Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited. METHODS:A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls) were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG) assay. RESULTS:Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection. IMPACT:C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas.
Project description:Uterine cervical adenocarcinoma is rare, but its prevalence has increased. To improve outcomes and ensure the suitability of recent immunotherapies, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological impact of the tumor immune microenvironment of uterine cervical adenocarcinoma. We investigated 148 adenocarcinoma cases, including 21 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and 127 cases of invasive adenocarcinoma, using immunohistochemistry to detect tumor-infiltrating immune cells and the expression of programmed cell death 1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) and p16 on tumor cells. We then carried out correlation and survival analyses. The density of immune cells and expression levels were compared between the tumor cell nest and stroma and between AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma using digital image analysis. A higher density of tumor-infiltrating CD204+ M2 macrophages was significantly associated with shorter disease-free survival, although no other tumor-infiltrating immune cells were prognostic, including CD4+ , CD8+ , FOXP3+ , and PD-1+ lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages. The density of stroma-infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages was significantly higher in invasive adenocarcinoma than in AIS. The density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in p16-expressing human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tumors was significantly higher than that in HPV-negative tumors. The HPV status was not associated with patient outcome. Expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells was found only in invasive adenocarcinoma cases (17.3%). A higher density of stroma-infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages was found in PD-L1-positive tumors than in negative tumors. Patients with PD-L1-positive tumors tended to experience longer survival. It is suggested that tumor-infiltrating CD204+ M2 macrophages may predict poor prognoses in patients with cervical adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV.
Project description:The incidence rates of cervical adenocarcinoma have been increasing over the last two decades, contrary to those of squamous cell carcinoma. This trend is particularly evident among females aged <40 years and has occurred despite extensive cytology-based screening programs. The aim of the present retrospective database study was to investigate adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) with respect to previous cytological results, high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and histological results from AIS-adjacent squamous mucosa. Databases were used to identify 32 female patients with AIS treated for various conditions between 2009 and 2012 at the Department of Gynecology, Uppsala University Hospital (Uppsala, Sweden) and previous cytological, HPV and histological results. Of the individuals in the study, 64.3% had a previously recorded cytological result showing squamous cell abnormalities; five had glandular cell abnormalities (18%) and two had AIS (7.1%). Among the patients with available HPV results, 95% were HR-HPV-positive; HPV18/45 predominated (77%), followed by HPV16 (27%). The patients with multiple HPV infections were aged ?32 years, while patients aged ?38 years were only infected with HPV18/45. All but three patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in the AIS-adjacent squamous mucosa, 79% of which was CIN2 or worse. The present retrospective database study suggests that AIS is detected at screening mainly due to simultaneous squamous precursor lesions and that HPV18/45 infection is an increasing cofactor for AIS in older patients. HPV analyses of glandular precursor lesions aid in the identification of female individuals at risk of progression to invasive disease, and thus have a favorable effect on adenocarcinoma prevention, together with vaccination.
Project description:We analysed patterns in the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 (CIN2, CIN3) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) by age and histology in 1992-2016 in Norway and described changes in screening tests. Incident cases of CIN2, CIN3, AIS and cervical cancer were identified in the Cancer Registry of Norway, as were all women with at least one screening test. The annual percentage change statistic was used to assess point estimates and changes in age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates (IR). Women aged 25-29 years had the highest incidence of cervical precancerous lesions (CIN2: 192.9/10, CIN3: 737.2/10, AIS: 32.5/105 in 2016). The IR of CIN2 increased for all screening ages (25-69 years) from 3.6% to 6.7% per year. CIN3 incidence increased by 1.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-2.6) annually. A steep increase in AIS incidence was observed in all age groups (7.1% per year, 95% CI 5.3-8.8). Changes in screening tests and the histological verification of cervical precancerous lesions alone cannot explain the steady increase in incidence we observed over the 25-year study period, and increased exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) likely plays a role. Age-appropriate treatment of screening-detected cervical precancerous lesions is needed for effective cervical cancer control while avoiding overtreatment and related health risks. In order to perform an appropriate harm-benefit evaluation of cervical cancer control efforts, detailed information on screening technology and background risks, including HPV vaccination status, is needed to create optimal public health policy.
Project description:Cofactors might affect the risk of the rare progression from infection with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) to cervical premalignancy to invasive cancer. Some studies have observed that Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with increased risk for cervical cancer. In a large prospective cohort, we assessed the role of C trachomatis in cervical premalignancy and addressed confounding by HPV.We identified 182 women with prevalent and 132 women with incident histological cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2), grade 3 (CIN3), or cervical cancer (CIN2+) in the Costa Rica HPV Natural History Study. Control subjects were 995 (approximately 10% of the 10?049) subjects who were randomly selected from the same study. Cervical HPV status at enrollment was determined by MY09/MY11 polymerase chain reaction amplification and dot-blot hybridization. The presence of C trachomatis DNA in cervical exfoliated cells at enrollment was determined by a novel serovar-specific polymerase chain reaction-based C trachomatis detection and genotyping assay. Plasma drawn at enrollment from each subject was used to determine C trachomatis immunoglobulin G (IgG) status. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between C trachomatis and CIN2+, taking into account possible confounding by HPV.C trachomatis positivity at enrollment was associated with CIN2+ and concurrent and subsequent carcinogenic HPV infection. To account for confounding by HPV status, we restricted the analysis to women positive for carcinogenic HPV DNA at enrollment and found no association between C trachomatis status (as assessed by DNA or IgG) at enrollment and combined prevalent and/or incident CIN2+ (for C trachomatis DNA positivity, odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.42 to 1.41; for C trachomatis seropositivity, odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval = 0.85 to 1.41).We found no association between C trachomatis status, as assessed by DNA or IgG, and risk of cervical premalignancy, after controlling for carcinogenic HPV-positive status. Previous positive associations between C trachomatis and cervical premalignancy could have been caused, in part, by an increased susceptibility to HPV infection.
Project description:Previous studies suggest that high parity increases the risk of cervical cancer. We studied the risk of cervical cancer (CC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) in a Finnish cohort of grand multiparous (GM) women (at least five children) with low prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI). The Finnish Cancer Registry data revealed 220 CC and 178 CIN3 cases among 86 978 GM women. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated from the numbers of observed and expected cases. Interval analyses by parity, age at first birth and average birth interval were done using multivariate Poisson regression. Seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and Chlamydia trachomatis was tested among 561 GM women and 5703 women with 2-4 pregnancies. The incidence among GM women was slightly above the national average for squamous cell carcinoma of cervix uteri (SIR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05-1.40) and CIN3 (1.37, 95% CI 1.17-1.58), but lower for adenocarcinoma (SIR 0.77, 95% CI 0.52-1.10). The seroprevalence of HPV16 and Chlamydia trachomatis among GM women was lower than in the reference population, except among those women who had their child under age 19. Age under 20 years at first birth increased the risk of CC and CIN3 especially in premenopausal GM women, while increasing parity had no effect. The small relative risks of CC and CIN3 among GM women in our study as compared to studies from other countries can be explained by the exceptionally low prevalence of STIs in Finnish GM women. The observed SIRs between 1.2 and 1.4 should be interpreted to represent increased risk attributable to grand multiparity. The increased incidence of CC and CIN3 among young GM women suggests causal association to HPV 16 and Chlamydia trachomatis infections.
Project description:Chlamydia trachomatis and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most common pathogens of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which can increase the risk of cervical cancer and infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, genotype and risk factors of C. trachomatis and/or HPV infection in women attending the annual physical examination, assistant reproductive treatment and visiting the gynecology clinics from Southern Hunan province in China. Cervical-swab samples were collected from 5006 participants. We found that the overall prevalence of C. trachomatis, HPV infection and C. trachomatis/HPV coinfection was 4.7% (236/5006), 15.5% (778/5006) and 1.2% (59/5006), while the prevalence of asymptomatic infection of that was 3.8% (38/1006), 10.8% (109/1006) and 0.6% (6/1006), respectively. Furthermore, 25.0% (59/236) of C. trachomatis infection and 7.6% (59/778) of HPV infection were attributable to C. trachomatis and HPV coinfection. C. trachomatis and HPV infection were more often observed in young women of less than 25 years (10.4% and 21.3%, respectively) and in the outpatients from gynecology clinics (5.2% and 18.0%, respectively). Of note, a higher prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was observed in HPV-positive women (7.6%) than HPV- negative ones (4.2%), and vice versa. The top three C. trachomatis genotypes were E (1.4%), F (1.1%) and J (0.8%), and the counterparts of HPV genotypes were HPV52 (4.2%), HPV16 (2.3%) and HPV58 (2.2%), respectively. Among the 151 outpatients with colposcopy data, HPV infection was associated with severe cervical lesions with OR of 15.86 (95% CI 3.14-80.0, P < 0.001) while C. trachomatis infection was more likely associated with a low grade colposcopy impression (OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.22-8.65, P = 0.018). Our data highlight the high prevalence of asymptomatic C. trachomatis and HPV infection, particularly among women of <25 years. The two pathogens may serve as mutual risk factors to increase the risk of infections and cervical lesions. Widespread implementation of HPV and C. trachomatis screening programs, especially for young women, would be an effective strategy to relieve the burden of sexually transmitted infections.
Project description:The accurate genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) is clinically important because the oncogenic potential of HPV is dependent on specific genotypes. Here, we described the development of a bead-based multiplex HPV genotyping (MPG) method which is able to detect 20 types of HPV (15 high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 and 5 low-risk HPV types 6, 11, 40, 55, 70) and evaluated its accuracy with sequencing. A total of 890 clinical samples were studied. Among these samples, 484 were HPV positive and 406 were HPV negative by consensus primer (PGMY09/11) directed PCR. The genotyping of 484 HPV positive samples was carried out by the bead-based MPG method. The accuracy was 93.5% (95% CI, 91.0-96.0), 80.1% (95% CI, 72.3-87.9) for single and multiple infections, respectively, while a complete type mismatch was observed only in one sample. The MPG method indiscriminately detected dysplasia of several cytological grades including 71.8% (95% CI, 61.5-82.3) of ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) and more specific for high grade lesions. For women with HSIL (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and SCC diagnosis, 32 women showed a PPV (positive predictive value) of 77.3% (95% CI, 64.8-89.8). Among women >40 years of age, 22 women with histological cervical cancer lesions showed a PPV of 88% (95% CI, 75.3-100). Of the highest risk HPV types including HPV-16, 18 and 31 positive women of the same age groups, 34 women with histological cervical cancer lesions showed a PPV of 77.3% (95% CI, 65.0-89.6). Taken together, the bead-based MPG method could successfully detect high-grade lesions and high-risk HPV types with a high degree of accuracy in clinical samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The national Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunisation Programme in New Zealand was introduced in 2008, and involves routine vaccination of girls 12-13 years with a catch-up for females aged up to 19 years. The aims of this study were to measure the pre-vaccination prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection in women aged 20-69 years who were participating in the New Zealand National Cervical Screening Programme (NZ-NCSP) and who were: (1) referred with high grade cytology with a subsequent histologically-confirmed high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS); or (2) were in the wider group of women who had a cytological prediction of high grade squamous disease or glandular abnormality (ASC-H/ HSIL+/AGC/AIS). METHODS: Women aged 20-69 years appearing on the NZ-NCSP register between August 2009-February 2011 with a cytology record of ASC-H/HSIL+/AGC/AIS were invited to participate in the study. Liquid-based cytology specimens were tested for 37 HPV types using Linear Array genotyping. The prevalence of type-specific HPV infection was reported within women with histologically-confirmed CIN 2/3 and within the wider group with ASC-H/HSIL+/AGC/AIS cytology. Age-specific trends for the relative proportion of HPV 16/18 vs. other oncogenic types in CIN2/3 were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 594 women with ASC-H/HSIL+/AGC/AIS cytology and a valid HPV test were recruited; of these 356 (60%) had confirmed CIN2/3 and 6 (1%) had confirmed AIS or glandular dysplasia. Positivity rates for any oncogenic HPV infection and for HPV16 and/or 18 within confirmed CIN2/3-AIS were 95% (95%CI: 92-97%) and 60% (54-65%) respectively; in all women with ASC-H/HSIL+/AGC/AIS cytology it was 87% (84-89%) and 53% (49-57%), respectively. The most common reported HPV types in women with CIN 2/3 were 16 (51%), 52 (19%), 31 (17%), 33 (13%) and 18 (12%). A trend for higher rates of HPV 16/18 infection compared to other oncogenic types was observed in younger women (p=0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV 16/18 in confirmed high grade disease in New Zealand is comparable to that observed in Australia and European countries. Test positivity rates for type 52 appear higher than in comparable studies in other developed countries. A greater proportion of high grade lesions in younger women appear to be associated with HPV 16/18 infection.