had been brought under control with no apparent signs of recurrence as assessed in a follow-up CT. To our knowledge, is the first case report of a urachal carcinoma with oligometastatic bone disease who received multimodal therapy, including surgery resection.