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Bacterial Cysteine-Inducible Cysteine Resistance Systems.


ABSTRACT: Cysteine donates sulfur to macromolecules and occurs naturally in many proteins. Because low concentrations of cysteine are cytotoxic, its intracellular concentration is stringently controlled. In bacteria, cysteine biosynthesis is regulated by feedback inhibition of the activities of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) and is also regulated at the transcriptional level by inducing the cysteine regulon using the master regulator CysB. Here, we describe two novel cysteine-inducible systems that regulate the cysteine resistance of Pantoea ananatis, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that shows great potential for producing substances useful for biotechnological, medical, and industrial purposes. One locus, designated ccdA(formerly PAJ_0331), encodes a novel cysteine-inducible cysteine desulfhydrase (CD) that degrades cysteine, and its expression is controlled by the transcriptional regulator encoded byccdR(formerly PAJ_0332 orybaO), located just upstream of ccdA The other locus, designated cefA (formerly PAJ_3026), encodes a novel cysteine-inducible cysteine efflux pump that is controlled by the transcriptional regulator cefR(formerly PAJ_3027), located just upstream of cefA To our knowledge, this is the first example where the expression of CD and an efflux pump is regulated in response to cysteine and is directly involved in imparting resistance to excess levels of cysteine. We propose that ccdA and cefA function as safety valves that maintain homeostasis when the intra- or extracellular cysteine concentration fluctuates. Our findings contribute important insights into optimizing the production of cysteine and related biomaterials by P. ananatisBecause of its toxicity, the bacterial intracellular cysteine level is stringently regulated at biosynthesis. This work describes the identification and characterization of two novel cysteine-inducible systems that regulate, through degradation and efflux, the cysteine resistance of Pantoea ananatis, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that shows great potential for producing substances useful for industrial purposes. We propose that this novel mechanism for sensing and regulating cysteine levels is a safety valve enabling adaptation to sudden changes in intra- or extracellular cysteine levels in bacteria. Our findings provide important insights into optimizing the production of cysteine and related biomaterials by P. ananatis and also a deep understanding of sulfur/cysteine metabolism and regulation in this plant pathogen and related bacteria.

SUBMITTER: Takumi K 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4836233 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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