Oxidized mitochondrial nucleoids released by neutrophils drive type I interferon production in human lupus.
ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies against nucleic acids and excessive type I interferon (IFN) are hallmarks of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously reported that SLE neutrophils exposed to TLR7 agonist autoantibodies release interferogenic DNA, which we now demonstrate to be of mitochondrial origin. We further show that healthy human neutrophils do not complete mitophagy upon induction of mitochondrial damage. Rather, they extrude mitochondrial components, including DNA (mtDNA), devoid of oxidized (Ox) residues. When mtDNA undergoes oxidation, it is directly routed to lysosomes for degradation. This rerouting requires dissociation from the transcription factor A mitochondria (TFAM), a dual high-mobility group (HMG) protein involved in maintenance and compaction of the mitochondrial genome into nucleoids. Exposure of SLE neutrophils, or healthy IFN-primed neutrophils, to antiribonucleotide protein autoantibodies blocks TFAM phosphorylation, a necessary step for nucleoid dissociation. Consequently, Ox nucleoids accumulate within mitochondria and are eventually extruded as potent interferogenic complexes. In support of the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon, mitochondrial retention of Ox nucleoids is a feature of SLE blood neutrophils, and autoantibodies against Ox mtDNA are present in a fraction of patients. This pathway represents a novel therapeutic target in human SLE.
Project description:Autoantibodies against nucleic acids and excessive type I Interferon (IFN) are hallmarks of human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). We previously reported that SLE neutrophils, exposed to TLR7-agonist autoantibodies, release interferogenic DNA, which we now demonstrate to be of mitochondrial origin. We further show that healthy human neutrophils do not complete mitophagy upon induction of mitochondrial damage. Rather, they extrude mitochondrial components, including DNA (mtDNA), devoid of oxidized residues. When MtDNA undergoes oxidation, it is directly routed to lysosomes for degradation. This rerouting requires dissociation from the transcription factor TFAM, a dual high mobility group (HMG) protein involved in maintenance and compaction of the mitochondrial genome into nucleoids. Exposure of SLE neutrophils, or healthy IFNprimed neutrophils, to anti-RNP autoantibodies blocks TFAM phosphorylation, a necessary step for nucleoid dissociation. Consequently, oxidized nucleoids accumulate within mitochondria and are eventually extruded as potent interferogenic complexes. In support of the in vivo relevance of this phenomenon, mitochondrial retention of oxidized nucleoids is a feature of SLE blood neutrophils, and autoantibodies against oxidized mtDNA are present in a fraction of patients. This pathway represents a novel therapeutic target in human SLE. 4 samples, no replicates, 2 controls. 2 samples are Neutrophils cultured with and without CCCP (control). 2 samples are Monocytes cultured with and without CCCP (control).
Project description:Mammalian mtDNA is packaged in DNA-protein complexes denoted mitochondrial nucleoids. The organization of the nucleoid is a very fundamental question in mitochondrial biology and will determine tissue segregation and transmission of mtDNA. We have used a combination of stimulated emission depletion microscopy, enabling a resolution well below the diffraction barrier, and molecular biology to study nucleoids in a panel of mammalian tissue culture cells. We report that the nucleoids labeled with antibodies against DNA, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), or incorporated BrdU, have a defined, uniform mean size of ?100 nm in mammals. Interestingly, the nucleoid frequently contains only a single copy of mtDNA (average ?1.4 mtDNA molecules per nucleoid). Furthermore, we show by molecular modeling and volume calculations that TFAM is a main constituent of the nucleoid, besides mtDNA. These fundamental insights into the organization of mtDNA have broad implications for understanding mitochondrial dysfunction in disease and aging.
Project description:Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is organized in nucleoprotein complexes called mitochondrial nucleoids (mt-nucleoids), which are critical units of mtDNA replication and transmission. In humans, several hundreds of mt-nucleoids exist in a cell. However, how numerous mt-nucleoids are maintained during the cell cycle remains elusive, because cell cycle synchronization procedures affect mtDNA replication. Here, we analyzed regulation of the maintenance of mt-nucleoids in the cell cycle, using a fluorescent cell cycle indicator, Fucci2. Live imaging of mt-nucleoids with higher temporal resolution showed frequent attachment and detachment of mt-nucleoids throughout the cell cycle. TFAM, an mtDNA packaging protein, was involved in the regulation of this dynamic process, which was important for maintaining proper mt-nucleoid number. Both an increase in mt-nucleoid number and activation of mtDNA replication occurred during S phase. To increase mt-nucleoid number, mtDNA replication, but not nuclear DNA replication, was necessary. We propose that these dynamic and regulatory processes in the cell cycle maintain several hundred mt-nucleoids in proliferating cells.
Project description:Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is packaged into DNA-protein assemblies called nucleoids, but the mode of mtDNA propagation via the nucleoid remains controversial. Two mechanisms have been proposed: nucleoids may consistently maintain their mtDNA content faithfully, or nucleoids may exchange mtDNAs dynamically. To test these models directly, two cell lines were fused, each homoplasmic for a partially deleted mtDNA in which the deletions were nonoverlapping and each deficient in mitochondrial protein synthesis, thus allowing the first unequivocal visualization of two mtDNAs at the nucleoid level. The two mtDNAs transcomplemented to restore mitochondrial protein synthesis but were consistently maintained in discrete nucleoids that did not intermix stably. These results indicate that mitochondrial nucleoids tightly regulate their genetic content rather than freely exchanging mtDNAs. This genetic autonomy provides a molecular mechanism to explain patterns of mitochondrial genetic inheritance, in addition to facilitating therapeutic methods to eliminate deleterious mtDNA mutations.
Project description:Mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is packaged by mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) into mitochondrial nucleoids that are of key importance in controlling the transmission and expression of mtDNA. Nucleoid ultrastructure is poorly defined, and therefore we used a combination of biochemistry, superresolution microscopy, and electron microscopy to show that mitochondrial nucleoids have an irregular ellipsoidal shape and typically contain a single copy of mtDNA. Rotary shadowing electron microscopy revealed that nucleoid formation in vitro is a multistep process initiated by TFAM aggregation and cross-strand binding. Superresolution microscopy of cultivated cells showed that increased mtDNA copy number increases nucleoid numbers without altering their sizes. Electron cryo-tomography visualized nucleoids at high resolution in isolated mammalian mitochondria and confirmed the sizes observed by superresolution microscopy of cell lines. We conclude that the fundamental organizational unit of the mitochondrial nucleoid is a single copy of mtDNA compacted by TFAM, and we suggest a packaging mechanism.
Project description:Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is packaged by association with specific proteins in compact DNA-protein complexes named mitochondrial nucleoids (mt-nucleoids). The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow either aerobically or anaerobically. Due to this characteristic, S. cerevisiae has been extensively used as a model organism to study genetics, morphology and biochemistry of mitochondria for a long time. Mitochondria of S. cerevisiae frequently fuse and divide, and perform dynamic morphological changes depending on the culture conditions and the stage of life cycle of the yeast cells. The mt-nucleoids also dynamically change their morphology, accompanying morphological changes of mitochondria. The mt-nucleoids have been isolated morphologically intact and functional analyses of mt-nucleoid proteins have been extensively performed. These studies have revealed that the functions of mt-nucleoid proteins are essential for maintenance of mtDNA. The aims of this review are to summarize the history on the research of yeast mt-nucleoids as well as recent findings on the organization of the mt-nucleoids and mitochondrial dynamics.
Project description:Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is packaged into DNA-protein complexes called nucleoids, which are distributed as many small foci in mitochondria. Nucleoids are crucial for the biogenesis and function of mtDNA. Here, using a yeast genetic screen for components that control nucleoid distribution and size, we identify Fcj1 and Mos1, two evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial proteins that maintain the connection between the cristae and boundary membranes. These two proteins are also important for establishing tubular morphology of mitochondria, as mitochondria lacking Fcj1 and Mos1 form lamellar sheets. We find that nucleoids aggregate, increase in size, and decrease in number in fcj1 and mos1 cells. In addition, Fcj1 form punctate structures and localized adjacent to nucleoids. Moreover, connecting mitochondria by deleting the DNM1 gene required for organelle division enhances aggregation of mtDNA nucleoids in fcj1 and mos1 cells, whereas single deletion of DNM1 does not affect nucleoids. Conversely, deleting F1Fo-ATP synthase dimerization factors generates concentric ring-like cristae, restores tubular mitochondrial morphology, and suppresses nucleoid aggregation in these mutants. Our findings suggest an unexpected role of Fcj1-Mos1 and organelle division in maintaining the distribution and size of mtDNA nucleoids.
Project description:Hypertrophic pancreatic islets (PI) of Goto Kakizaki (GK) diabetic rats contain a lower number of ?-cells vs. non-diabetic Wistar rat PI. Remaining ?-cells contain reduced mitochondrial (mt) DNA per nucleus (copy number), probably due to declining mtDNA replication machinery, decreased mt biogenesis or enhanced mitophagy. We confirmed mtDNA copy number decrease down to <30% in PI of one-year-old GK rats. Studying relations to mt nucleoids sizes, we employed 3D superresolution fluorescent photoactivable localization microscopy (FPALM) with lentivirally transduced Eos conjugate of mt single-stranded-DNA-binding protein (mtSSB) or transcription factor TFAM; or by 3D immunocytochemistry. mtSSB (binding transcription or replication nucleoids) contoured "nucleoids" which were smaller by 25% (less diameters >150?nm) in GK ?-cells. Eos-TFAM-visualized nucleoids, composed of 72% localized TFAM, were smaller by 10% (immunochemically by 3%). A theoretical ~70% decrease in cell nucleoid number (spatial density) was not observed, rejecting model of single mtDNA per nucleoid. The ?-cell maintenance factor Nkx6.1 mRNA and protein were declining with age (>12-fold, 10 months) and decreasing with fasting hyperglycemia in GK rats, probably predetermining the impaired mtDNA replication (copy number decrease), while spatial expansion of mtDNA kept nucleoids with only smaller sizes than those containing much higher mtDNA in non-diabetic ?-cells.
Project description:Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is maintained within nucleoprotein complexes known as nucleoids. These structures are highly condensed by the DNA packaging protein, mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (TFAM). Nucleoids also include RNA, RNA:DNA hybrids, and are associated with proteins involved with RNA processing and mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis. Here we characterize the ability of TFAM to bind various RNA containing substrates in order to determine their role in TFAM distribution and function within the nucleoid. We find that TFAM binds to RNA-containing 4-way junctions but does not bind appreciably to RNA hairpins, internal loops, or linear RNA:DNA hybrids. Therefore the RNA within nucleoids largely excludes TFAM, and its distribution is not grossly altered with removal of RNA. Within the cell, TFAM binds to mitochondrial tRNAs, consistent with our RNA 4-way junction data. Kinetic binding assays and RNase-insensitive TFAM distribution indicate that DNA remains the preferred substrate within the nucleoid. However, TFAM binds to tRNA with nanomolar affinity and these complexes are not rare. TFAM-immunoprecipitated tRNAs have processed ends, suggesting that binding is not specific to RNA precursors. The amount of each immunoprecipitated tRNA is not well correlated with tRNA celluar abundance, indicating unequal TFAM binding preferences. TFAM-mt-tRNA interaction suggests potentially new functions for this protein.
Project description:A human cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) packaged into nucleoids. Currently, the segregation and allocation of nucleoids are thought to be passively determined by mitochondrial fusion and division. Here we provide evidence, using live-cell super-resolution imaging, that nucleoids can be actively transported via KIF5B-driven mitochondrial dynamic tubulation (MDT) activities that predominantly occur at the ER-mitochondria contact sites (EMCS). We further demonstrate that a mitochondrial inner membrane protein complex MICOS links nucleoids to Miro1, a KIF5B receptor on mitochondria, at the EMCS. We show that such active transportation is a mechanism essential for the proper distribution of nucleoids in the peripheral zone of the cell. Together, our work identifies an active transportation mechanism of nucleoids, with EMCS serving as a key platform for the interplay of nucleoids, MICOS, Miro1, and KIF5B to coordinate nucleoids segregation and transportation.