Misalignment of the Desired and Measured Center of Pressure Describes Falls Caused by Slip during Turning.
ABSTRACT: In this study, desired center of pressure (dCOP) was introduced to evaluate dynamic postural stability. The dCOP is defined as a virtual point on the ground, where the moment around the body center of mass (COM) becomes zero when dCOP and the measured COP (mCOP) coincide. We hypothesized that, when the misalignment of the dCOP and mCOP (dCOP-mCOP) increases up to a certain value due to a large perturbation during walking, it becomes difficult to make a compensatory step and to recover balance of COM and to continue gait. Here we tested this hypothesis in slipping during turning. The study involved twelve healthy young adult males with an average age of 21.5±1.9 yrs. The subjects were asked to (1) walk straight and turn 60 degrees to the right with the right foot (spin turn) on a dry floor surface, and (2) walk straight and 60 degrees spin turn to the right on a slippery lubricated surface. The dCOP-mCOP during turning in the slip trial with fall were significantly larger, particularly in x-direction (i.e., the medial-lateral direction during straight walk), than that in no-slip trial and slip trial without fall. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the dCOP-mCOP in x-direction is good indicator of falling (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.93) and the threshold in the dCOP-mCOP in x-direction to distinguish for fall or no-fall was 0.55 m. These results support our hypothesis in slipping during turning.
Project description:This study investigated the required coefficient of friction (RCOF) and the tangent of center of mass (COM)-center of pressure (COP) angle in the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) directions during turning at different walking speeds. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 males and 8 females) participated in this study. The participants were instructed to conduct trials of straight walking and 90° step and spin turns to the right at each of three self-selected speeds (slow, normal, and fast). The ML and AP directions during turning gait were defined using the orientation of the pelvis to construct a body-fixed reference frame. The RCOF values and COM-COP angle tangent in the ML direction during turning at weight acceptance phase were higher than those during straight walking, and those values increased with increasing walking speed. The ML component of the RCOF and COM-COP tangent values during weight acceptance for step turns were higher than those for spin turns. The mean centripetal force during turning tended to increase with an increase in walking speed and had a strong positive correlation with the RCOF values in the ML direction (R = 0.97 during the weight acceptance phase; R = 0.95 during the push-off phase). Therefore, turning, particularly step turn, is likely to cause lateral slip at weight acceptance because of the increased centripetal force compared with straight walking. Future work should test at-risk population and compare with the present results.
Project description:Falls cause negative impacts on society and the economy. Slipping is a common initiating event for falling. Yet, individuals differ in their ability to recover from slips. Persons experiencing mild slips can accommodate the perturbation without falling, whereas severe slipping is associated with inadequate or slow pre- or post-slip control that make these individuals more prone to fall. Knowing the discrepancies between mild and severe slippers in kinematic and kinetic variables improves understanding of adverse control responsible for severe slipping. This study examined differences across these participants with respect to center of mass (COM) height, sagittal angular momentum (H), upper body kinematics, and the duration of single/double phase. Possible causality of such relationships was also studied by observing the time-lead of the deviations. Twenty healthy young adults performed walking trials in dry and slippery conditions. They were classified into mild and severe slippers based on their heel slipping speed. No inter-group differences were observed in the upper extremity kinematics. It was found that mild and severe slippers do not differ in the studied variables during normal gait; however, they do show significant differences through slipping. Compared to mild slippers, sever slippers lowered their COM height following a slip, presented higher H, and shortened their single support phase (p-value<0.05 for all). Based on the time-lead observed in H over all other variables suggests that failure to control angular momentum may influence slip severity.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to use a 7-link, moment-actuated human model to predict, at liftoff of the trailing foot in gait, the threshold of the center of mass (COM) velocity relative to the base of support (BOS) required to prevent backward balance loss during single stance recovery from a slip. Five dynamic optimization problems were solved to find the minimum COM velocities that would allow the simulation to terminate with the COM above the BOS when the COM started 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 foot lengths behind the heel of the stance foot (i.e., behind the BOS). The initial joint angles of the model were based on averaged data from experimental trials. Foot-ground contact was modeled using 16 visco-elastic springs distributed under the stance foot. Slipping was modeled by setting the sliding coefficient of friction of these springs to 0.02. The forward velocity of the COM necessary to avoid a backward balance loss is nearly two times larger under slip conditions under non-slip conditions. The predicted threshold for backward balance loss following a slip agreed well with experimental data collected from 99 young adults in response to 927 slips during walking. In all trials in which a subject's COM had a velocity below the predicted threshold, the subject's recovery foot landed posterior to the slipping foot as predicted. Finally, combining experimental data with optimization, we verified that the 7-link model could more accurately predict gait stability than a 2-link model.
Project description:Slipping and tripping contribute to a large number of falls and fall-related injuries. While the vestibular system is known to contribute to balance and fall prevention, it is unclear whether it contributes to detecting slip or trip onset. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of slipping and tripping on head acceleration during walking. This information would help determine whether individuals with vestibular dysfunction are likely to be at a greater risk of falls due to slipping or tripping, and would inform the potential development of assistive devices providing augmented sensory feedback for vestibular dysfunction. Twelve young men were exposed to an unexpected slip or trip. Head acceleration was measured and transformed to an approximate location of the vestibular system. Peak linear acceleration in anterior, posterior, rightward, leftward, superior, and inferior directions were compared between slipping, tripping, and walking. Compared to walking, peak accelerations were up to 4.68 m/s2 higher after slipping, and up to 10.64 m/s2 higher after tripping. Head acceleration first deviated from walking 100-150ms after slip onset and 0-50ms after trip onset. The temporal characteristics of head acceleration support a possible contribution of the vestibular system to detecting trip onset, but not slip onset. Head acceleration after slipping and tripping also appeared to be sufficiently large to contribute to the balance recovery response.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Task-specific perturbation training is a widely studied means of fall prevention, utilizing techniques that induce slips or slip-like perturbations during gait. Though effective, these methods only simulate narrow ranges within the larger space of possible slipping conditions encountered in daily life. Here we describe and test a novel, wearable apparatus designed to address these limitations and simulate a diverse range of slipping disturbances. METHODS:The device consists of wireless triggering and detachable outsole components that provide adequate friction with the floor when secured to the wearer's foot, but suddenly create a low-friction surface underfoot upon release. "Benchtop" tests were carried out to quantify device triggering characteristics (i.e. cutting temperature, release delay) and the resulting friction reduction. The device was also tested on six healthy young adults (3 female, age 23 ± 2.4 years), who walked with and without the device to observe how gait kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters were influenced, then performed 12 walking trials ending with a slip delivered by the device. Each participant also completed a survey to obtain opinions on device safety, device comfort, slip realism, and slip difficulty. A linear mixed effects analysis was employed to compare subject spatiotemporal parameters with and without the apparatus, as well as correlation coefficients and root mean square errors (RMSE) to assess the impact of the device on lower limb gait kinematics. Slip onset phases, distances, directions, velocities, and recovery step locations were also calculated. RESULTS:This device rapidly diminishes available friction from static coefficients of 0.48 to 0.07, albeit after a substantial delay (0.482 ± 0.181 s) between signal reception and outsole release. Strong correlations (R > 0.93) and small RMSE between gait kinematics with and without the device indicate minimal effects on natural gait patterns, however some spatiotemporal parameters were significantly impacted. A diverse range of slip perturbations and recovery steps were successfully elicited by the device. CONCLUSIONS:Our results highlight the efficacy and utility of a wearable slipping device to deliver diverse slip conditions. Such an apparatus enables the study of unconstrained slips administered across the gait cycle, as well as during different locomotor behaviors like turning, negotiating slopes, and level changes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Falls are the leading cause of injuries among older adults. Perturbation-based balance training (PBT) is an innovative approach to fall prevention that aims to improve the reactive balance response following perturbations such as slipping and tripping. Many of these PBT studies have targeted reactive balance after slipping or tripping, despite both contributing to a large proportion of older adult falls. The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of PBT targeting slipping and tripping on laboratory-induced slips and trips. To build upon prior work, the present study included: 1) a control group; 2) separate training and assessment sessions; 3) PBT methods potentially more amenable for use outside the lab compared to methods employed elsewhere, and 4) individualized training for older adult participants. METHODS:Thirty-four community-dwelling, healthy older adults (61-75?years) were assigned to PBT or a control intervention using minimization. Using a parallel design, reactive balance (primary outcome) and fall incidence were assessed before and after four sessions of BRT or a control intervention involving general balance exercises. Assessments involved exposing participants to an unexpected laboratory-induced slip or trip. Reactive balance and fall incidence were compared between three mutually-exclusive groups: 1) baseline participants who experienced a slip (or trip) before either intervention, 2) post-control participants who experienced a slip (or trip) after the control intervention, and 3) post-PBT participants who experienced a slip (or trip) after PBT. Neither the participants nor investigators were blinded to group assignment. RESULTS:All 34 participants completed all four sessions of their assigned intervention, and all 34 participants were analyzed. Regarding slips, several measures of reactive balance were improved among post-PBT participants when compared to baseline participants or post-control participants, and fall incidence among post-PBT participants (18%) was lower than among baseline participants (80%). Regarding trips, neither reactive balance nor fall incidence differed between groups. CONCLUSIONS:PBT targeting slipping and tripping improved reactive balance and fall incidence after laboratory-induced slips. Improvements were not observed after laboratory-induced trips. The disparity in efficacy between slips and trip may have resulted from differences in dosage and specificity between slip and trip training. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Name of Clinical Trial Registry: clinicaltrials.gov Trial Registration number: NCT04308239. Date of Registration: March 13, 2020 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE</label>Turning while walking has a frequent occurrence in daily life. Evaluation of its dynamic stability will facilitate fall prevention and rehabilitation scheme. This knowledge is so limited that we set it as the first aim of this study. Another aim was to investigate spatiotemporal parameters during turning.<label>METHODS</label>Fifteen healthy young adults were instructed to perform straight walking, 45° step turn to the left and 45° spin turn to the right at natural speed. Dynamic stability was measured by margin of stability (MoS) in anterior, posterior, left and right direction at each data point where significant differences were detected using 95% bootstrap confidence band. Common spatiotemporal parameters were computed in each condition subdivided into approach, turn and depart phases.<label>RESULTS</label>Results showed that minimum anterior MoS appeared at middle of swing while minimum lateral MoS at contralateral heel strike in all conditions. Posterior MoS decreased before middle of turn phase in spin whereas after middle of turn phase in step. Lateral MoS and stride width declined in turn phase of spin while in depart of step. Spin had a long step and stride length. Long swing phases were observed in turns.<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>These data help explain that people are most likely to fall forward at middle of swing and to fall toward the back and the support side at heel strike. Our findings demonstrate that instability mainly exist in turn phase of spin and depart phase of step turn.
Project description:Little is known about the landing behavior of the trailing (recovery) foot and ensuing types of falls following a forward slip in walking. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine if community-dwelling older adults experienced bilateral slips at the same rate as had been previously observed for young adults during over-ground walking; (2) determine if fall rate in older adults was dependent on slip type (unilateral vs. bilateral); and (3) identify differences in spatiotemporal variables of the trailing leg step between unilateral and bilateral slips. One-hundred-seventy-four participants experienced an unannounced, unrehearsed slip while walking on a 7-m walkway. Each trial was monitored with a motion capture system and bilateral ground reaction force plates. Although the experimental design, developed with original data from a young adult population, favored bilateral slips, more older adults (35%) than anticipated (10% previously observed in young, p<0.001) displayed a unilateral slip. The probability of fall was equal in the two types of slips. Eighty-two people recovered from the slip, while the remaining 92 (53%) fell. These 92 were classified into two exclusive categories based on the heel distance at the time of fall arrest using cluster analysis: those which resembled a fall into a "splits" position (n=47) or a feet-forward fall (n=45). All (100%) unilateral slips led to splits falls, as expected. Yet, not all bilateral slips (only 83%) resulted in feet-forward falls. A longer forward recovery step with a prolonged step time led to both feet slipping, nearly together, hence a feet-forward fall.
Project description:Assessing footwear slip-resistance is critical to preventing slip and fall accidents. The STM 603 (SATRA Technology) is commonly used to assess footwear friction but its ability to predict human slips while walking is unclear. This study assessed this apparatus' ability to predict slips across footwear designs and to determine if modifying the test parameters alters predictions. The available coefficient of friction (ACOF) was measured with the device for nine different footwear designs using 12 testing conditions with varying vertical force, speed and shoe angle. The occurrence of slipping and the required coefficient of friction was quantified from human gait data including 124 exposures to liquid contaminants. ACOF values varied across the test conditions leading to different slip prediction models. Generally, a steeper shoe angle (13°) and higher vertical forces (400 or 500?N) modestly improved predictions of slipping. This study can potentially guide improvements in predictive test conditions for this device. Practitioner Summary: Frictional measures by the STM603 (SATRA Technology) were able to predict human slips under liquid contaminant conditions. Test parameters did have an influence on the measurements. An increased shoe-floor testing angle resulted in better slip predictions than test methods specified in the ASTM F2913 standard.
Project description:Little is known about the effects of use of a cane on balance during perturbed gait or whether people with Parkinson disease (PD) benefit from using a cane.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cane use on postural recovery from a slip due to repeated surface perturbations in individuals with PD compared with age- and sex-matched individuals who were healthy.This was a prospective study with 2 groups of participants.Fourteen individuals with PD (PD group) and 11 individuals without PD (control group) walked across a platform that translated 15 cm rightward at 30 cm/s during the single-limb support phase of the right foot. Data from 15 trials in 2 conditions (ie, with and without an instrumented cane in the right hand) were collected in random order. Outcome measures included lateral displacement of body center of mass (COM) due to the slip and compensatory step width and length after the perturbation.Cane use improved postural recovery from the first untrained slip, characterized by smaller lateral COM displacement, in the PD group but not in the control group. The beneficial effect of cane use, however, occurred only during the first perturbation, and those individuals in the PD group who demonstrated the largest COM displacement without a cane benefited the most from use of a cane. Both PD and control groups gradually decreased lateral COM displacement across slip exposures, but a slower learning rate was evident in the PD group participants, who required 6, rather than 3, trials for adapting balance recovery.Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of repeated slip training in people with PD.Use of a cane improved postural recovery from an unpracticed slip in individuals with PD. Balance in people with PD can be improved by training with repeated exposures to perturbations.