Cytokinin, auxin and physiological polarity in the aquatic carnivorous plants Aldrovanda vesiculosa and Utricularia australis.
ABSTRACT: The typical rootless linear shoots of aquatic carnivorous plants exhibit clear, steep polarity associated with very rapid apical shoot growth. The aim of this study was to determine how auxin and cytokinin contents are related to polarity and shoot growth in such plants.The main auxin and cytokinin metabolites in separated shoot segments and turions of two carnivorous plants, Aldrovanda vesiculosa and Utricularia australis, were analysed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quad mass spectrometry.In both species, only isoprenoid cytokinins were identified. Zeatin cytokinins predominated in the apical parts, with their concentrations decreasing basipetally, and the trans isomer predominated in A. vesiculosa whereas the cis form was more abundant in U australis. Isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins, in contrast, increased basipetally. Conjugated cytokinin metabolites, the O-glucosides, were present at high concentrations in A. vesiculosa but only in minute amounts in U. australis. N(9)-glucoside forms were detected only in U. australis, with isopentenyladenine-9-glucoside (iP9G) being most abundant. In addition to free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-acetamide (IAM), IAA-aspartate (IAAsp), IAA-glutamate (IAGlu) and IAA-glycine (IAGly) conjugates were identified.Both species show common trends in auxin and cytokinin levels, the apical localization of the cytokinin biosynthesis and basipetal change in the ratio of active cytokinins to auxin, in favour of auxin. However, our detailed study of cytokinin metabolic profiles also revealed that both species developed different regulatory mechanisms of active cytokinin content; on the level of their degradation, in U. australis, or in the biosynthesis itself, in the case of A. vesiculosa Results indicate that the rapid turnover of these signalling molecules along the shoots is essential for maintaining the dynamic balance between the rapid polar growth and development of the apical parts and senescence of the older, basal parts of the shoots.
Project description:MAIN CONCLUSION:Shoot tip necrosis is a physiological condition that negatively impacts the growth and development of in vitro plant shoot cultures across a wide range of species. Shoot tip necrosis is a physiological condition and disorder that can arise in plantlets or shoots in vitro that results in death of the shoot tip. This condition, which can spread basipetally and affect the emergence of axillary shoots from buds lower down the stem, is due to the cessation of apical dominance. STN can occur at both shoot multiplication and rooting stages. One of the most common factors that cause STN is nutrient deficiency or imbalance. Moreover, the presence or absence of plant growth regulators (auxins or cytokinins) at specific developmental stages may impact STN. The cytokinin to auxin ratio within an in vitro plant can be modified by varying the concentration of cytokinins used in the culture medium. The supply of nutrients to in vitro shoots or plantlets might also affect their hormonal balance, thus modifying the occurrence of STN. High relative humidity within culture vessels and hyperhydricity are associated with STN. An adequate supply of calcium as the divalent cation (Ca2+) can hinder STN by inhibiting the accumulation of phenolic compounds and thus programmed cell death. Moreover, the level of Ca2+ affects auxin transport and ethylene production, and higher ethylene production, which can occur as a result of high relative humidity in or poor ventilation of the in vitro culture vessel, induces STN. High relative humidity can decrease the mobility of Ca2+ within a plant, resulting in Ca2+ deficiency and STN. STN of in vitro shoots or plantlets can be halted or reversed by altering the basal medium, mainly the concentration of Ca2+, adjusting the levels of auxins or cytokinins, or modifying culture conditions. This review examines the literature related to STN, seeks to discover the associated factors and relations between them, proposes practical solutions, and attempts to better understand the mechanism(s) underlying this condition in vitro.
Project description:A number of scientific reports published to date contain data on endogenous levels of various phytohormones in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) but a complete cytokinin profile of potato tissues, that would include data on all particular molecular forms of cytokinin, has still been missing. In this work, endogenous levels of all analytically detectable isoprenoid cytokinins, as well as the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and abscisic acid (ABA) have been determined in shoots and roots of 30 day old in vitro grown potato (cv. Désirée). The results presented here are generally similar to other data reported for in vitro grown potato plants, whereas greenhouse-grown plants typically contain lower levels of ABA, possibly indicating that in vitro grown potato is exposed to chronic stress. Cytokinin N-glucosides, particularly N7-glucosides, are the dominant cytokinin forms in both shoots and roots of potato, whereas nucleobases, as the bioactive forms of cytokinins, comprise a low proportion of cytokinin levels in tissues of potato. Differences in phytohormone composition between shoots and roots of potato suggest specific patterns of transport and/or differences in tissue-specific metabolism of plant hormones. These results represent a contribution to understanding the hormonomics of potato, a crop species of extraordinary economic importance.
Project description:Virulent strains of Rhodococcus fascians cause a range of disease symptoms, many of which can be mimicked by application of cytokinin. Both virulent and avirulent strains produce a complex of cytokinins, most of which can be derived from tRNA degradation. To test the three current hypotheses regarding the involvement of cytokinins as virulence determinants, we used PCR to detect specific genes, previously associated with a linear virulence plasmid, including two methyl transferase genes (mt1 and mt2) and fas4 (dimethyl transferase), of multiple strains of R. fascians. We inoculated Pisum sativum (pea) seeds with virulent and avirulent strains of R. fascians, monitored the plants over time and compared these to mock-inoculated controls. We used RT-qPCR to monitor the expression of mt1, mt2, and fas4 in inoculated tissues and LC-MS/MS to obtain a comprehensive picture of the cytokinin complement of inoculated cotyledons, roots and shoots over time. The presence and expression of mt1 and mt2 was associated with those strains of R. fascians classed as virulent, and not those classed as avirulent. Expression of mt1, mt2, and fas4 peaked at 9 days post-inoculation (dpi) in cotyledons and at 15 dpi in shoots and roots developed from seeds inoculated with virulent strain 602. Pea plants inoculated with virulent and avirulent strains of R. fascians both contained cytokinins likely to have been derived from tRNA turnover including the 2-methylthio cytokinins and cis-zeatin-derivatives. Along with the isopentenyladenine-type cytokinins, the levels of these compounds did not correlate with virulence. Only the novel 1- and 2-methylated isopentenyladenine cytokinins were uniquely associated with infection by the virulent strains and are, therefore, the likely causative factors of the disease symptoms.
Project description:Cytokinins are a class of plant-specific hormones that play a central role during the cell cycle and influence numerous developmental programs. Because of the lack of biosynthetic and signaling mutants, the regulatory roles of cytokinins are not well understood. We genetically engineered cytokinin oxidase expression in transgenic tobacco plants to reduce their endogenous cytokinin content. Cytokinin-deficient plants developed stunted shoots with smaller apical meristems. The plastochrone was prolonged, and leaf cell production was only 3-4% that of wild type, indicating an absolute requirement of cytokinins for leaf growth. In contrast, root meristems of transgenic plants were enlarged and gave rise to faster growing and more branched roots. These results suggest that cytokinins are an important regulatory factor of plant meristem activity and morphogenesis, with opposing roles in shoots and roots.
Project description:CKX (cytokinin dehydrogenase) is a flavoprotein that cleaves cytokinins to adenine and the corresponding side-chain aldehyde using a quinone-type electron acceptor. In the present study, reactions of maize (Zea mays) CKX with five different substrates (N6-isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin, kinetin, p-topolin and N-methyl-isopentenyladenine) were studied. By using stopped-flow analysis of the reductive half-reaction, spectral intermediates were observed indicative of the transient formation of a binary enzyme-product complex between the cytokinin imine and the reduced enzyme. The reduction rate was high for isoprenoid cytokinins that showed formation of a charge-transfer complex of reduced enzyme with bound cytokinin imine. For the other cytokinins, flavin reduction was slow and no charge-transfer intermediates were observed. The binary complex of reduced enzyme and imine product intermediate decays relatively slowly to form an unbound product, cytokinin imine, which accumulates in the reaction mixture. The imine product only very slowly hydrolyses to adenine and an aldehyde derived from the cytokinin N6 side-chain. Mixing of the substrate-reduced enzyme with Cu2+/imidazole as an electron acceptor to monitor the oxidative half-reaction revealed a high rate of electron transfer for this type of electron acceptor when using N6-isopentenyladenine. The stability of the cytokinin imine products allowed their fragmentation analysis and structure assessment by Q-TOF (quadrupole-time-of-flight) MS/MS. Correlations of the kinetic data with the known crystal structure are discussed for reactions with different cytokinins.
Project description:To gain insights into the roles of cytokinin (CK) and auxin in regulating dormancy during seed maturation in wheat, we examined changes in the levels of CK and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and expression patterns of their metabolism and signaling genes in embryonic and endospermic tissues of dormant and non-dormant genotypes. Seed maturation was associated with a decrease in the levels of isopentenyladenine in both tissues mainly via repression of the CK biosynthetic TaLOG genes. Differential embryonic trans-zeatin content and expression patterns of the CK related genes including TacZOG, TaGLU and TaARR12 between maturing seeds of the two genotypes implicate CK in the control of seed dormancy induction and maintenance. Seed maturation induced a decrease of IAA level in both tissues irrespective of genotype, and this appeared to be mediated by repression of specific IAA biosynthesis, transport and IAA-conjugate hydrolysis genes. The differential embryonic IAA content and expression pattern of the IAA biosynthetic gene TaAO during the early stage of seed maturation between the two genotypes imply the role of IAA in dormancy induction. It appears from our data that the expression of specific auxin signaling genes including TaRUB, TaAXR and TaARF mediate the role of auxin signaling in dormancy induction and maintenance during seed maturation in wheat.
Project description:Cytokinins, which are central regulators of cell division and differentiation in plants, are adenine derivatives carrying an isopentenyl side chain that may be hydroxylated. Plants have two classes of isopentenyltransferases (IPTs) acting on the adenine moiety: ATP/ADP isopentenyltransferases (in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtIPT1, 3, 4-8) and tRNA IPTs (in Arabidopsis, AtIPT2 and 9). ATP/ADP IPTs are likely to be responsible for the bulk of cytokinin synthesis, whereas it is thought that cis-zeatin (cZ)-type cytokinins are produced possibly by degradation of cis-hydroxy isopentenyl tRNAs, which are formed by tRNA IPTs. However, these routes are largely hypothetical because of lack of in vivo evidence, because the critical experiment necessary to verify these routes, namely the production and analysis of mutants lacking AtIPTs, has not yet been described. We isolated null mutants for all members of the ATP/ADP IPT and tRNA IPT gene families in Arabidopsis. Notably, our work demonstrates that the atipt1 3 5 7 quadruple mutant possesses severely decreased levels of isopentenyladenine and trans-zeatin (tZ), and their corresponding ribosides, ribotides, and glucosides, and is retarded in its growth. In contrast, these mutants possessed increased levels of cZ-type cytokinins. The atipt2 9 double mutant, on the other hand, lacked isopentenyl- and cis-hydroxy isopentenyl-tRNA, and cZ-type cytokinins. These results indicate that whereas ATP/ADP IPTs are responsible for the bulk of isopentenyladenine- and tZ-type cytokinin synthesis, tRNA IPTs are required for cZ-type cytokinin production. This work clarifies the long-standing questions of the biosynthetic routes for isopentenyladenine-, tZ-, and cZ-type cytokinin production.
Project description:Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is a perennial weed that is considered glyphosate tolerant, which is partially attributed to escape through establishment of new vegetative shoots from an abundance of underground adventitious buds. Leafy spurge plants treated with sub-lethal concentrations of foliar-applied glyphosate produce new vegetative shoots with reduced main stem elongation and increased branching. Processes associated with the glyphosate-induced phenotype were determined by RNAseq using aerial shoots derived from crown buds of glyphosate-treated and -untreated plants. Comparison between transcript abundance and accumulation of shikimate or phytohormones (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinins, and gibberellins) from these same samples was also done to reveal correlations.Transcriptome assembly and analyses confirmed differential abundance among 12,918 transcripts (FDR???0.05) and highlighted numerous processes associated with shoot apical meristem maintenance and stem growth, which is consistent with the increased number of actively growing meristems in response to glyphosate. Foliar applied glyphosate increased shikimate abundance in crown buds prior to decapitation of aboveground shoots, which induces growth from these buds, indicating that 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSPS) the target site of glyphosate was inhibited. However, abundance of shikimate was similar in a subsequent generation of aerial shoots derived from crown buds of treated and untreated plants, suggesting EPSPS is no longer inhibited or abundance of shikimate initially observed in crown buds dissipated over time. Overall, auxins, gibberellins (precursors and catabolites of bioactive gibberellins), and cytokinins (precursors and bioactive cytokinins) were more abundant in the aboveground shoots derived from glyphosate-treated plants.Based on the overall data, we propose that the glyphosate-induced phenotype resulted from complex interactions involving shoot apical meristem maintenance, hormone biosynthesis and signaling (auxin, cytokinins, gibberellins, and strigolactones), cellular transport, and detoxification mechanisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aside from those on Arabidopsis, very few studies have focused on spatial expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in root apical meristems (RAMs), and, indeed, none has been undertaken for open meristems. The extent of interfacing between cell cycle genes and plant growth regulators is also an increasingly important issue in plant cell cycle studies. Here spatial expression/localization of an A-type and B-type CDK, auxin and cytokinins are reported in relation to the hitherto unexplored anatomy of RAMs of Cucurbita maxima. METHODS: Median longitudinal sections were cut from 1-cm-long primary root tips of C. maxima. Full-length A-type CDKs and a B-type CDK were cloned from C. maxima using degenerate primers, probes of which were localized on sections of RAMs using in situ hybridization. Isopentenyladenine (iPA), trans-zeatin (t-Z) and indole-3yl-acetic acid (IAA) were identified on sections by immunolocalization. KEY RESULTS: The C. cucurbita RAM conformed to an open transverse (OT) meristem typified by an absence of a clear boundary between the eumeristem and root cap columella, but with a distinctive longitudinally thickened epidermis. Cucma;CDKA;1 expression was detected strongly in the longitudinally thickened epidermis, a tissue with mitotic competence that contributes cells radially to the root cap of OT meristems. Cucma;CDKB2 was expressed mainly in proliferative regions of the RAM and in lateral root primordia. iPA and t-Z were mainly distributed in differentiated cells whilst IAA was distributed more uniformly in all tissues of the RAM. CONCLUSIONS: Cucma;CDKA;1 was expressed most strongly in cells that have proliferative competence whereas Cucma;CDKB2 was confined mainly to mitotic cells. iPA and t-Z marked differentiated cells in the RAM, consistent with the known effect of cytokinins in promoting differentiation in root systems. iPA/t-Z were distributed in a converse pattern to Cucma;CDKB2 expression whereas IAA was detected in most cells in the RAM regardless of their proliferative potential.
Project description:An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol from seed culture has been established successfully for Dendrobium chrysotoxum, an epiphytic orchid having tremendous ornamental and medicinal values. Seed germination response was encouraging in Mitra (M) medium enriched with different combinations of auxins and cytokinins. Medium supplemented with 0.4% activated charcoal (AC), 2 mg/L 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), and 2 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) produced best seed germination percentage in 2 weeks of culture. Incorporation of higher concentration of kinetin (KN) or BAP in combination with low auxin in medium induced pronounced shooting and leaf formation. Reduction in leaf development was evident when cytokinins exist singly in medium indicating synergistic effect of auxin and cytokinin in leaf induction. Presence of elevated level of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with low cytokinin content in medium generated more in vitro rooting, though IBA was found to be more effective in rooting induction as compared to NAA. The in vitro protocol for asymbiotic seed germination developed from the present investigation can be used for rapid mass propagation of this highly important Dendrobium orchid species.