Down-regulation of a member of the S100 gene family in mammary carcinoma cells and reexpression by azadeoxycytidine treatment.
ABSTRACT: A cDNA clone, designated CaN19 (originally called clone 19), isolated by subtractive hybridization, contains sequences that are preferentially expressed in normal mammary epithelial cells but not in breast tumor cells. Comparison of its deduced amino acid sequence with sequences in the GenBank data base revealed similarity with the S100 protein family, a group of small Ca(2+)-binding modulator proteins involved in cell cycle progression and cell differentiation. CaN19 expression is down-regulated in normal cells by A23187, a calcium ionophore, suggesting that its regulation is calcium-dependent. We have assigned CaN19 to human chromosome 1q21-q24, a region containing four other S100-related genes. In contrast to CaN19 mRNA expression, most members of the S100 protein family are activated or overexpressed in tumor cells. Synchronization experiments by growth-factor deprivation demonstrated a biphasic induction of CaN19 expression in normal cells, approximately 2-fold in early G1 phase and another 2- to 3-fold at the G1/S boundary. Exposure of mammary tumor cells to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation, reactivated the expression of CaN19 mRNA.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests an emerging role for S100 protein in breast cancer and tumor progression. These ubiquitous proteins are involved in numerous normal and pathological cell functions including inflammatory and immune responses, Ca(2+) homeostasis, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, as well as cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. Our previous proteomic analysis demonstrated the presence of hornerin, an S100 family member, in breast tissue and extracellular matrix. Hornerin has been reported in healthy skin as well as psoriatic and regenerating skin after wound healing, suggesting a role in inflammatory/immune response or proliferation. In the present study we investigated hornerin's potential role in normal breast cells and breast cancer.The expression levels and localization of hornerin in human breast tissue, breast tumor biopsies, primary breast cells and breast cancer cell lines, as well as murine mammary tissue were measured via immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and PCR. Antibodies were developed against the N- and C-terminus of the protein for detection of proteolytic fragments and their specific subcellular localization via fluorescent immunocytochemisty. Lastly, cells were treated with H(2)O(2) to detect changes in hornerin expression during induction of apoptosis/necrosis.Breast epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts and macrophages express hornerin and show unique regulation of expression during distinct phases of mammary development. Furthermore, hornerin expression is decreased in invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas and less aggressive breast carcinoma phenotypes, and cellular expression of hornerin is altered during induction of apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrate the presence of post-translational fragments that display differential subcellular localization.Our data opens new possibilities for hornerin and its proteolytic fragments in the control of mammary cell function and breast cancer.
Project description:PURPOSE: Pterygium is an ocular surface disease of unknown etiology associated with epithelial and fibrovascular outgrowth from the conjunctiva onto the cornea. S100 proteins are calcium-activated signaling proteins that interact with other proteins to modulate biological functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of various S100 proteins in pterygium compared to normal conjunctiva. METHODS: Immunofluorescent staining using antibodies against S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A11 were conducted to investigate the expression and tissue distribution. S100 protein secretions and expressions were confirmed using western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. RESULTS: Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated the presence of S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A11 in both conjunctival and pterygial epithelium. No significant difference was found in the localization and expression of S100A4. In both conjunctiva and pterygium, S100A4-positive cells were found in superficial and suprabasal layers. S100A6 expression was strong in the superficial layer of pterygium epithelium but relatively weaker in the suprabasal and superficial cells of normal conjunctiva epithelium. S100A8 and S100A9 were localized in the superficial layer of both pterygium and normal conjunctiva epithelium, with higher levels in pterygium than uninvolved conjunctiva. S100A11 was expressed in the basal cells of conjunctival epithelium but in the suprabasal layers of pterygium epithelium. Western blot and RT-PCR confirmed the presence of S100A4, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A11 in pterygium and conjunctiva tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of S100A6, S100A8, and S100A9 expressions were detected in the pterygium tissue relative to normal conjunctiva. In addition, a distinct alteration of localization of S100A11 expression was observed in pterygium epithelium compared to the conjunctiva. Therefore, these S100 proteins may be associated with the formation of pterygium.
Project description:S100 proteins are small, calcium-binding proteins whose genes are localized in a cluster on human chromosome 1. Through their ability to interact with various protein partners in a calcium-dependent manner, the S100 proteins exert their influence on many vital cellular processes such as cell cycle, cytoskeleton activity and cell motility, differentiation, etc. The characteristic feature of S100 proteins is their cell-specific expression, which is frequently up- or downregulated in various pathological states, including cancer. Changes in S100 protein expression are usually characteristic for a given type of cancer and are therefore often considered as markers of a malignant state. Recent results indicate that changes in S100 protein expression may depend on the extent of DNA methylation in the S100 gene regulatory regions. The range of epigenetic changes occurring within the S100 gene cluster has not been defined. This article reviews published data on the involvement of epigenetic factors in the control of S100 protein expression in development and cancer.
Project description:The fused-type S100 protein profilaggrin and its proteolytic products including filaggrin are important in the formation of a normal epidermal barrier; however, the specific function of the S100 calcium-binding domain in profilaggrin biology is poorly understood. To explore its molecular function, we determined a 2.2?Å-resolution crystal structure of the N-terminal fused-type S100 domain of human profilaggrin with bound calcium ions. The profilaggrin S100 domain formed a stable dimer, which contained two hydrophobic pockets that provide a molecular interface for protein interactions. Biochemical and molecular approaches demonstrated that three proteins, annexin II/p36, stratifin/14-3-3 sigma, and heat shock protein 27, bind to the N-terminal domain of human profilaggrin; one protein (stratifin) co-localized with profilaggrin in the differentiating granular cell layer of human skin. Together, these findings suggest a model where the profilaggrin N-terminus uses calcium-dependent and calcium-independent protein-protein interactions to regulate its involvement in keratinocyte terminal differentiation and incorporation into the cornified cell envelope.
Project description:Genes in the S100 family are abnormally expressed in a variety of tumor cells and are associated with clinical pathology, but their prognostic value in melanoma patients has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we extracted and profiled S100 family mRNA expression data and corresponding clinical data from the Gene Expression Omnibus database to analyze how expression of these genes correlates with clinical pathology. Compared with normal skin, S100A1, S100A13, and S100B were expressed at significantly higher levels in melanoma samples. S100A2, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, and S100P were all highly expressed in primary melanoma samples but were expressed at low levels in metastatic melanoma, and all of these genes were strongly correlated with each other (P<0.001). We found the expression of these S100 family genes to be significantly correlated with both lymphatic and distant melanoma metastasis, as well as with American Joint Committee on Cancer grade but not with Clark's grade, age, or sex. This suggests that expression of these genes may be related to the degree of tumor invasion. Although further validation through basic and clinical trials is needed, our results suggest that the S100 family genes have the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of melanoma. S100 expression may be related to tumor invasion and may facilitate the early diagnosis of melanoma, allowing for a more accurate prognosis. Targeted S100 therapies are also potentially viable strategies in the context of melanoma.
Project description:The development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is poorly understood and the major regulatory molecules involved in the process of tumorigenesis have not yet been identified. We had previously employed a quantitative proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in ESCC tumors. A total of 238 differentially expressed proteins were identified in that study including S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) as one of the major downregulated proteins. In the present study, we carried out immunohistochemical validation of S100A9 in a large cohort of ESCC patients to determine the expression and subcellular localization of S100A9 in tumors and adjacent normal esophageal epithelia. Downregulation of S100A9 was observed in 67% (n = 192) of 288 different ESCC tumors, with the most dramatic downregulation observed in the poorly differentiated tumors (99/111). Expression of S100A9 was restricted to the prickle and functional layers of normal esophageal mucosa and localized predominantly in the cytoplasm and nucleus whereas virtually no expression was observed in the tumor and stromal cells. This suggests the important role that S100A9 plays in maintaining the differentiated state of epithelium and suggests that its downregulation may be associated with increased susceptibility to tumor formation.
Project description:Currently, there are no valid and reliable biomarkers to identify delirious patients predisposed to longer delirium duration. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated S100 calcium binding protein B (S100?) levels will be associated with longer delirium duration in critically ill patients.A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the medical, surgical, and progressive intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care, university affiliated, and urban hospital. Sixty-three delirious patients were selected for the analysis, with two samples of S100? collected on days 1 and 8 of enrollment. The main outcome measure was delirium duration. Using the cutoff of <0.1 ng/mL and ?0.1 ng/mL as normal and abnormal levels of S100?, respectively, on day 1 and day 8, four exposure groups were created: Group A, normal S100? levels on day 1 and day 8; Group B, normal S100? level on day 1 and abnormal S100? level on day 8; Group C, abnormal S100? level on day 1 and normal on day 8; and Group D, abnormal S100? levels on both day 1 and day 8.Patients with abnormal levels of S100? showed a trend towards higher delirium duration (P=0.076); Group B (standard deviation) (7.0 [3.2] days), Group C (5.5 [6.3] days), and Group D (5.3 [6.0] days), compared to patients in Group A (3.5 [5.4] days).This preliminary investigation identified a potentially novel role for S100? as a biomarker for delirium duration in critically ill patients. This finding may have important implications for refining future delirium management strategies in ICU patients.
Project description:S100 proteins are widely expressed small molecular EF-hand calcium-binding proteins of vertebrates, which are involved in numerous cellular processes, such as Ca2+ homeostasis, proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. Although the complex network of S100 signalling is by far not fully deciphered, several S100 family members could be linked to a variety of diseases, such as inflammatory disorders, neurological diseases, and also cancer. The research of the past decades revealed that S100 proteins play a crucial role in the development and progression of many cancer types, such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. Hence, S100 family members have also been shown to be promising diagnostic markers and possible novel targets for therapy. However, the current knowledge of S100 proteins is limited and more attention to this unique group of proteins is needed. Therefore, this review article summarises S100 proteins and their relation in different cancer types, while also providing an overview of novel therapeutic strategies for targeting S100 proteins for cancer treatment.
Project description:It is well established that calcium binding leads to conformational changes in S100 proteins. These conformational changes are thought to activate the protein and render a protein conformation that is capable of binding other proteins. The basic quaternary structural motif of S100 proteins is a homodimer, however there is little information if higher order non-covalent oligomers are also formed and whether these oligomers are of functional relevance. To this end we performed equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation experiments for 16 S100 proteins (S100A1, S100A2, S100A3, S100A4, S100A5, S100A6, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A10, S100A11, S100A12, S100A13, S100B, S100P, and S100Z) under reducing conditions in the absence and presence of calcium ions. We show that the addition of calcium promotes the formation of tetrameric structures which could be further enhanced under in vivo conditions where there is an additional effect of molecular crowding.
Project description:The S100 proteins comprise at least 25 members, forming the largest group of EF-hand signalling proteins in humans. Although the proteins are expressed in many tissues, each S100 protein has generally been shown to have a preference for expression in one particular tissue or cell type. Three-dimensional structures of several S100 family members have shown that the proteins assume a dimeric structure consisting of two EF-hand motifs per monomer. Calcium binding to these S100 proteins, with the exception of S100A10, results in an approx. 40 degrees alteration in the position of helix III, exposing a broad hydrophobic surface that enables the S100 proteins to interact with a variety of target proteins. More than 90 potential target proteins have been documented for the S100 proteins, including the cytoskeletal proteins tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and F-actin, which have been identified mostly from in vitro experiments. In the last 5 years, efforts have concentrated on quantifying the protein interactions of the S100 proteins, identifying in vivo protein partners and understanding the molecular specificity for target protein interactions. Furthermore, the S100 proteins are the only EF-hand proteins that are known to form both homo- and hetero-dimers, and efforts are underway to determine the stabilities of these complexes and structural rationales for their formation and potential differences in their biological roles. This review highlights both the calcium-dependent and -independent interactions of the S100 proteins, with a focus on the structures of the complexes, differences and similarities in the strengths of the interactions, and preferences for homo- compared with hetero-dimeric S100 protein assembly.