ABSTRACT: Cysteine donates sulfur to macromolecules and occurs naturally in many proteins. Because low concentrations of cysteine are cytotoxic, its intracellular concentration is stringently controlled. In bacteria, cysteine biosynthesis is regulated by feedback inhibition of the activities of serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) and is also regulated at the transcriptional level by inducing the cysteine regulon using the master regulator CysB. Here, we describe two novel cysteine-inducible systems that regulate the cysteine resistance of Pantoea ananatis, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that shows great potential for producing substances useful for biotechnological, medical, and industrial purposes. One locus, designated ccdA(formerly PAJ_0331), encodes a novel cysteine-inducible cysteine desulfhydrase (CD) that degrades cysteine, and its expression is controlled by the transcriptional regulator encoded byccdR(formerly PAJ_0332 orybaO), located just upstream of ccdA The other locus, designated cefA (formerly PAJ_3026), encodes a novel cysteine-inducible cysteine efflux pump that is controlled by the transcriptional regulator cefR(formerly PAJ_3027), located just upstream of cefA To our knowledge, this is the first example where the expression of CD and an efflux pump is regulated in response to cysteine and is directly involved in imparting resistance to excess levels of cysteine. We propose that ccdA and cefA function as safety valves that maintain homeostasis when the intra- or extracellular cysteine concentration fluctuates. Our findings contribute important insights into optimizing the production of cysteine and related biomaterials by P. ananatisBecause of its toxicity, the bacterial intracellular cysteine level is stringently regulated at biosynthesis. This work describes the identification and characterization of two novel cysteine-inducible systems that regulate, through degradation and efflux, the cysteine resistance of Pantoea ananatis, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that shows great potential for producing substances useful for industrial purposes. We propose that this novel mechanism for sensing and regulating cysteine levels is a safety valve enabling adaptation to sudden changes in intra- or extracellular cysteine levels in bacteria. Our findings provide important insights into optimizing the production of cysteine and related biomaterials by P. ananatis and also a deep understanding of sulfur/cysteine metabolism and regulation in this plant pathogen and related bacteria.
Project description:Cysteine is a commercially important amino acid; however, it lacks an efficient fermentative production method. Due to its cytotoxicity, intracellular cysteine levels are stringently controlled via several regulatory modes. Managing its toxic effects as well as understanding and deregulating the complexities of regulation are crucial for establishing the fermentative production of cysteine. The regulatory modes include feedback inhibition of key metabolic enzymes, degradation, efflux pumps, and the transcriptional regulation of biosynthetic genes by a master cysteine regulator, CysB. These processes have been extensively studied using <i>Escherichia coli</i> for overproducing cysteine by fermentation. In this study, we genetically engineered <i>Pantoea ananatis</i>, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to identify key factors required for cysteine production. According to this and our previous studies, we identified a major cysteine desulfhydrase gene, <i>ccdA</i> (formerly PAJ_0331), involved in cysteine degradation, and the cysteine efflux pump genes <i>cefA</i> and <i>cefB</i> (formerly PAJ_3026 and PAJ_p0018, respectively), which may be responsible for downregulating the intracellular cysteine level. Our findings revealed that <i>ccdA</i> deletion and <i>cefA</i> and <i>cefB</i> overexpression are crucial factors for establishing fermentative cysteine production in <i>P. ananatis</i> and for obtaining a higher cysteine yield when combined with genes in the cysteine biosynthetic pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of cysteine production in <i>P. ananatis</i>, which has fundamental implications for establishing overproduction in this microbe.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> The efficient production of cysteine is a major challenge in the amino acid fermentation industry. In this study, we identified cysteine efflux pumps and degradation pathways as essential elements and genetically engineered <i>Pantoea ananatis</i>, an emerging host for the fermentative production of bio-based materials, to establish the fermentative production of cysteine. This study provides crucial insights into the design and construction of cysteine-producing strains, which may play central roles in realizing commercial basis production.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis, a bacterium that is well known for its phytopathogenic characteristics, has been isolated from a myriad of ecological niches and hosts. Infection of agronomic crops, such as maize and rice, can result in substantial economic losses. In the last few years, much of the research performed on P. ananatis has been based on the sequencing and analysis of the genomes of strains isolated from different environments and with different lifestyles. In this review, we summarize the advances made in terms of pathogenicity determinants of phytopathogenic strains of P. ananatis and how this bacterium is able to adapt and survive in such a wide variety of habitats. The diversity and adaptability of P. ananatis can largely be attributed to the plasticity of its genome and the integration of mobile genetic elements on both the chromosome and plasmid. Furthermore, we discuss the recent interest in this species in various biotechnological applications. TAXONOMY:Domain Bacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Family Enterobacteriaceae; genus Pantoea; species ananatis. DISEASE SYMPTOMS:Pantoea ananatis causes disease on a wide range of plants, and symptoms can range from dieback and stunted growth in Eucalyptus seedlings to chlorosis and bulb rotting in onions. DISEASE CONTROL:Currently, the only methods of control of P. ananatis on most plant hosts are the use of resistant clones and cultivars or the eradication of infected plant material. The use of lytic bacteriophages on certain host plants, such as rice, has also achieved a measure of success.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Pantoea ananatis, a member of the Enterobacteriacea family, is a new and promising subject for biotechnological research. Over recent years, impressive progress in its application to L-glutamate production has been achieved. Nevertheless, genetic and biotechnological studies of Pantoea ananatis have been impeded because of the absence of genetic tools for rapid construction of direct mutations in this bacterium. The lambda Red-recombineering technique previously developed in E. coli and used for gene inactivation in several other bacteria is a high-performance tool for rapid construction of precise genome modifications. RESULTS: In this study, the expression of lambda Red genes in P. ananatis was found to be highly toxic. A screening was performed to select mutants of P. ananatis that were resistant to the toxic affects of lambda Red. A mutant strain, SC17(0) was identified that grew well under conditions of simultaneous expression of lambda gam, bet, and exo genes. Using this strain, procedures for fast introduction of multiple rearrangements to the Pantoea ananatis genome based on the lambda Red-dependent integration of the PCR-generated DNA fragments with as short as 40 bp flanking homologies have been demonstrated. CONCLUSION: The lambda Red-recombineering technology was successfully used for rapid generation of chromosomal modifications in the specially selected P. ananatis recipient strain. The procedure of electro-transformation with chromosomal DNA has been developed for transfer of the marked mutation between different P. ananatis strains. Combination of these techniques with lambda Int/Xis-dependent excision of selective markers significantly accelerates basic research and construction of producing strains.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis is the causative agent of sheath and grain rot in rice. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of P. ananatis strain PA13, originally isolated from a diseased rice grain.
Project description:Pantoea is a versatile genus of bacteria with both plant- and animal-pathogenic strains, some of which have been suggested to cause human infections. There is, however, limited knowledge on the potential determinants used for host association and pathogenesis in animal systems. In this study, we used the model host Dictyostelium discoideum to show that isolates of Pantoea ananatis exhibit differential grazing susceptibility, with some being resistant to grazing by the amoebae. We carried out a high-throughput genetic screen of one grazing-resistant isolate, P. ananatis BRT175, using the D. discoideum pathosystem to identify genes responsible for the resistance phenotype. Among the 26 candidate genes involved in grazing resistance, we identified rhlA and rhlB, which we show are involved in the biosynthesis of a biosurfactant that enables swarming motility in P. ananatis BRT175. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the biosurfactant was shown to be a glycolipid with monohexose-C10-C10 as the primary congener. We show that this novel glycolipid biosurfactant is cytotoxic to the amoebae and is capable of compromising cellular integrity, leading to cell lysis. The production of this biosurfactant may be important for bacterial survival in the environment and could contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections. IMPORTANCE The genetic factors used for host interaction by the opportunistic human pathogen Pantoea ananatis are largely unknown. We identified two genes that are important for the production of a biosurfactant that confers grazing resistance against the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. We show that the biosurfactant, which exhibits cytotoxicity toward the amoebae, is a glycolipid that incorporates a hexose rather than rhamnose. The production of this biosurfactant may confer a competitive advantage in the environment and could potentially contribute to the establishment of opportunistic infections.
Project description:The enterobacterium Pantoea ananatis is an ecologically versatile species. It has been found in the environment, as plant epiphyte and endophyte, as an emerging phytopathogen, and as a presumptive, opportunistic human pathogen. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. ananatis LMG 5342, isolated from a human wound.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis is a Gram-negative plant pathogen that causes disease on a broad range of host plants, including pineapple, maize, rice, onion, melons, and Eucalyptus, and has been implicated in several cases of human disease. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. ananatis LMG20103 isolated from diseased Eucalyptus in South Africa.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis B1-9 is an endophytic Gram-negative rhizobacterium that was isolated for its ability to promote plant growth and improve crop yield in the field. Here we report the draft genome sequence of P. ananatis B1-9. Comparison of this sequence to the sequenced genome of a plant-pathogenic P. ananatis strain, LMG20103, indicated that the pathogenesis-related genes were absent, but a subset of gene functions that may be related to its plant growth promotion were present.
Project description:To successfully infect plant hosts, the collective regulation of virulence factors in a bacterial pathogen is crucial. Hfq is an RNA chaperone protein that facilitates the small RNA (sRNA) regulation of global gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In this study, the functional role of Hfq in a broad host range phytopathogen Pantoea ananatis was determined. Inactivation of the hfq gene in P. ananatis LMG 2665T resulted in the loss of pathogenicity and motility. In addition, there was a significant reduction of quorum sensing signal molecule acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) production and biofilm formation. Differential sRNA expression analysis between the hfq mutant and wild-type strains of P. ananatis revealed 276 sRNAs affected in their abundance by the loss of hfq at low (OD600 = 0.2) and high cell (OD600 = 0.6) densities. Further analysis identified 25 Hfq-dependent sRNAs, all showing a predicted Rho-independent terminator of transcription and mapping within intergenic regions of the P. ananatis genome. These included known sRNAs such as ArcZ, FnrS, GlmZ, RprA, RyeB, RyhB, RyhB2, Spot42, and SsrA, and 16 novel P. ananatis sRNAs. The current study demonstrated that Hfq is an important component of the collective regulation of virulence factors and sets a foundation for understanding Hfq-sRNA mediated regulation in the phytopathogen P. ananatis.
Project description:Pantoea ananatis is a highly versatile enterobacterium isolated from diverse environmental sources. The ecological diversity of this species may be attributed, in part, to the acquisition of mobile genetic elements. One such element is an Integrative and Conjugative Element (ICE). By means of in silico analyses the ICE elements belonging to a novel family, ICEPan, were identified in the genome sequences of five P. ananatis strains and characterized. PCR screening showed that ICEPan is prevalent among P. ananatis strains isolated from different environmental sources and geographic locations. Members of the ICEPan family share a common origin with ICEs of other enterobacteria, as well as conjugative plasmids of Erwinia spp. Aside from core modules for ICEPan integration, maintenance and dissemination, the ICEPan contain extensive non-conserved islands coding for proteins that may contribute toward various phenotypes such as stress response and antibiosis, and the highly diverse ICEPan thus plays a major role in the diversification of P. ananatis. An island is furthermore integrated within an ICEPan DNA repair-encoding locus umuDC and we postulate its role in stress-induced dissemination and/or expression of the genes on this island.