The process of prehospital airway management: challenges and solutions during paramedic endotracheal intubation.
ABSTRACT: Endotracheal intubation success rates in the prehospital setting are variable. Our objective was to describe the challenges encountered and corrective actions taken during the process of endotracheal intubation by paramedics.Analysis of prehospital airway management using a prospective registry that was linked to an emergency medical services administrative database.Emergency medical services system serving King County, Washington, 2006-2011. Paramedics in this system have the capability to administer neuromuscular blocking agents to facilitate intubation (i.e., rapid sequence intubation).A total of 7,523 patients more than 12 years old in whom paramedics attempted prehospital endotracheal intubation.None.An intubation attempt was defined as the introduction of the laryngoscope into the patient's mouth, and the attempt concluded when the laryngoscope was removed from the mouth. Endotracheal intubation was successful on the first attempt in 77% and ultimately successful in 99% of patients (7,433 of 7,523). Paramedics used a rapid sequence intubation strategy on 54% of first attempts. Among the subset with a failed first attempt (n = 1,715), bodily fluids obstructing the laryngeal view (50%), obesity (28%), patient positioning (17%), and facial or spinal trauma (6%) were identified as challenges to intubation. A variety of adjustments were made to achieve intubation success, including upper airway suctioning (used in 43% of attempts resulting in success), patient repositioning (38%), rescue bougie use (19%), operator change (16%), and rescue rapid sequence intubation (6%). Surgical cricothyrotomy (0.4%, n = 27) and bag-valve-mask ventilation (0.8%, n = 60) were rarely performed by paramedics as final rescue airway strategies.Airway management in the prehospital setting has substantial challenges. Success can require a collection of adjustments that involve equipment, personnel, and medication often in a simultaneous fashion.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the TruView video laryngoscope (TruView) facilitates pediatric endotracheal intubation (ETI) more quickly and safely than conventional Macintosh laryngoscope (MAC) in three manikin-based airway scenarios. This was a randomized crossover manikin study including 120 novice paramedics. The participants performed tracheal intubations using both TruView and MAC on a pediatric manikin in a control scenario (A), chest compression scenario (B), and chest compression cervical stabilization scenario (C). The sequence of scenarios was randomized. The primary outcome was time to intubation. Secondary outcomes were overall success rates, incidence of dental trauma, and ease of intubation. All intubation attempts were assessed by a trained assistant. The overall success rate was significantly higher with the TruView compared than the MAC in scenario B (100 vs. 81.7 %; p?=?0.011) and scenario C (100 vs. 68.3 %; p?<?0.001). The intubation time was significantly lower with the TruView than the MAC (18.5 vs. 24.3 s, p?=?0.017, for scenario A; 21.6 vs. 25.7 s, p?=?0.023, for scenario B; and 28.9 vs. 45.4 s, p?<?0.001, for scenario C). Glottic view quality was better with TruView than the MAC in all scenarios, p?<?0.001.The TruView offers better intubation conditions than the MAC on a pediatric manikin in the control scenario, chest compression scenario, and chest compression scenario with cervical stabilization scenario. The TruView may be used to elevate the epiglottis for orotracheal intubation. Further clinical studies are necessary to confirm these initial positive findings.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02289872.•Prehospital pediatric intubation using a standard laryngoscope is varied and ranges from 63.4 to 82 %. What is New: •This is the first study showing efficiency of pediatric endotracheal intubation using the TruView PCD by paramedics in tree simulation scenarios. •TruView PCD offers better pediatric intubation conditions than the Macintosh laryngoscope.
Project description:The success rate of pre-hospital endotracheal intubation (ETI) by paramedics is lower than physicians. We aimed to establish a remote robot-assisted intubation system (RRAIS) and expected it to improve success rate of pre-hospital ETI. To test the robot's feasibility, 20 pigs were intubated by direct laryngoscope or the robot system. Intubation time, success rate, airway complications were recorded during the experiment. The animal experiment showed that participants achieved a higher success rate in absolute numbers by the robot system. In summary, we have successfully developed a remote robot-assisted intubation system. It is promising for RRAIS to improve the success rate of pre-hospital ETI and change the current rescue model.
Project description:Importance:The tracheal tube introducer, known as the bougie, is typically used to aid tracheal intubation in poor laryngoscopic views or after intubation attempts fail. The effect of routine bougie use on first-attempt intubation success is unclear. Objective:To compare first attempt intubation success facilitated by the bougie vs the endotracheal tube + stylet. Design, Setting, and Patients:The Bougie Use in Emergency Airway Management (BEAM) trial was a randomized clinical trial conducted from September 2016 through August 2017 in the emergency department at Hennepin County Medical Center, an urban, academic department in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where emergency physicians perform all endotracheal intubations. Included patients were 18 years and older who were consecutively admitted to the emergency department and underwent emergency orotracheal intubation with a Macintosh laryngoscope blade for respiratory arrest, difficulty breathing, or airway protection. Interventions:Patients were randomly assigned to undergo the initial intubation attempt facilitated by bougie (n = 381) or endotracheal tube + stylet (n = 376). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was first-attempt intubation success in patients with at least 1 difficult airway characteristic (body fluids obscuring the laryngeal view, airway obstruction or edema, obesity, short neck, small mandible, large tongue, facial trauma, or the need for cervical spine immobilization). Secondary outcomes were first-attempt success in all patients, first-attempt intubation success without hypoxemia, first-attempt duration, esophageal intubation, and hypoxemia. Results:Among 757 patients who were randomized (mean age, 46 years; women, 230 [30%]), 757 patients (100%) completed the trial. Among the 380 patients with at least 1 difficult airway characteristic, first-attempt intubation success was higher in the bougie group (96%) than in the endotracheal tube + stylet group (82%) (absolute between-group difference, 14% [95% CI, 8% to 20%]). Among all patients, first-attempt intubation success in the bougie group (98%) was higher than the endotracheal tube + stylet group (87%) (absolute difference, 11% [95% CI, 7% to 14%]). The median duration of the first intubation attempt (38 seconds vs 36 seconds) and the incidence of hypoxemia (13% vs 14%) did not differ significantly between the bougie and endotracheal tube + stylet groups. Conclusions and Relevance:In this emergency department, use of a bougie compared with an endotracheal tube + stylet resulted in significantly higher first-attempt intubation success among patients undergoing emergency endotracheal intubation. However, these findings should be considered provisional until the generalizability is assessed in other institutions and settings. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02902146.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to compare tracheal intubation performance regarding the time to intubation, glottic view, difficulty, and dental click, by novices using McGrath videolaryngoscope (VL), Pentax Airway Scope (AWS) and Macintosh laryngoscope in normal and cervical immobilized manikin models. METHODS:Thirty-five anesthesia nurses without previous intubation experience were recruited. Participants performed endotracheal intubation in a manikin model at two simulated neck positions (normal and fixed neck via cervical immobilization), using three different devices three times each. Performance parameters included intubation time, success rate of intubation, Cormack Lehane laryngoscope grading, dental click, and subjective difficulty score. RESULTS:Intubation time and success rate during first attempt were not significantly different between the 3 groups in normal airway manikin. In the cervical immobilized manikin, the intubation time was shorter (p?=?0.012), and the success rate with the first attempt was significantly higher (p?<?0.001) when using McGrath VL and Pentax AWS compared with Macintosh laryngoscope. Both VLs showed less difficulty score (p?<?0.001) and more Cormack Lehane grade I (p?<?0.001) in both scenarios. The incidence of dental clicks was higher with Macintosh laryngoscope compared with McGrath VL in cervical immobilized airway (p?<?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:McGrath VL and Pentax AWS did not show clinically significant decrease in intubation time, however, they achieved higher first attempt success rate, easier intubation and better glottis view compared with Macintosh laryngoscope by novices in a cervical immobilized manikin model. McGrath VL may reduce the risk of dental injury compared with Macintosh laryngoscope in cervical immobilized scenario. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03161730), May 22, 2017 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/hom.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Endotracheal intubation (ETI) can be challenging, especially in life-threatening situations such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Videolaryngoscopes aim to ease ETI, but effort is still widely discussed. This study intended to investigate 2 different airway devices regarding the success rate of ETI during ongoing chest compressions.<h4>Methods</h4>This randomized, cross-over, multi-center manikin trial included 85 experienced paramedics actively working in the emergency medicine service. After a standardized training session, all paramedics underwent 3 airway scenarios using both, direct laryngoscopy using a Macintosh blade and videolaryngoscope (the UEScope): normal airway without chest compressions, normal airway with uninterrupted chest compressions, and difficult airway with uninterrupted chest compressions. The primary outcome was successful ETI, defined as successful placement of the endotracheal tube within the manikin's trachea. Secondary outcomes were number of intubation attempts, time to successful ETI, time to best glottis view, best percent of glottic opening, best glottic view score (Cormack and Lehane), occurrence of dental trauma, ease of use, and willing to reuse in real-life situations.<h4>Results</h4>The UEScope provided a better glottis visualization, and higher first pass intubation success rate compared to direct laryngoscopy in all 3 scenarios. The overall intubation success was higher, and the intubation time was shorter with the UEScope in scenario B and scenario C, but was comparable in scenario A. Dental compression occurred less often using the UEScope and paramedics rated intubation using the UEScope easier compared to direct laryngoscopy in all 3 airway scenarios.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In simulated CPR scenarios, intubation with the UEScope resulted in a better glottis visualization, a higher intubation success, and a shorter intubation time compared to Macintosh laryngoscope (MAC). Moreover, in situations where the airway is difficult for ETI especially by the paramedic, the UEScope would be a better choice than the MAC. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in real-life patients.
Project description:The aim of the study was to compare the intubation times and success rates of various laryngoscopes during resuscitation in pediatric emergency intubation with uninterrupted chest compression on a standardized pediatric manikin model. This was a randomized crossover study with 107 paramedic participants. We compared times to successful intubation, intubation success rates, and glottic visibility using a Cormack-Lehane grade for Macintosh, Intubrite®, Coopdech®, and Copilot® laryngoscopes. One hundred seven paramedics (mean age 31.2?±?7.5 years) routinely involved in the management of prehospital care participated in this study. Intubation success rates (overall effectiveness), which was the primary study endpoint, were highest for the Coopdech® and CoPilot® devices (100 %) and were lowest for Intubrite® (89.7 %, p?<?0.001) and Macintosh (80.4 %, p?<?0.001). The secondary study endpoint, time to first effective ventilation, was achieved fastest when using the Coopdech® laryngoscope (21.6?±?6.2 s) and was significantly slower with all other devices (Intubrite® 25.4?±?10.5 s, p?=?0.006; CoPilot® 25.6?±?7.4 s, p?=?0.007; Macintosh 29.4?±?8.2 s, p?<?0.001).We conclude that in child simulations managed by paramedics, the Coopdech® and Copilot® video laryngoscopes performed better than the standard Macintosh or Intubrite® laryngoscopes for endotracheal intubation during child chest compression.
Project description:<i>Introduction</i>. Airway management plays an essential role in anaesthesia practice, during both elective and urgent surgery procedures and emergency medicine.<h4>Aim</h4>The aim of the study was to compare Macintosh laryngoscope (MAC), McGrath, and TruView PCD in 5 separate airway management scenarios.<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective cross-over simulation study involved 93 paramedics. All paramedics performed intubation using direct laryngoscope (MAC), McGrath, and TruView PCD video laryngoscopes. The study was performed in 5 different scenarios: (A) normal airway, (B) tongue oedema, (C) pharyngeal obstruction, (D) cervical collar stabilization with tongue oedema, and (E) cervical collar stabilization with pharyngeal obstruction.<h4>Results</h4>In scenario A, the success rate was 99% with MAC, 100% with McGrath, and 94% with PCD. Intubation time was 17?s (IQR: 16-21) for MAC, 18?s (IQR: 16-21) for McGrath, and 27?s (IQR: 23-34) for PCD. In scenario B, the success rate was 61% with MAC, 97% with McGrath, and 97% with PCD (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Intubation time was 44?s (IQR: 24-46) for MAC, 22?s (IQR: 20-27) for McGrath, and 39?s (IQR: 30-57) for PCD. In scenario C, the success rate with MAC was 74%, 97% with McGrath, and 72% with PCD (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Intubation time was 44?s (IQR: 24-46) for MAC, 22?s (IQR: 20-27) for McGrath, and 39?s (IQR: 30-57) for PCD. In scenario C, the success rate with MAC was 74%, 97% with McGrath, and 72% with PCD (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Intubation time was 44?s (IQR: 24-46) for MAC, 22?s (IQR: 20-27) for McGrath, and 39?s (IQR: 30-57) for PCD. In scenario C, the success rate with MAC was 74%, 97% with McGrath, and 72% with PCD (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Intubation time was 44?s (IQR: 24-46) for MAC, 22?s (IQR: 20-27) for McGrath, and 39?s (IQR: 30-57) for PCD. In scenario C, the success rate with MAC was 74%, 97% with McGrath, and 72% with PCD (.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The McGrath video laryngoscope proved better than Truview PCD and direct intubation with Macintosh laryngoscope in terms of success rate, duration of first intubation attempt, number of intubation attempts, Cormack-Lehane grade, percentage of glottis opening (POGO score), number of optimization manoeuvres, severity of dental compression, and ease of use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In pre-hospital emergency care, video laryngoscopes (VLs) with disposable blades are preferably used due to hygienic reasons. However, there is limited existing data on the use of VLs with disposable blades by emergency medical staff. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of four different VLs with disposable blades and the conventional standard Macintosh laryngoscope, when used by anesthetists with extensive previous experience and paramedics with little previous experience in endotracheal intubation (ETI) in a simulated difficult airway. METHODS:Fifty-eight anesthetists and fifty-four paramedics participated in our randomized crossover manikin trial. Each performed ETI with the new Glidescope® Go™, the Dahlhausen VL, the King Vision™, the I-View™ and the Macintosh laryngoscope. "Time to intubate" was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were "time to vocal cords", "time to ventilate", overall success rate, number of intubation attempts and optimization maneuvers, Cormack-Lehane score, severity of dental compression and subjective impressions. RESULTS:The Glidescope® Go™, the Dahlhausen VL and the King Vision™ provided superior intubation conditions in both groups without affecting the number of intubation attempts or the time required for successful intubation. When used by anesthetists with extensive experience in ETI, the use of VLs did not affect the overall success rate. In the hands of paramedics with little previous experience in ETI, the failure rate with the Macintosh laryngoscope (14.8%) decreased to 3.7% using the Glidescope® Go™ and the Dahlhausen VL. Despite the advantages of hyperangulated video laryngoscopes, the I-View™ performed worst. CONCLUSIONS:VLs with hyperangulated blades facilitated ETI in both groups and decreased the failure rate by an absolute 11.1% when used by paramedics with little previous experience in ETI. Our results therefore suggest that hyperangulated VLs could be beneficial and might be the method of choice in comparable settings, especially for emergency medical staff with less experience in ETI.
Project description:Despite numerous studies on prehospital airway management, results are difficult to compare due to inconsistent or heterogeneous data. The objective of this study was to assess advanced airway management from international physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services.We collected airway data from 21 helicopter emergency medical services in Australia, England, Finland, Hungary, Norway and Switzerland over a 12-month period. A uniform Utstein-style airway template was used for collecting data.The participating services attended 14,703 patients on primary missions during the study period, and 2,327 (16 %) required advanced prehospital airway interventions. Of these, tracheal intubation was attempted in 92 % of the cases. The rest were managed with supraglottic airway devices (5 %), bag-valve-mask ventilation (2 %) or continuous positive airway pressure (0.2 %). Intubation failure rates were 14.5 % (first-attempt) and 1.2 % (overall). Cardiac arrest patients showed significantly higher first-attempt intubation failure rates (odds ratio: 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.5-2.6; p?<?0.001) compared to non-cardiac arrest patients. Complications were recorded in 13 %, with recognised oesophageal intubation being the most frequent (25 % of all patients with complications). For non-cardiac arrest patients, important risk predictors for first-attempt failure were patient age (a non-linear association) and administration of sedatives (reduced failure risk). The patient's sex, provider's intubation experience, trauma type (patient category), indication for airway intervention and use of neuromuscular blocking agents were not risk factors for first-attempt intubation failure.Advanced airway management in physician-staffed prehospital services was performed frequently, with high intubation success rates and low complication rates overall. However, cardiac arrest patients showed significantly higher first-attempt failure rates compared to non-cardiac arrest patients. All failed intubations were handled successfully with a rescue device or surgical airway.www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01502111 . Registered 22 December 2011.
Project description:New laryngoscopes have become available for use in small children. The aim of the study was to compare the Storz® videolaryngoscope (SVL) to the Airtraq® Optical laryngoscope (AOL) for tracheal intubation in children younger than two years of age who had a normal airway assessment. Our hypothesis was that the SVL would have a better success rate than the AOL.Ten children aged 2?years or younger scheduled for elective cleft lip/palate surgery were included. The anesthesia was standardized and a Cormack-Lehane (CL)-score was obtained using a Macintosh laryngoscope. After randomization CL-score and endotracheal tube positioning in front of the glottis was performed with one device, followed by the same procedure and intubation with the other device. The video-feed was recorded along with real-time audio. The primary endpoint was the success rate, defined as intubation in first attempt. Secondary endpoints were the time from start of laryngoscopy to CL-score, tube positioning in front of the glottis, and intubation.Two intubation attempts were needed in two of five patients randomized to the SVL. The difference in time (SVL vs. AOL) to CL-score was 4.5?sec (p?=?0.0449). The difference in time (SVL vs. AOL) to tube positioning was 11.6?sec (p?=?0.0015). Time to intubation was 29.0?sec for SVL and 15.8?sec for AOL.No difference in the success rate of endotracheal intubation could be established in this ten patient sample of children younger than two years with a normal airway assessment scheduled for elective cleft lip/palate surgery. However, the Airtraq® Optical videolaryngoscope showed a number of time related advantages over the Storz® videolaryngoscope. Because of the small sample size a larger trial is needed to confirm these findings. Both devices were considered safe in all intubations.ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier NCT01090726.