Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Tendon Autograft With Preserved Insertions.
ABSTRACT: We present a technique for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft with preserved tibial insertions. The tendons, harvested with an open-ended tendon stripper while their tibial insertions are preserved, are looped around to prepare a quadrupled graft. The femoral tunnel is drilled independently through a transportal technique, whereas the tibial tunnel is drilled in a standard manner. The length of the quadrupled graft and loop of the RetroButton is adjusted so that it matches the calculated length of both tunnels and the intra-articular part of the proposed ACL graft. After the RetroButton is flipped, the graft is manually tensioned with maximal stretch on the free end, which is then sutured to the other end with preserved insertions. We propose that preserving the insertions is more biological and may provide better proprioception. The technique eliminates the need for a tibial-side fixation device, thus reducing the cost of surgery. Furthermore, tibial-side fixation of the free graft is the weakest link in the overall stiffness of the reconstructed ACL, and this technique circumvents this problem. Postoperative mechanical stability and functional outcome with this technique need to be explored and compared with those of ACL reconstruction using free hamstring autograft.
Project description:Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are the most common type of combined ligamentous injury of the knee. The optimal treatment for these combined injuries is controversial. Combined ACL and MCL-posterior oblique ligament (POL) reconstruction avoids late anteromedial rotatory instability and chronic valgus instability of the knee and decreases the increased stress on the ACL graft. Graft choice (hamstring tendon autograft, quadriceps bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, or Achilles tendon allograft) and anatomic restoration of the medial and posteromedial corner of the knee are challenges of this combined reconstruction. This article describes a technique that allows combined ACL and MCL-POL reconstruction. The hamstring tendons from the contralateral limb are tripled and used as the ACL graft. The gracilis tendon from the ipsilateral limb is doubled and used as the MCL-POL graft. The semitendinosus tendon of the ipsilateral limb is preserved. After ACL reconstruction, the MCL-POL graft is suspended on the ACL graft at the distal end of the tibial tunnel and the graft limbs are used for open reconstruction of the MCL and POL. Three interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL) and 1 metal staple are used for graft fixation of this combined reconstruction.
Project description:Hamstring tendon autograft has been shown to be an excellent option for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Adequate graft size can usually be achieved through either a double-bundle technique of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons or a quadruple-bundle technique using a single tendon. To minimize failure rates that result from graft insufficiency, a minimum graft thickness of 8 mm is recommended for reconstruction. However, certain patients possess small native hamstring tendons that do not allow for recommended graft thickness using either of these traditional techniques. Although patient characteristics such as gender, height, and weight have all been associated with hamstring tendon size, accurately predicting which patients will possess inadequate autograft size is not possible. Recognizing this problem intraoperatively after harvesting the tendon presents a difficult scenario for the surgeon. In this technical note, we describe an alternative technique for preparing hamstring tendon autograft that results in significantly increased thickness by essentially utilizing a quadruple-bundle technique with both tendons. We proceed to reconstruct the ACL using an all-inside technique with suture buttons on both the femoral and tibial tunnels. The technique can serve as a rescue method for patients with insufficient hamstring tendon thickness.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate prospectively the increase in the size of the tibial and femoral bone tunnel following arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with quadrupled-hamstring autograft. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients underwent arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with quadrupled-hamstring autograft. Preoperative clinical evaluation was performed using the Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity level, and International Knee Documentation Committee forms and a KT-1000 arthrometer (side to side). Computed tomography (CT) of the femoral and tibial tunnel was performed on the day after operation in all cases and at mean follow-up of 10 months (range 9-11 months). RESULTS: All of the clinical evaluation scales performed showed an overall improvement. The postoperative anterior laxity difference was <3 mm in 16 patients (70%) and 3-5 mm in seven patients (30%). The mean average femoral tunnel diameter increased significantly (3%) from 9.04+/-0.05 mm postoperatively to 9.3+/-0.8 mm at 10 months; tibial tunnel increased significantly (11%) from 9.03+/-0.04 mm to 10+/-0.8 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between tunnel enlargement, clinical results, and arthrometer evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of tunnel widening observed in this study seems to be lower than that reported in previous studies that used different techniques. We conclude that an anatomical surgical technique and a less aggressive rehabilitation process influenced the amount of tunnel enlargement after ACL reconstruction with doubled hamstrings.
Project description:Hamstring tendon autograft remains a popular graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Although there are a variety of autograft and allograft options available for ACL reconstruction, advantages of hamstring tendon autografts include decreased postoperative knee pain and an overall easier surgical recovery compared with bone patellar tendon bone autograft. In addition, 4-stranded (quadruple) hamstring grafts are among the strongest grafts biomechanically (at time equals zero). Although the technique of hamstring autograft harvest is relatively straightforward, it is critical to pay attention to several technical steps to avoid iatrogenic neurovascular damage as well as to avoid premature amputation of the graft while using a tendon stripper. In this Technical Note, we describe a technique of hamstring autograft harvest for ACL reconstruction for a quadruple (4-strand) hamstring graft using the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons.
Project description:Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are an increasingly recognized problem in the juvenile population. Unfortunately, outcomes with conservative treatment are extremely poor. Adult reconstruction techniques are inappropriate to treat skeletally immature patients because of the risk of physeal complications, including limb-length discrepancy and angular deformities. "Physeal-sparing" reconstruction techniques exist, but their ability to restore knee stability is not well understood. We describe an all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction for use in skeletally immature patients. This is an all-inside technique with the femoral tunnel drilled retrograde and the tibial tunnel drilled retrograde; both tunnels are entirely within the epiphysis. Fixation of the hamstring autograft is achieved with soft-tissue buttons on both the femur and tibia. We present case examples for 2 patients who underwent the all-inside, all-epiphyseal reconstruction and our postoperative rehabilitation protocol. We present a novel surgical technique for an all-inside, all-epiphyseal ACL reconstruction in skeletally immature patients.
Project description:Cadaveric and clinical biomechanical studies show improved kinematic restoration using double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction techniques. These have been criticized in the past for being technically challenging. We present a novel 3-socket approach for anatomic "all-inside" double-bundle reconstruction using a single hamstring tendon fashioned to create a trifurcate graft: the TriLink technique. The semitendinosus alone is harvested, quadrupled, and attached to 3 suspensory fixation devices in a Y-shaped configuration, creating a 4-stranded tibial limb and 2 double-stranded femoral limbs. A medial viewing/lateral working arthroscopic approach is adopted using specifically designed instrumentation. Anatomic placement of the 2 femoral tunnels is performed by a validated direct measurement technique. A single mid-bundle position is used on the tibia. Both femoral and tibial sockets are created in a retrograde manner using outside-to-in drilling. This is a simplified operative technique for anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction that maximizes bone preservation. The TriLink construct replicates the 2 bundles of the ACL, conferring native functional anisometry and improving femoral footprint coverage while avoiding the complexities and pitfalls of double-tibial tunnel techniques. Preservation of the gracilis reduces the morbidity of hamstring harvest and allows greater flexibility in graft choice in cases requiring multiligament reconstruction.
Project description:Conventional single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction cannot improve the rotational stability of the knee. Traditional double-bundle ACL reconstruction requires is demanding, complex, time- and implant consuming, and associated with a high incidence of complications. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction using a free quadriceps tendon autograft through 3 independent tunnels provides some advantage, but the antegrade graft passage, tibial tunnel confluence, and graft site morbidity represent disadvantages. This Technical Note describes a modification of double-bundle ACL reconstruction using the hamstring tendon autograft through a single branched tibial tunnel and a single femoral tunnel using 2 interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The gracilis tendon autograft is passed through tibial tunnel stem to the posterolateral tibial tunnel branch to the posterolateral position in the femoral tunnel. The semitendinosus tendon autograft is passed through the tibial tunnel stem to the anteromedial tibial tunnel branch to the anteromedial position in the femoral tunnel. Both grafts are fixed by 2 interference screws: 1 at the femoral tunnel and 1 at the tibial tunnel stem with the knee at 20° flexion.
Project description:The exclusive autograft choice for medial collateral ligament (MCL) reconstruction that has been described until today is the semitendinosus tendon. However, this has some potential disadvantages in a knee with combined MCL-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, including weakening of the hamstring's anterior restraining action in an already ACL-injured knee and nonanatomic distal MCL graft insertion when leaving the semitendinosus insertion intact at the pes anserinus during reconstruction. Moreover, because some surgeons prefer to use the hamstring for autologous ACL reconstruction, the contralateral uninjured knee hamstring needs to be harvested as a graft source for the MCL reconstruction if autografts and not allografts are the surgeons' preference. We describe a technique for performing combined reconstruction of the MCL and ACL using ipsilateral quadriceps tendon-bone and bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts. This technique of MCL reconstruction spares the hamstring tendons and benefits from the advantage provided by bone-to-bone healing on the femur with distal and proximal MCL tibial fixation that closely reproduces the native MCL tibia insertion.
Project description:Historically, one of the most common graft choices for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the pediatric population has been the hamstring autograft. Although pediatric ACL reconstructions with a hamstring autograft have allowed a majority of children and adolescents to return to athletics, it has been reported that anywhere between 6% and 38% of these patients will go on to experience subsequent graft rupture. The quadriceps tendon autograft is an alternative to the hamstring tendon autograft that demonstrates superior preliminary outcomes, and we currently recommend it for skeletally immature patients undergoing primary and revision ACL reconstruction. This paper aims to describe our technique for an open full-thickness quadriceps tendon harvest with repair.
Project description:Four-strand hamstring autograft is a common choice for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A potential disadvantage of hamstring autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is the inherent variability in graft diameter. Multiple studies have shown increased revision rates when using an undersized hamstring graft. Using an EndoButton (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) for femoral tunnel fixation, we convert a standard quadrupled hamstring graft into a 5-strand graft by creating 3 equal strands of the typically larger semitendinosus combined with a double-stranded gracilis. This technique may help alleviate some surgeon reluctance to use a hamstring graft by providing an intraoperative "bailout" option for an unexpectedly small tendon. On the basis of current data, increasing the diameter of the graft in these situations may decrease revision rates.