Anopheles (Anopheles) petragnani Del Vecchio 1939-a new mosquito species for Germany.
ABSTRACT: The so far known species of the Anopheles Claviger Complex, Anopheles claviger s.s. and Anopheles petragnani, can only be distinguished by partial overlapping characteristics of immature stages and by nucleotide sequence variation of the genomic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. The known distribution of An. petragnani is so far restricted to the western Mediterranean region, whereas An. claviger s.s. occurs across most of Europe, up to the Middle East and North Africa. In our study, we investigated the larval mosquito fauna in rock pools of the Murg valley (Black Forest, Germany) once a month from April to December 2015.Among other species, larvae belonging to the Anopheles Claviger Complex were found. The fourth instar larvae were morphologically identified by chaetotaxy of the head and abdomen. The results were confirmed by a multiplex PCR and additional sequencing of the amplificates.Of the 1289 collected larvae from the rock pools, seven belonged to the Anopheles Claviger Complex. Five individuals were determined morphologically as An. petragnani and two as An. claviger s.s. The associated mosquito fauna comprised of Aedes japonicus japonicus (548 individuals), Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (493 individuals) and Culex hortensis (241 individuals).This is the first record of An. petragnani north of the Alps. Further studies will reveal whether this is an isolated population of An. petragnani and if the investigated rock pool breeding sites represent typical habitats of this species in temperate regions in Central Europe.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The intensification of trade and travel is linked to the growing number of imported cases of dengue, chikungunya or Zika viruses into continental Europe and to the expansion of invasive mosquito species such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus. Local outbreaks have already occurred in several European countries. Very little information exists on the vector competence of native mosquitoes for arboviruses. As such, the vectorial status of the nine mosquito species largely established in North-Western Europe (Aedes cinereus and Aedes geminus, Aedes cantans, Aedes punctor, Aedes rusticus, Anopheles claviger s.s., Anopheles plumbeus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex pipiens s.l., and Culiseta annulata) remains mostly unknown. OBJECTIVES:To review the vector competence of both invasive and native mosquito populations found in North-Western Europe (i.e., France, Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Switzerland) for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, West Nile and Usutu viruses. METHODS:A bibliographical search with research strings addressing mosquito vector competence for considered countries was performed. RESULTS:Out of 6357 results, 119 references were related to the vector competence of mosquitoes in Western Europe. Eight species appear to be competent for at least one virus. CONCLUSIONS:Aedes albopictus is responsible for the current outbreaks. The spread of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus increases the risk of the autochthonous transmission of these viruses. Although native species could contribute to their transmission, more studies are still needed to assess that risk.
Project description:In Kenya, insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) distributed to pregnant women and children under 5 years old through various programs have resulted in a significant reduction in malaria deaths. All of the World Health Organization-recommended insecticides for mosquito nets are pyrethroids, and vector mosquito resistance to these insecticides is one of the major obstacles to an effective malaria control program. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are major malaria vectors that are widely distributed in Kenya. Two point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (L1014F and L1014S) are associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to DDT and pyrethroids in An. gambiae s.s. While the same point mutations have been reported to be rare in An. arabiensis, some evidence of metabolic resistance has been reported in this species. In order to determine the distribution of the point mutation L1014S in An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in southern and western Kenya, we collected larvae and screened for the mutation by DNA sequencing. We found high allelic and homozygous frequencies of the L1014S mutation in An. gambiae s.s. The L1014S mutation was also widely distributed in An. arabiensis, although the allelic frequency was lower than in An. gambiae s.s. The same intron sequence (length: 57 base) found in both species indicated that the mutation was introgressed by hybridization. The allelic frequency of L1014S was higher in both species in western regions, demonstrating the strong selection pressure imposed by long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLITN)/ITN on the An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis populations in those areas. The present contribution of the L1014S mutation to pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis may be negligible. However, the homozygous frequency could increase with continuing selection pressure due to expanded LLITN coverage in the future.
Project description:High coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets in Asembo and low coverage in Seme, two adjacent communities in western Nyanza Province, Kenya; followed by expanded coverage of bed nets in Seme, as the Kenya national malaria programme rolled out; provided a natural experiment for quantification of changes in relative abundance of two primary malaria vectors in this holoendemic region. Both belong to the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) species complex, namely A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles arabiensis. Historically, the former species was proportionately dominant in indoor resting collections of females.Data of the relative abundance of adult A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis sampled from inside houses were obtained from the literature from 1970 to 2002 for sites west of Kisumu, Kenya, to the region of Asembo ca. 50 km from the city. A sampling transect was established from Asembo (where bed net use was high due to presence of a managed bed net distribution programme) eastward to Seme, where no bed net programme was in place. Adults of A. gambiae s.l. were sampled from inside houses along the transect from 2003 to 2009, as were larvae from nearby aquatic habitats, providing data over a nearly 40 year period of the relative abundance of the two species. Relative proportions of A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis were determined for each stage by identifying species by the polymerase chain reaction method. Household bed net ownership was measured with surveys during mosquito collections. Data of blood host choice, parity rate, and infection rate for Plasmodium falciparum in A. gambiae s.s. and A. arabiensis were obtained for a sample from Asembo and Seme from 2005.Anopheles gambiae s.s. adult females from indoor collections predominated from 1970 to 1998 (ca. 85%). Beginning in 1999, A. gambiae s.s decreased proportionately relative to A. arabiensis, then precipitously declined to rarity coincident with increased bed net ownership as national bed net distribution programmes commenced in 2004 and 2006. By 2009, A. gambiae s.s. comprised proportionately ca. 1% of indoor collections and A. arabiensis 99%. In Seme compared to Asembo in 2003, proportionately more larvae were A. gambiae s.s., larval density was higher, and more larval habitats were occupied. As bed net use rose in Seme, the proportion of A. gambiae larvae declined as well. These trends continued to 2009. Parity and malaria infection rates were lower in both species in Asembo (high bed net use) compared to Seme (low bed net use), but host choice did not vary within species in both communities (predominantly cattle for A. arabiensis, humans for A. gambiae s.s.).A marked decline of the A. gambiae s.s. population occurred as household ownership of bed nets rose in a region of western Kenya over a 10 year period. The increased bed net coverage likely caused a mass effect on the composition of the A. gambiae s.l. species complex, resulting in the observed proportionate increase in A. arabiensis compared to its closely related sibling species, A. gambiae s.s. These observations are important in evaluating the process of regional malaria elimination, which requires sustained vector control as a primary intervention.
Project description:Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus s.s. are the most important species for malaria transmission. Pyrethroid resistance of these vector mosquitoes is one of the main obstacles against effective vector control. The objective of the present study was to monitor the pyrethroid susceptibility in the 3 major malaria vectors in a highly malaria endemic area in western Kenya and to elucidate the mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in these species. Gembe East and West, Mbita Division, and 4 main western islands in the Suba district of the Nyanza province in western Kenya were used as the study area. Larval and adult collection and bioassay were conducted, as well as the detection of point mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel (1014L) by using direct DNA sequencing. A high level of pyrethroid resistance caused by the high frequency of point mutations (L1014S) was detected in An. gambiae s.s. In contrast, P450-related pyrethroid resistance seemed to be widespread in both An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. Not a single L1014S mutation was detected in these 2 species. A lack of cross-resistance between DDT and permethrin was also found in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s., while An. gambiae s.s. was resistant to both insecticides. It is noteworthy that the above species in the same area are found to be resistant to pyrethroids by their unique resistance mechanisms. Furthermore, it is interesting that 2 different resistance mechanisms have developed in the 2 sibling species in the same area individually. The cross resistance between permethrin and DDT in An. gambiae s.s. may be attributed to the high frequency of kdr mutation, which might be selected by the frequent exposure to ITNs. Similarly, the metabolic pyrethroid resistance in An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. is thought to develop without strong selection by DDT.
Project description:Members of the Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) complex are one of the major vectors of malaria in Africa. LLINs and IRS are the most effective tools used in vector control of malaria. However, their effectiveness may be hampered by the development and spread of insecticide resistance in the target vectors species. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes from South-West Cameroon to deltamethrin, permethrin and to malathion, four years after the mass deployment of LLINs.Anopheles larvae were collected from Limbe, Tiko and Buea, three cities of the Fako division and reared until adult emergence. Adult mosquitoes from field larvae were identified as belonging to the Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) complex using standard identification keys. Susceptibility of mosquito samples to deltamethrin, permethrin and malathion was assessed using WHO susceptibility tests protocol for adult mosquitoes. Molecular identification of tested samples was performed using the PCR SINE200 protocol and by PCR-RFLP. The kdr alleles were genotyped using the hot ligation oligonucleotide assay (HOLA).Two species of the An. gambiae (s.l.) complex, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) were identified in all three study locations with high proportions of An. coluzzii in Limbe (84.06%) and Tiko (92.2%), while in Buea, An. coluzzii (55.6%) and An. gambiae (s.s.) (44.4%) occurred almost in the same proportions. Tested samples were found resistant to pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) in all locations (< 90% mortality), with > 3-fold increase of KDT50 values compared with the Kisumu susceptible reference strain of An. gambiae (s.s.). However, the mosquito populations from Limbe and Buea were fully susceptible to malathion. The L1014F kdr was found in both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) with the highest frequencies found in An. gambiae (s.l.) populations from Tiko (94%) and Buea (90%) compared with the Limbe population (66%) (P = 0.00063, df = 2). No kdr L1014S was observed in analyzed samples.These findings reemphasize the ongoing development of An. gambiae (s.l.) resistance to pyrethroids used in impregnating LLINs and suggest the use of malathion as an alternative insecticide for IRS in complementarity with LLINs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission occurs during the blood feeding of infected anopheline mosquitoes concomitant with a saliva injection into the vertebrate host. In sub-Saharan Africa, most malaria transmission is due to Anopheles funestus s.s and to Anopheles gambiae s.l. (mainly Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis). Several studies have demonstrated that the immune response against salivary antigens could be used to evaluate individual exposure to mosquito bites. The aim of this study was to assess the use of secreted salivary proteins as specific biomarkers of exposure to An. gambiae and/or An. funestus bites. METHODS: For this purpose, salivary gland proteins 6 (SG6) and 5'nucleotidases (5'nuc) from An. gambiae (gSG6 and g-5'nuc) and An. funestus (fSG6 and f-5'nuc) were selected and produced in recombinant form. The specificity of the IgG response against these salivary proteins was tested using an ELISA with sera from individuals living in three Senegalese villages (NDiop, n = 50; Dielmo, n = 38; and Diama, n = 46) that had been exposed to distinct densities and proportions of the Anopheles species. Individuals who had not been exposed to these tropical mosquitoes were used as controls (Marseille, n = 45). RESULTS: The IgG responses against SG6 recombinant proteins from these two Anopheles species and against g-5'nucleotidase from An. gambiae, were significantly higher in Senegalese individuals compared with controls who were not exposed to specific Anopheles species. Conversely, an association was observed between the level of An. funestus exposure and the serological immune response levels against the f-5'nucleotidase protein. CONCLUSION: This study revealed an Anopheles salivary antigenic protein that could be considered to be a promising antigenic marker to distinguish malaria vector exposure at the species level. The epidemiological interest of such species-specific antigenic markers is discussed.
Project description:Background:Malaria is an important mosquito-borne disease considered as one of the public health concerns across many countries. Anopheles mosquitoes are the main vectors of Plasmodium parasites, which cause malaria. Some of these vectors such as Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Anopheles sacharovi are considered as complex of sibling species distributed in north of Iran. Methods:This study was conducted in north and northwest of Iran including East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Golestan and North Khorasan provinces with emphasis on the northern borders of the country during 2015-2016. Adult specimens were collected and subjected to morphological identification as well as molecular analysis. Results:Overall, 10405 mosquitoes were collected comprising 21 species. Culex pipiens and Cx. theileri were found as the most frequent species in whole study area. Morphological identification showed that out of 1455 female Anopheles specimens, 77% belonged to An. maculipennis Group. Out of the identified species, ITS2 region and COI gene sequences of 8 An. maculipennis s.s. and 31 An. sacharovi representing all provinces were obtained and submitted to GenBank. The COI sequences for An. sacharovi revealed the presence of 9 haplotypes with similarity of 98.17-100%. Conclusion:Some investigations have reported An. martinius as a member of sibling species of An. sacharovi among Iranian Anopheles genus; while based on our study, there was no evidence of the presence of this species in north and northwest of Iran.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rearing of Anopheles gambiae s.s mosquitoes in insectary with quality cheap food sources is of paramount importance for better and healthy colony. This study evaluated larval survival and the development rate of aquatic stages of An.gambiae s.s under five food regimes; tetramin fish food (a standard insectary larval food), maize pollen, Cerelac, green filamentous algae and dry powdered filamentous algae. METHODS: Food materials were obtained from different sources, cerelac was made locally, fresh filamentous algae was taken from water bodies, dry filamentous algae was ground to powder after it was dried under shade, and maize pollen was collected from the flowering maize. Each food source type was used to feed three densities of mosquito larvae 20, 60, and 100 in six replicates each. Larval age structure was monitored daily until pupation and subsequently adult emergence. Tetramin was used and taken as a standard food source for An. gambiae s.s. larvae feeding in Insectary. RESULTS: Larval survivorship using maize pollen and Tetramin fish food was statistically insignificant (P?=?0.564). However when compared to other food regime survivorship was significantly different with Tetramin fish food performing better than cerelac (P<0.001), dry algae (P<0.001) and fresh algae (P<0.001). The pupation rates and sex ratio of emerging adults had significant differences among the food regimes. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study have shown that maize pollen had closely similar nutritional value for larval survivorship to tetramin fish food, a standard larvae food in insectary. Further studies are required to assess the effect of food sources on various life traits of the emerged adults.
Project description:Anopheles mosquitoes are important vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF), which are major public health diseases in Nigeria. Malaria is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite of the genus Plasmodium and LF by the parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Updating our knowledge of the Anopheles species is vital in planning and implementing evidence based vector control programs. To present a comprehensive report on the spatial distribution and composition of these vectors, all published data available were collated into a database. Details recorded for each source were the locality, latitude/longitude, time/period of study, species, abundance, sampling/collection methods, morphological and molecular species identification methods, insecticide resistance status, including evidence of the kdr allele, and P. falciparum sporozoite rate and W. bancrofti microfilaria prevalence. This collation resulted in a total of 110 publications, encompassing 484,747 Anopheles mosquitoes in 632 spatially unique descriptions at 142 georeferenced locations being identified across Nigeria from 1900 to 2010. Overall, the highest number of vector species reported included An. gambiae complex (65.2%), An. funestus complex (17.3%), An. gambiae s.s. (6.5%). An. arabiensis (5.0%) and An. funestus s.s. (2.5%), with the molecular forms An. gambiae M and S identified at 120 locations. A variety of sampling/collection and species identification methods were used with an increase in molecular techniques in recent decades. Insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and organochlorines was found in the main Anopheles species across 45 locations. Presence of P. falciparum and W. bancrofti varied between species with the highest sporozoite rates found in An. gambiae s.s, An. funestus s.s. and An. moucheti, and the highest microfilaria prevalence in An. gambiae s.l., An. arabiensis, and An. gambiae s.s. This comprehensive geo-referenced database provides an essential baseline on Anopheles vectors and will be an important resource for malaria and LF vector control programmes in Nigeria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vector control activities, namely long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), have contributed significantly to the decreasing malaria burden observed in The Gambia since 2008. Nevertheless, insecticide resistance may threaten such success; it is important to regularly assess the susceptibility of local malaria vectors to available insecticides. METHODS:In the transmission seasons of 2016 and 2017, Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) larvae were sampled in or around the nine vector surveillance sentinel sites of the Gambia National Malaria Control Programme (GNMCP) and in a few additional sampling points. Using WHO susceptibility bioassays, female adult mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide-impregnated papers. Molecular identification of sibling species and insecticide resistance molecular markers was done on a subset of 2000 female mosquitoes. RESULTS:A total of 4666 wild-caught female adult mosquitoes were exposed to either permethrin (n = 665), deltamethrin (n = 744), DDT (n = 1021), bendiocarb (n = 990) or pirimiphos-methyl (n = 630) insecticide-impregnated papers and control papers (n = 616). Among the 2000 anophelines, 1511 (80.7%) were Anopheles arabiensis, 204 (10.9%) Anopheles coluzzii, 75 (4%) Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), and 83 (4.4%) An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. coluzzii hybrids. There was a significant variation in the composition and species distribution by regions and year, P = 0.009. Deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT resistance was found in An. arabiensis, especially in the coastal region, and was mediated by Vgsc-1014F/S mutations (odds ratio = 34, P = 0.014). There was suspected resistance to pirimiphos-methyl (actellic 300CS) in the North Bank Region although only one survivor had the Ace-1-119S mutation. CONCLUSIONS:As no confirmed resistance to bendiocarb and actellic 300CS was detected, the national malaria control programme can continue using these insecticides for IRS. Nevertheless, the detection of Ace-1 119S mutation warrants extensive monitoring. The source of insecticide pressure driving insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and DDT detected at the coastal region should be further investigated in order to properly manage the spread of resistance in The Gambia.