Overlap between differentially methylated DNA regions in blood B lymphocytes and genetic at-risk loci in primary Sjogren's syndrome.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Beyond genetics, epigenetics alterations and especially those related to DNA methylation, play key roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) and systemic lupus erythematosus. This study aimed to assess the role of methylation deregulation in pSS pathogeny through a genome-wide methylation approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS:26 female patients with pSS and 22 age-matched controls were included in this study. CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by magnetic microbeads and their genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were analysed using Infinium Human Methylation 450?K BeadChips. Probes with a median DNA methylation difference of at least 7% and p<0.01 between patients and controls were considered significantly differentially methylated. RESULTS:Methylation alterations were mainly present in B cells compared with T cells. In B cells, an enrichment of genes with differentially methylated probes in genetic at-risk loci was observed, suggesting involvement of both genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the same genes. Methylation alterations in B cells were more frequent in some specific pathways including Interferon Regulated Genes, mainly among patients who were autoantibody positive. Moreover, genes with differentially methylated probes were over-represented in B cells from patients with active disease. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated more important deregulation of DNA methylation patterns in B cells compared with T cells, emphasising the importance of B cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. Overlap between genes with differentially methylated probes in B lymphocytes and genetic at-risk loci is a new finding highlighting their importance in pSS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor surrounding the internal carotid artery or invading to the cavernous sinus is an important characteristic of invasive pituitary adenoma, and a pivotal factor of tumor residue and regrowth. Without specific changes in serum hormone related to the adenohypophyseal cell of origin, clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma is more likely to be diagnosed at invasive stages compared with functioning pituitary adenoma. The underlying mechanism of tumor invasion remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify key genes in tumor invasion by integrating analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression profiles. METHOD:Genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA microarray analysis were performed for tumor samples from 68 patients at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital. Differentially expressed genes and methylated probes were identified based on an invasive vs non-invasive grouping. Differentially methylated probes in the promoter region of targeted genes were assessed. Pearson correlation analysis was used to identify genes with a strong association between DNA methylation status and expression levels. Pyrosequencing and RT-PCR were used to validate the methylation status and expression levels of candidate genes, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 8842 differentially methylated probes, located on 4582 genes, and 661 differentially expressed genes were identified. Both promoter methylation and expression alterations were observed for 115 genes with 58 genes showing a negative correlation between DNA methylation status and expression level. Nineteen genes that exhibited notably negative correlations between DNA methylation and gene expression levels, are involved in various gene ontologies and pathways, or played an important role in different diseases, were regarded as candidate genes. We found an increased methylation with a decreased expression of PHYHD1, LTBR, C22orf42, PRR5, ANKDD1A, RAB13, CAMKV, KIFC3, WNT4 and STAT6, and a decreased methylation with an increased expression of MYBPHL. The methylation status and expression levels of these genes were validated by pyrosequencing and RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS:The DNA methylation and expression levels of PHYHD1, LTBR, MYBPHL, C22orf42, PRR5, ANKDD1A, RAB13, CAMKV, KIFC3, WNT4 and STAT6 are associated with tumor invasion, and these genes may become the potential genes for targeted therapy.
Project description:Objectives: To perform a cross-comparative analysis of DNA methylation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), and healthy controls addressing the question of epigenetic sharing and aiming to detect disease-specific alterations. Methods: DNA extracted from peripheral blood from 347 cases with SLE, 100 cases with pSS, and 400 healthy controls were analyzed on the Human Methylation 450k array, targeting 485,000 CpG sites across the genome. A linear regression model including age, sex, and blood cell type distribution as covariates was fitted, and association p-values were Bonferroni corrected. A random forest machine learning classifier was designed for prediction of disease status based on DNA methylation data. Results: We established a combined set of 4,945 shared differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs) in SLE and pSS compared to controls. In pSS, hypomethylation at type I interferon induced genes was mainly driven by patients who were positive for Ro/SSA and/or La/SSB autoantibodies. Analysis of differential methylation between SLE and pSS identified 2,244 DMCs with a majority of sites showing decreased methylation in SLE compared to pSS. The random forest classifier demonstrated good performance in discerning between disease status with an area under the curve (AUC) between 0.83 and 0.96. Conclusions: The majority of differential DNA methylation is shared between SLE and pSS, however, important quantitative differences exist. Our data highlight neutrophil dysregulation as a shared mechanism, emphasizing the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune diseases. The current study provides evidence for genes and molecular pathways driving common and disease-specific pathogenic mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Given the strong environmental influence on both epigenetic marks and allergic asthma in children, the epigenetic alterations in respiratory epithelia might provide insight into allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE:We sought to identify DNA methylation and gene expression changes associated with childhood allergic persistent asthma. METHODS:We compared genomic DNA methylation patterns and gene expression in African American children with persistent atopic asthma (n = 36) versus healthy control subjects (n = 36). Results were validated in an independent population of asthmatic children (n = 30) by using a shared healthy control population (n = 36) and in an independent population of white adult atopic asthmatic patients (n = 12) and control subjects (n = 12). RESULTS:We identified 186 genes with significant methylation changes, differentially methylated regions or differentially methylated probes, after adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, batch effects, inflation, and multiple comparisons. Genes differentially methylated included those with established roles in asthma and atopy and genes related to extracellular matrix, immunity, cell adhesion, epigenetic regulation, and airflow obstruction. The methylation changes were substantial (median, 9.5%; range, 2.6% to 29.5%). Hypomethylated and hypermethylated genes were associated with increased and decreased gene expression, respectively (P < 2.8 × 10-6 for differentially methylated regions and P < 7.8 × 10-10 for differentially methylated probes). Quantitative analysis in 53 differentially expressed genes demonstrated that 32 (60%) have significant methylation-expression relationships within 5 kb of the gene. Ten loci selected based on the relevance to asthma, magnitude of methylation change, and methylation-expression relationships were validated in an independent cohort of children with atopic asthma. Sixty-seven of 186 genes also have significant asthma-associated methylation changes in nasal epithelia of adult white asthmatic patients. CONCLUSIONS:Epigenetic marks in respiratory epithelia are associated with allergic asthma and gene expression changes in inner-city children.
Project description:Alterations in DNA methylation and gene expression have been implicated in the development of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Differentially methylated probes (DMPs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the left ventricle (LV, a pathological locus for DCM) and the right ventricle (RV, a proxy for normal hearts). The data in this DiB are for supporting our report entitled "Methylome analysis reveals alterations in DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of left ventricle development genes in human dilated cardiomyopathy" (Bong-Seok Jo, In-Uk Koh, Jae-Bum Bae, Ho-Yeong Yu, Eun-Seok Jeon, Hae-Young Lee, Jae-Joong Kim, Murim Choi, Sun Shim Choi, 2016) .
Project description:Werner syndrome is a progeroid disorder characterized by premature age-related phenotypes. Although it is well established that autosomal recessive mutations in the WRN gene is responsible for Werner syndrome, the molecular alterations that lead to disease phenotype remain still unidentified.To address whether epigenetic changes can be associated with Werner syndrome phenotype, we analysed genome-wide DNA methylation profile using the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip in the whole blood from three patients affected by Werner syndrome compared with three age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Hypermethylated probes were enriched in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, FoxO signalling and insulin signalling pathways, while hypomethylated probes were enriched in PI3K-Akt signalling and focal adhesion pathways. Twenty-two out of 47 of the differentially methylated genes belonging to the enriched pathways resulted differentially expressed in a publicly available dataset on Werner syndrome fibroblasts. Interestingly, differentially methylated regions identified CERS1 and CERS3, two members of the ceramide synthase family. Moreover, we found differentially methylated probes within ITGA9 and ADAM12 genes, whose methylation is altered in systemic sclerosis, and within the PRDM8 gene, whose methylation is affected in dyskeratosis congenita and Down syndrome.DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood from Werner syndrome patients provide new insight in the pathogenesis of the disease, highlighting in some cases a functional correlation of gene expression and methylation status.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Increasing evidence suggests an epigenetic contribution to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DNA methylation in pSS by analysing multiple tissues from patients and controls. METHODS:Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles were generated using HumanMethylation450K BeadChips for whole blood, CD19+ B cells and minor salivary gland biopsies. Gene expression was analysed in CD19+ B cells by RNA-sequencing. Analysis of genetic regulatory effects on DNA methylation at known pSS risk loci was performed. RESULTS:We identified prominent hypomethylation of interferon (IFN)-regulated genes in whole blood and CD19+ B cells, including at the genes MX1, IFI44L and PARP9, replicating previous reports in pSS, as well as identifying a large number of novel associations. Enrichment for genomic overlap with histone marks for enhancer and promoter regions was observed. We showed for the first time that hypomethylation of IFN-regulated genes in pSS B cells was associated with their increased expression. In minor salivary gland biopsies we observed hypomethylation of the IFN-induced gene OAS2. Pathway and disease analysis resulted in enrichment of antigen presentation, IFN signalling and lymphoproliferative disorders. Evidence for genetic control of methylation levels at known pSS risk loci was observed. CONCLUSIONS:Our study highlights the role of epigenetic regulation of IFN-induced genes in pSS where replication is needed for novel findings. The association with altered gene expression suggests a functional mechanism for differentially methylated CpG sites in pSS aetiology.
Project description:DNA methylation plays a critical role in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). While prior studies have largely focused on testing mean DNA methylation, DNA methylation instability (quantified by DNA methylation variability) may also affect disease susceptibility. Using DNA methylation data collected by the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project, we identified 249 and 115 variably methylated probes (VMPs) associated with amyloid-? and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively. These VMPs clustered into 133 and 14 regions, respectively. Notably, we found that most of these VMPs did not overlap with differentially methylated probes, indicating that VMPs and differentially methylated probes may capture different sets of genes associated with AD pathology. Overall, our results demonstrated that DNA methylation instability affects AD neuropathology and highlights the importance of testing methylation variability in epigenetic research.
Project description:Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis, is a complex multifactorial disease that is characterized by the persistent presence of fatigue and other particular symptoms for a minimum of 6 months. Symptoms fail to dissipate after sufficient rest and have major effects on the daily functioning of CFS sufferers. CFS is a multi-system disease with a heterogeneous patient population showing a wide variety of functional disabilities and its biological basis remains poorly understood. Stable alterations in gene function in the immune system have been reported in several studies of CFS. Epigenetic modifications have been implicated in long-term effects on gene function, however, to our knowledge, genome-wide epigenetic modifications associated with CFS have not been explored. We examined the DNA methylome in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from CFS patients and healthy controls using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array, controlling for invariant probes and probes overlapping polymorphic sequences. Gene ontology (GO) and network analysis of differentially methylated genes was performed to determine potential biological pathways showing changes in DNA methylation in CFS. We found an increased abundance of differentially methylated genes related to the immune response, cellular metabolism, and kinase activity. Genes associated with immune cell regulation, the largest coordinated enrichment of differentially methylated pathways, showed hypomethylation within promoters and other gene regulatory elements in CFS. These data are consistent with evidence of multisystem dysregulation in CFS and implicate the involvement of DNA modifications in CFS pathology.
Project description:BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism associated with regulation of gene expression and it is modulated during chemical carcinogenesis. The zebrafish is increasingly employed as a human disease model; however there is a lack of information on DNA methylation in zebrafish and during fish tumorigenesis. RESULTS: A novel CpG island tiling array containing 44,000 probes, in combination with immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA, was used to achieve the first comprehensive methylation profiling of normal adult zebrafish liver. DNA methylation alterations were detected in zebrafish liver tumors induced by the environmental carcinogen 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Genes significantly hypomethylated in tumors were associated particularly with proliferation, glycolysis, transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis, growth and metastasis. Hypermethylated genes included those associated with anti-angiogenesis and cellular adhesion. Of 49 genes that were altered in expression within tumors, and which also had appropriate CpG islands and were co-represented on the tiling array, approximately 45% showed significant changes in both gene expression and methylation. CONCLUSION: The functional pathways containing differentially methylated genes in zebrafish hepatocellular carcinoma have also been reported to be aberrantly methylated during tumorigenesis in humans. These findings increase the confidence in the use of zebrafish as a model for human cancer in addition to providing the first comprehensive mapping of DNA methylation in the normal adult zebrafish liver.
Project description:Depression affects 10-15% of pregnant women and has been associated with preterm delivery and later developmental, behavioural and learning disabilities. We tested the hypothesis that maternal depression is associated with DNA methylation alterations in maternal T lymphocytes, neonatal cord blood T lymphocytes and adult offspring hippocampi. Genome-wide DNA methylation of CD3+ T lymphocytes isolated from 38 antepartum maternal and 44 neonatal cord blood samples were analyzed using Illumina Methylation 450?K microarrays. Previously obtained methylation data sets using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and array-hybridization of 62 postmortem hippocampal samples of adult males were re-analyzed to test associations with history of maternal depression. We found 145 (false discovery rate (FDR) q<0.05) and 2520 (FDR q<0.1) differentially methylated CG-sites in cord blood T lymphocytes of neonates from the maternal depression group as compared with the control group. However, no significant DNA methylation differences were detected in the antepartum maternal T lymphocytes of our preliminary data set. We also detected 294 differentially methylated probes (FDR q<0.1) in hippocampal samples associated with history of maternal depression. We observed a significant overlap (P=0.002) of 33 genes with changes in DNA methylation in T lymphocytes of neonates and brains of adult offspring. Many of these genes are involved in immune system functions. Our results show that DNA methylation changes in offspring associated with maternal depression are detectable at birth in the immune system and persist to adulthood in the brain. This is consistent with the hypothesis that system-wide epigenetic changes are involved in life-long responses to maternal depression in the offspring.