De novo CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Adverse outcomes with and without stem cell transplantation in a large, multicenter, rituximab treated cohort.
ABSTRACT: De novo CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are a distinct subgroup of DLBCL with poor prognosis. However the role of rituximab-containing therapy and salvage stem cell transplantation in this patients' population remain to be defined. We retrospectively reviewed clinical features and outcomes of 102 patients with de novo CD5+ DLBCL treated with rituximab-containing therapy at nine different institutions. By Hans' criteria, 64 patients had activated B-cell (ABC) subtype, 24 germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype, and 14 were not evaluated. No patients had a myc translocation. Eighty-three patients were treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-CHOP), 7 with rituximab, etoposide, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-EPOCH), and 6 with R-CHOP with methotrexate, 3 g/m(2) . The overall response rate to front-line therapy was 85%. The 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 40 and 65%, respectively. The 3-year PFS for ABC- and GCB-subtypes was 34 and 45%, respectively. The 3-year OS for ABC- and GCB-subtypes was 62 and 67%, respectively. The median time to second treatment failure was 3 months and 1 month for ABC- and GCB-subtypes, respectively. Twenty of 28 (71%) transplanted patients with autologous, allogeneic, or both, relapsed. This study confirms the poor prognosis of de novo CD5+ DLBCL in a large multi-center cohort despite initial rituximab-containing chemotherapy and suggests that stem cell transplantation fails to salvage the majority of these patients. Approaches to prevent recurrence and/or novel therapies for relapsed disease are needed for this subgroup of DLBCL patients.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We show that MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression occurred significantly more commonly in the ABC subtype. Patients with the ABC or GCB subtype of DLBCL had similar prognoses with MYC/BCL2 coexpression and without MYC/BCL2 coexpression. Consistent with the notion that the prognostic difference between the 2 subtypes is attributable to MYC/BCL2 coexpression, there is no difference in gene expression signatures between the 2 subtypes in the absence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2 coexpression demonstrated a signature of marked downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, those involving matrix deposition/remodeling and cell adhesion, and upregulation of proliferation-associated genes. We conclude that MYC/BCL2 coexpression in DLBCL is associated with an aggressive clinical course, is more common in the ABC subtype, and contributes to the overall inferior prognosis of patients with ABC-DLBCL. In conclusion, the data suggest that MYC/BCL2 coexpression, rather than cell-of-origin classification, is a better predictor of prognosis in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are clinically heterogeneous and need a biomarker that can predict the outcome of treatments accurately. To assess the prognostic significance of the cell-of-origin type for DLBCLs, we applied the Lymph2Cx assay using a NanoString gene expression platform on formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded pretreatment tissues obtained from 82 patients with de novo DLBCL, not otherwise specified. All patients were treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) as the first line of chemotherapy. Based on the expression levels of Bcl-6, CD10, and MUM-1 measured by immunohistochemistry, cases were subdivided into germinal center B-cell (GCB) and non-GCB types according to the Hans algorithm. NanoString assay was performed on 82 cases. The Lymph2Cx assay successfully classified 82 cases into three categories: activated B-cell (ABC), GCB, and unclassified types. The concordance rate between the Lymph2Cx assay and the Hans algorithm was 73.6%. The Lymph2Cx-defined ABC type had significantly poorer outcomes compared with the GCB type (5-year overall survival, GCB vs. ABC, 96.6% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.020; 5-year disease-free survival, GCB vs. ABC, 96.6% vs. 79.2%, P = 0.018). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in survival between the two patient subgroups with DLBCL types classified by the Hans algorithm. The Lymph2Cx assay is a robust, reliable method for predicting the outcome of patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy.
Project description:PURPOSE:We have previously shown the prognostic significance of BCL2 expression in the activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) patients treated with cyclophosphamide-Adriamycin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP) or CHOP-like therapy. However, after the inclusion of rituximab (R) in the CHOP regimen, several conflicting observations about the prognostic value of BCL2 expression have been reported. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We evaluated the R-CHOP cohort of 221 DLBCL cases with gene expression profiling data. BCL2 protein (n = 169), mRNA (n = 221) expression, and t(14;18) (n = 144) were correlated with clinical outcome. The CHOP cohort (n = 181) was used for comparative analysis. RESULTS:BCL2 protein expression has significant impact on overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) in DLBCL (OS, P = 0.009; EFS, P = 0.001) and GCB-DLBCL (OS, P = 0.03; EFS, P = 0.002) but not in ABC-DLBCL in the R-CHOP cohort. The survival differences for EFS in GCB-DLBCL were still observed in multivariate analysis. At the mRNA level, this correlation was observed in EFS in DLBCL (P = 0.006), but only a trend was observed in GCB-DLBCL (P = 0.09). The t(14;18) was detected in 34% of GCB-DLBCL but was not associated with significant differences in survival. Gene enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment of the DLBCL "stromal-1" signatures and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1-?) signature in BCL2(-)GCB-DLBCL, whereas T(FH) cell signatures were enriched in BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL. CONCLUSION:The prognostic significance of BCL2 has changed after inclusion of rituximab in the treatment protocol and is observed in the GCB-DLBCL rather than the ABC-DLBCL. Although rituximab has benefited patients in both DLBCL subgroups, the BCL2(+)GCB-DLBCL seems to receive less benefit from this treatment and may require other novel therapeutic intervention.
Project description:PURPOSE:Hans and coworkers previously developed an immunohistochemical algorithm with approximately 80% concordance with the gene expression profiling (GEP) classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into the germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtypes. Since then, new antibodies specific to germinal center B-cells have been developed, which might improve the performance of an immunostain algorithm. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We studied 84 cases of cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone (CHOP)-treated DLBCL (47 GCB, 37 ABC) with GCET1, CD10, BCL6, MUM1, FOXP1, BCL2, MTA3, and cyclin D2 immunostains, and compared different combinations of the immunostaining results with the GEP classification. A perturbation analysis was also applied to eliminate the possible effects of interobserver or intraobserver variations. A separate set of 63 DLBCL cases treated with rituximab plus CHOP (37 GCB, 26 ABC) was used to validate the new algorithm. RESULTS:A new algorithm using GCET1, CD10, BCL6, MUM1, and FOXP1 was derived that closely approximated the GEP classification with 93% concordance. Perturbation analysis indicated that the algorithm was robust within the range of observer variance. The new algorithm predicted 3-year overall survival of the validation set [GCB (87%) versus ABC (44%); P < 0.001], simulating the predictive power of the GEP classification. For a group of seven primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, the new algorithm is a better prognostic classifier (all "GCB") than the Hans' algorithm (two GCB, five non-GCB). CONCLUSION:Our new algorithm is significantly more accurate than the Hans' algorithm and will facilitate risk stratification of DLBCL patients and future DLBCL research using archival materials.
Project description:Activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with worse survival after standard rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP) chemoimmunotherapy compared to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) subtype. Preliminary evidence suggests that benefits from novel agents may vary by subtype. Hypothesizing that treatment stratified by DLBCL subtype could be potentially cost-effective, we developed micro-simulation models to compare three first-line treatment strategies: (1) standard RCHOP for all patients (2) subtype testing followed by RCHOP for GCB and novel treatment for ABC DLBCL, and (3) novel treatment for all patients. Based on phase 2 evidence, we used lenalidomide?+?RCHOP as a surrogate novel treatment. The subtype-based approach showed a favorable incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $15,015/quality-adjusted life year compared with RCHOP. Although our exploratory analyses demonstrated a wide range of conditions where subtype-based treatment remained cost-effective, data from phase 3 trials are needed to validate our models' findings and draw definitive conclusions.
Project description:Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) contains heterogeneous subtypes with various molecular dysregulation at the gene, protein and microRNA levels. Compared with the GCB subtype, the non-germinal center B-like (non-GCB)/activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype exhibits frequent progression despite standard immunochemotherapy. We aimed to investigate the effects of miR-197 on the progression and chemosensitivity of DLBCL with respect to the GCB and non-GCB/ABC subtypes.To screen distinctively expressed microRNAs, microRNA expression patterns were analyzed in 10 DLBCL cases by microarray chip assays. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), associations between miR-197 expression levels and clinicopathologic variables were investigated in 51 DLBCL tissue samples. The effects of miR-197 on doxorubicin chemosensitivity were investigated using the OCI-Ly1 and SUDHL9 cell lines.MicroRNA expression profiling by hierarchical clustering revealed that miR-197 was one of the distinctively expressed microRNAs in DLBCL. Quantitative analysis using qRT-PCR revealed that miR-197 levels were not correlated with clinicopathologic variables, including the international prognostic index, but low miR-197 levels were significantly associated with lymphoma progression defined by refractoriness, relapse or death in the rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP)-treated subgroup (n?=?43; p?=?0.004). Among the three molecular groups, i.e., the GCB, non-GCB/miR-197low and non-GCB/miR-197high groups, progression was most frequently observed in the non-GCB/miR-197low group in the full cohort (p?=?0.013) and the R-CHOP cohort (p?=?0.008). In survival analysis, low miR-197 levels were independently predictive of shorter progression-free survival in the R-CHOP cohort (p?=?0.031; HR?=?27.9) and the non-GCB subgroup (p?=?0.037; HR?=?21.5) but not in the GCB subgroup. Using SUDHL9 (ABC type) and OCI-Ly1 (GCB type) cells, the effects of doxorubicin on reducing cell viability were enhanced by miR-197 transfection. In apoptosis assays, miR-197 transfection enhanced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in SUDHL9 cells but not in OCI-Ly1 cells, suggesting a chemosensitizing effect of miR-197 in ABC DLBCL.These results suggest the role of miR-197 as a biomarker with potential therapeutic implications.
Project description:The FOXP1 (forkhead box P1) transcription factor is a marker of poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here microarray analysis of FOXP1-silenced DLBCL cell lines identified differential regulation of immune response signatures and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) genes as some of the most significant differences between germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like DLBCL with full-length FOXP1 protein expression versus activated B-cell (ABC)-like DLBCL expressing predominantly short FOXP1 isoforms. In an independent primary DLBCL microarray data set, multiple MHC II genes, including human leukocyte antigen DR alpha chain (HLA-DRA), were inversely correlated with FOXP1 transcript expression (P<0.05). FOXP1 knockdown in ABC-DLBCL cells led to increased cell-surface expression of HLA-DRA and CD74. In R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-treated DLBCL patients (n=150), reduced HLA-DRA (<90% frequency) expression correlated with inferior overall survival (P=0.0003) and progression-free survival (P=0.0012) and with non-GCB subtype stratified by the Hans, Choi or Visco-Young algorithms (all P<0.01). In non-GCB DLBCL cases with <90% HLA-DRA, there was an inverse correlation with the frequency (P=0.0456) and intensity (P=0.0349) of FOXP1 expression. We propose that FOXP1 represents a novel regulator of genes targeted by the class II MHC transactivator CIITA (MHC II and CD74) and therapeutically targeting the FOXP1 pathway may improve antigen presentation and immune surveillance in high-risk DLBCL patients.
Project description:This phase 2 study evaluated whether substituting bortezomib for vincristine in frontline rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy could improve efficacy in non-germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (non-GCB DLBCL), centrally confirmed by immunohistochemistry (Hans method). In total, 164 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive six 21-day cycles of rituximab 375 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), and doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), all IV day 1, prednisone 100 mg/m(2) orally days 1-5, plus either bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) IV days 1, 4, 8, 11 (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone with bortezomib [VR-CAP]; n = 84) or vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) (maximum 2 mg) IV day 1 (R-CHOP; n = 80). There were no significant differences between VR-CAP and R-CHOP in complete response rate (64.5%, 66.2%; odds ratio [OR], 0.91; P = .80), overall response rate (93.4%, 98.6%; OR, 0.21; P = .11), progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; P = .76), or overall survival (HR, 0.89; P = .75). Rates of grade ?3 adverse events (AEs; 88%, 89%), serious AEs (38%, 34%), discontinuations due to AEs (7%, 3%), and deaths due to AEs (2%, 5%) were similar with VR-CAP and R-CHOP. Grade ?3 peripheral neuropathy rates were 6% and 3%, respectively. VR-CAP did not improve efficacy vs R-CHOP in non-GCB DLBCL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01040871.
Project description:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and displays heterogeneous clinical and molecular characteristics. In this study, high throughput gene expression profiling of DLBCL tumor samples was used to design a 12-gene expression-based risk score (GERS) predictive for patient's overall survival. GERS allowed identifying a high-risk group comprising 46,4% of the DLBCL patients in two independent cohorts (n=414 and n=69). GERS was shown to be an independent predictor of survival when compared to the previously published prognostic factors, including the International Prognostic Index (IPI). GERS displayed a prognostic value in germinal-center B-cell-like subgroup (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) molecular subgroups of patients as well as in DLBCL patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) regimens. Combination of GERS and IPI lead to a potent prognostic classification of DLBCL patients. Finally, a genomic instability gene signature was highlighted in gene expression profiles of patients belonging to the high-risk GERS-defined group.
Project description:CD5-positive (CD5+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has a poor prognosis and high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) relapse, even in the rituximab era. To determine the gene expression profile of CD5+ DLBCL, total RNA from 90 patients with DLBCL, including 33 CD5+ DLBCL and 57 CD5-negative (CD5-) DLBCL patients, was examined using Agilent human oligo microarrays. These cases were separated into 78 activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCLs and 12 germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCLs. All cases of CD5+ DLBCL were classified as ABC DLBCLs. The classifier based on gene expression used in a supervised analysis correctly identified CD5 expression in the DLBCL and ABC DLBCL samples. The gene most relevant to CD5 expression was SH3BP5. The enriched GO categories in the CD5+ ABC DLBCL signature gene set were multicellular organismal signaling, transmission of nerve impulse, and synaptic transmission. This present study, which includes the largest reported number of patients with CD5+ DLBCL, confirmed that most CD5+ DLBCLs are ABC DLBCLs, suggesting that therapeutic strategies for ABC DLBCL may be effective for the treatment of CD5+ DLBCL. Our CD5+ ABC DLBCL signature gene set may provide insights into the cause of the high frequency of CNS relapse in CD5+ DLBCL. This present study involved 90 cases (33 patients with CD5+ DLBCL and 57 with CD5- DLBCL) of de novo consecutive DLBCL diagnosed at Mie University Hospital with available frozen biopsy specimens and total RNA samples. Lymphoma tissue RNA from 90 patients was extracted for target preparation and hybridization onto Agilent microarrays. The expression of CD5 in tumor cells was confirmed by means of immunohistochemistry using frozen sections.