Nfkb1 suppresses DNA alkylation-induced tumor formation.
ABSTRACT: NF-κB proteins play a complex role in modulating carcinogenesis following DNA damage. Previous work identified p50/NF-κB1 as a necessary factor in the cytotoxic response to alkylation damage. Recently, these findings were extended to demonstrate that in the setting of alkylation damage, this NF-κB subunit acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that prevents hematologic malignancy formation.
Project description:NF-?B proteins play a central and subunit-specific role in the response to DNA damage. Previous work identified p50/NF-?B1 as being necessary for cytotoxicity in response to DNA alkylation damage. Given the importance of damage-induced cell death for the maintenance of genomic stability, we examined whether Nfkb1 acts as a tumor suppressor in the setting of alkylation damage. Hprt mutation analysis demonstrates that Nfkb1(-/-) cells accumulate more alkylator-induced, but not ionizing radiation (IR)-induced, mutations than similarly treated wild-type cells. Subsequent in vivo tumor induction studies reveal that following alkylator treatment, but not IR, Nfkb1(-/-) mice develop more lymphomas than similarly treated Nfkb1(+/+) animals. Heterozygous mice develop lymphomas at an intermediate rate and retain functional p50 in their tumors, indicating that Nfkb1 acts in a haploinsufficient manner. Analysis of human cancers, including therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, demonstrates that NFKB1 mRNA expression is downregulated compared with control samples in multiple hematological malignancies. These data indicate that Nfkb1 is a haploinsufficient, pathway-specific tumor suppressor that prevents the development of hematologic malignancy in the setting of alkylation damage.
Project description:Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdominal disease, 10-20% of which can evolve into severe AP (SAP) causing significant morbidity and mortality. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential of repairing SAP, but the detailed mechanism remains unknown. We demonstrate here that microRNA-9 (miR-9) modified BMSCs (pri-miR-9-BMSCs) can significantly reduce the pancreatic edema, infiltration, hemorrhage, necrosis, the release of amylase and lipase. Meanwhile, decreased local/systemic inflammatory response (TNF-α↓, IL-1β↓, IL-6↓, HMGB1↓, MPO↓, CD68↓, IL-4↑, IL-10↑, and TGF-β↑) and enhanced regeneration of damaged pancreas (Reg4↑, PTF1↑, and PDX1↑) are also promoted. But these effects diminish or disappear after antagonizing miR-9 (TuD). Besides, we find that miR-9 is negatively correlated with AP and miR-9 agomir which can mimic the effects of pri-miR-9-BMSCs and protect injured pancreas. Furthermore, we investigate that BMSCs deliver miR-9 to the injured pancreas or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), which can target the NF-κB1/p50 gene and inhibit the NF-κB signaling pathway (p-P65↓, NF-κB1/p50↓, IκBα↑, IκBβ↑). Taken together, these results show that miR-9 is a key paracrine factor of BMSCs attenuating SAP targeting the NF-κB1/p50 gene and suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Project description:We have shown that NADPH oxidase (NOX)5-S may mediate the acid-induced decrease in cell apoptosis. However, mechanisms of NOX5-S-dependent decrease in cell apoptosis are not fully understood. In this study, we found that silencer-of-death domain (SODD) was significantly increased in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) tissues, EA cell lines FLO and OE33, and a dysplastic cell line CP-B. Strong SODD immunostaining was significantly higher in low-grade dysplasia (66.7%), high-grade dysplasia (81.2%), and EA (71.2%) than in Barrett's mucosa (10.5%). Acid treatment significantly increased SODD protein and mRNA expression and promoter activity in FLO cells, an increase that was significantly decreased by the knockdown of NOX5-S and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)1 p50 with their small interfering RNAs. Similarly, acid-induced increase of SODD mRNA was blocked by knockdown of NOX5-S and p50 in a BE cell line CP-A. Overexpression of NOX5-S significantly increased SODD protein expression in FLO cells. Moreover, overexpression of NOX5-S or p50 significantly increased the SODD promoter activity and decreased the caspase 9 activity or apoptosis. NOX5-S overexpression-induced increase in SODD promoter activity was significantly decreased by knockdown of p50. In addition, acid treatment significantly decreased the caspase 9 activity, a decrease that was significantly inhibited by knockdown of SODD. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that NF-κB1 p50 bound to SODD genomic DNA containing a NF-κB-binding element GGGGACACCCT. This binding element was further confirmed by a gel mobility shift assay. We conclude that acid-induced increase in SODD expression and decrease in cell apoptosis may depend on the activation of NOX5-S and NF-κB1 p50 in FLO cells.
Project description:The transcription factor, NF-кB, plays a central role in the response to DNA damage. This ubiquitous family of proteins is made up of five subunits: p50 (NF-κB1, p105), p52 (NF-κB2, p100), p65 (relA), relB, and crel that appear in their mature form as dimers. Following stimulation, NF-κB dimers translocate to the nucleus where they bind specific consensus elements (κB-sites) in the promoter region of genes involved in cell survival, inflammation and the immune system. While there is a general propensity of NF-кB to mediate survival, this is not always the case and several reports note the pro-apoptotic nature of the NF-кB pathway. In examining the NF-кB response to DNA damage, we have found that the p50 subunit plays a central role in modulating cytotoxicity following TMZ treatment in malignant glioma. In the current study, given the importance of p50 to the cytotoxic response to TMZ, we set out to identify NF-кB-dependent factors that modulate the response to TMZ. U-87 glioma cells stably transfected with either control-shRNA or p105-shRNA and subsequently treated with temozolomide (TMZ) were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Each category contains 3 biologic replicates.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO4) are key transcription factors involved in the regulation of immune responses and apoptosis. The aim of this study is to test for the association of NF-κB and SUMO gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility and severity of psoriasis among Saudi cases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a case controlled study including 85 Saudi psoriasis patients in addition to 92 matched healthy unrelated controls from the same locality. For all participants, DNA was analyzed by PCR for characterization of NF-κB1 -94 del/ins ATTG, NF-κB IA 2758 A>G and SUMO rs237025 G>A gene polymorphisms. RESULTS: Compared to controls, psoriasis patients showed a non-significant difference for all frequencies of genotypes and alleles of NF-κB1 ins/del, NF-κB1A A>G and SUMO4 G>A polymorphisms (p>0.05). However, cases with the plaque type had significantly higher frequency of the SUMO4 A allele carriage (GA+AA genoytpes) than the guttate type (78.6% vs. 21.4%, p=0.02). The PASI score was also significantly higher among cases with the NF-κB1A AA genotype than other cases (p=0.00). CONCLUSION: Genetic polymorphisms of NF-κB1-94 ins/del ATTG, NF-κB IA 2758 A>G and SUMO4 rs237025 G>A were not associated with the susceptibility to psoriasis vulgaris in Saudi patients. However, it might be associated with the expressivity of the disease in terms of its clinical type and severity.
Project description:As an ent-kaurene diterpenoid isolated from Isodon eriocalyx var. Laxiflora, Eriocalyxin B (EriB) possesses potent bioactivity of antitumor and anti-autoimmune inflammation, which has been suggested to work through inhibition of NF-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling. However, the direct target of EriB remains elusive. In this study, we showed that EriB induced apoptosis is associated with the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. With activity-based probe profiling, we identified p50 protein as the direct target of EriB. We showed that cysteine 62 is the critical residue of p50 for EriB binding through the α, β-unsaturated ketones. As the result, EriB selectively blocks the binding between p50 and the response elements, whereas having no effect on the dimerization or the nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. SiRNA mediated knockdown of p50 attenuated the apoptosis induced by EriB in SMMC-7721 cells. Taken together, our studies illustrated that EriB induces cancer cell apoptosis through interfering with the binding between NF-κB and the response elements by targeting the cysteine 62 of p50, which highlights its potential for the development of p50 targeted cancer therapeutic agents.
Project description:Since the discovery that deletion of the NF-κB subunits p50 and p52 causes osteopetrosis in mice, there has been considerable interest in the role of NF-κB signaling in bone. NF-κB controls the differentiation or activity of the major skeletal cell types - osteoclasts, osteoblasts, osteocytes and chondrocytes. However, with five NF-κB subunits and two distinct activation pathways, not all NF-κB signals lead to the same physiologic responses. In this review, we will describe the roles of various NF-κB proteins in basal bone homeostasis and disease states, and explore how NF-κB inhibition might be utilized therapeutically.
Project description:Piperlongumine has anti-cancer activity in numerous cancer cell lines via various signaling pathways. But there has been no study regarding the mechanisms of PL on the lung cancer yet. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of PL on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vivo and in vitro. Our findings showed that PL induced apoptotic cell death and suppressed the DNA binding activity of NF-κB in a concentration dependent manner (0-15 μM) in NSCLC cells. Docking model and pull down assay showed that PL directly binds to the DNA binding site of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p50 subunit, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis showed that PL binds to p50 concentration-dependently. Moreover, co-treatment of PL with NF-κB inhibitor phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or p50 siRNA (100 nM) augmented PL-induced inhibitory effect on cell growth and activation of Fas and DR4. Notably, co-treatment of PL with p50 mutant plasmid (C62S) partially abolished PL-induced cell growth inhibition and decreased the enhanced expression of Fas and DR4. In xenograft mice model, PL (2.5-5 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth of NSCLC dose-dependently. Therefore, these results indicated that PL could inhibit lung cancer cell growth via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the effect and mechanism of phospholipase C epsilon gene 1 (PLCE1) expression on esophageal cancer cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and EC9706 and normal esophageal epithelial cell line HEEC were cultured. The expression of PLCE1, protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p50/p65 homodimer in cells were comparatively analyzed. The esophageal cancer cells were divided into si-PLCE1, control siRNA (scramble), and mock groups that were transfected with specific siRNA for PLCE1, control siRNA, and blank controls, respectively. Expression of PLCE1, PKCα, p50, and p65 was detected by Western blotting. Transwell assay was used to detect migration and invasion of Eca109 and EC9706 cells. RESULTS:Compared with HEEC, the expression of PLCE1, PKCα, p50, and p65 was increased in Eca109 and EC9706 cells. The expression of PLCE1 was positively correlated with the expression of PKCα and p50 (PKCα: r=0.6328, p=0.032; p50: r=0.6754, p=0.041). PKCα expression had a positive correlation with the expression of p50 and p65 (p50: r=0.9127, p=0.000; p65: r=0.9256, p=0.000). Down-regulation of PLCE1 significantly decreased the expression of PKCα and NF-κB-related proteins (p65: p=0.002, p=0.004; p50: p=0.005, p=0.009) and inhibited the migration and invasion of Eca109 and EC9706 cells. CONCLUSION:PLCE1 activated NF-κB signaling by up-regulating PKCα, which could promote invasion and migration of esophageal cancer cells.
Project description:NF-?B is a major regulator of age-dependent gene expression and the p50/NF-?B1 subunit is an integral modulator of NF-?B signaling. Here, we examined Nfkb1-/- mice to investigate the relationship between this subunit and aging. Although Nfkb1-/- mice appear similar to littermates at six months of age, by 12 months they have a higher incidence of several observable age-related phenotypes. In addition, aged Nfkb1-/- animals have increased kyphosis, decreased cortical bone, increased brain GFAP staining and a decrease in overall lifespan compared to Nfkb1+/+. In vitro, serially passaged primary Nfkb1-/- MEFs have more senescent cells than comparable Nfkb1+/+ MEFs. Also, Nfkb1-/- MEFs have greater amounts of phospho-H2AX foci and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than Nfkb1+/+, findings that are mirrored in the brains of Nfkb1-/- animals compared to Nfkb1+/+. Finally, in wildtype animals a substantial decrease in p50 DNA binding is seen in aged tissue compared to young. Together, these data show that loss of Nfkb1 leads to early animal aging that is associated with reduced apoptosis and increased cellular senescence. Moreover, loss of p50 DNA binding is a prominent feature of aged mice relative to young. These findings support the strong link between the NF-?B pathway and mammalian aging.