Necrosis-like death can engage multiple pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family members.
ABSTRACT: Necroptosis is a physiologically relevant mode of cell death with some well-described initiating events, but largely unknown executioners. Here we investigated necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) sensitive death elicited by different necroptosis stimuli in L929 mouse fibrosarcoma cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and bone marrow-derived macrophages. We found that TNF?- or zVAD-induced necroptosis occurs independently of the recently implicated executioners Bmf or PARP-2, but can involve the Bcl-2 family proteins Bid and Bak. Furthermore, this type of necroptosis is associated with mitochondrial cytochrome c release and partly sensitive to cyclosporine A inhibition, suggesting a cross talk with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Necroptosis triggered by cadmium (Cd) exposure caused fully Nec-1-sensitive and caspase-independent death in L929 cells that was associated with autocrine TNF?-mediated feed-forward signalling. In MEF Cd-exposure elicited a mixed mode of cell death that was to some extent Nec-1-sensitive but also displayed features of apoptosis. It was partly dependent on Bmf and Bax/Bak, proteins typically considered to act pro-apoptotic, but ultimately insensitive to caspase inhibition. Overall, our study indicates that inducers of "extrinsic" and "intrinsic" necroptosis can both trigger TNF-receptor signalling. Further, necroptosis may depend on mitochondrial changes engaging proteins considered critical for MOMP during apoptosis that ultimately contribute to caspase-independent necrotic cell death.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) signaling may result in survival, apoptosis or programmed necrosis. The latter is called necroptosis if the receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) or genetic knockout of RIP3 prevents it. In the lethal mouse model of TNF?-mediated shock, addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (zVAD) accelerates time to death. Here, we demonstrate that RIP3-deficient mice are protected markedly from TNF?-mediated shock in the presence and absence of caspase inhibition. We further show that the fusion protein TAT-crmA, previously demonstrated to inhibit apoptosis, also prevents necroptosis in L929, HT29 and FADD-deficient Jurkat cells. In contrast to RIP3-deficient mice, blocking necroptosis by Nec-1 or TAT-crmA did not protect from TNF?/zVAD-mediated shock, but further accelerated time to death. Even in the absence of caspase inhibition, Nec-1 application led to similar kinetics. Depletion of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, granulocytes or genetic deficiency for T lymphocytes did not influence this model. Because RIP3-deficient mice are known to be protected from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP), we applied Nec-1 and TAT-crmA in this model and demonstrated the deterioration of pancreatic damage upon addition of these substances. These data highlight the importance of separating genetic RIP3 deficiency from RIP1 inhibition by Nec-1 application in vivo and challenge the current definition of necroptosis.
Project description:Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) is a critical initiator in mediating necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) in L929 cells, so knockdown of RIP3 inhibits TNF?-induced L929 cell necroptosis. However, RIP3 knockdown was shown to switch TNF?-induced necroptosis to apoptosis in L929 cells in other studies. Therefore, whether RIP3 knockdown blocks the TNF?-induced death of L929 cells is controversial. In this study, TNF? activated caspase pathway and induced cell death in RIP3 knockdown L929 cells, and the RIP3-independent cell death had been blocked by Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) or caspase 8 knockdown, demonstrating that RIP3 knockdown switched TNF?-induced necroptosis to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Although both TNF receptor type 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) and RIP1 have been reported to mediate TNF?-induced apoptosis, the knockdown of TRADD, but not RIP1, suppressed TNF?-induced activation of the caspase pathway and subsequent apoptosis in RIP3 knockdown L929 cells. In addition, TRADD bound and activated caspase 8 during the RIP3-independent apoptosis process, indicating that TRADD initiates RIP3-independent apoptosis by activating the caspase pathway. Collectively, we identified the target and mechanism underlying RIP3-independent apoptosis and elucidated the coordinated roles of RIP3 and TRADD in mediating the programmed cell death of L929 cells following TNF? stimulation.
Project description:Necroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that critically depends on RIP3 and MLKL. However, the contribution of mitochondria to necroptosis is still poorly understood. In the present study, we discovered that mitochondrial perturbations play a critical role in Smac mimetic/Dexamethasone (Dexa)-induced necroptosis independently of death receptor ligands. We demonstrate that the Smac mimetic BV6 and Dexa cooperate to trigger necroptotic cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells that are deficient in caspase activation due to absent caspase-8 expression or pharmacological inhibition by the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk, since genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of RIP3 or MLKL significantly rescue BV6/Dexa-induced necroptosis. In addition, RIP3 or MLKL knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are protected from BV6/Dexa/zVAD.fmk-induced cell death. In contrast, antagonistic antibodies against the death receptor ligands TNF?, TRAIL or CD95 ligand fail to rescue BV6/Dexa-triggered cell death. Kinetic studies revealed that prior to cell death BV6/Dexa treatment causes hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) followed by loss of MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, Bak activation and disruption of mitochondrial respiration. Importantly, knockdown of Bak significantly reduces BV6/Dexa-induced loss of MMP and delays cell death, but not ROS production, whereas ROS scavengers attenuate Bak activation, indicating that ROS production occurs upstream of BV6/Dexa-mediated Bak activation. Consistently, BV6/Dexa treatment causes oxidative thiol modifications of Bak protein. Intriguingly, knockdown or knockout of RIP3 or MLKL protect ALL cells or MEFs from BV6/Dexa-induced ROS production, Bak activation, drop of MMP and disruption of mitochondrial respiration, demonstrating that these mitochondrial events depend on RIP3 and MLKL. Thus, mitochondria might serve as an amplification step in BV6/Dexa-induced necroptosis. These findings provide new insights into the role of mitochondrial dysfunctions during necroptosis and have important implications for the development of novel treatment approaches to overcome apoptosis resistance in ALL.
Project description:TNF receptor 1 signaling induces NF-?B activation and necroptosis in L929 cells. We previously reported that cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-mediated receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) ubiquitination acts as a cytoprotective mechanism, whereas knockdown of cylindromatosis, a RIP1-deubiquitinating enzyme, protects against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced necroptosis. We report here that RIP1 is a crucial mediator of canonical NF-?B activation in L929 cells, therefore questioning the relative cytoprotective contribution of RIP1 ubiquitination versus canonical NF-?B activation. We found that attenuated NF-?B activation has no impact on TNF-induced necroptosis. However, we identified A20 and linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex as negative regulators of necroptosis. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to RIP3, we also found that knockdown of RIP1 did not block TNF cytotoxicity. Cell death typing revealed that RIP1-depleted cells switch from necroptotic to apoptotic death, indicating that RIP1 can also suppress apoptosis in L929 cells. Inversely, we observed that Fas-associated protein via a death domain, cellular FLICE inhibitory protein and caspase-8, which are all involved in the initiation of apoptosis, counteract necroptosis induction. Finally, we also report RIP1-independent but RIP3-mediated necroptosis in the context of TNF signaling in particular conditions.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by necrotic tubular cell death and inflammation. The TWEAK/Fn14 axis is a mediator of renal injury. Diverse pathways of regulated necrosis have recently been reported to contribute to AKI, but there are ongoing discussions on the timing or molecular regulators involved. We have now explored the cell death pathways induced by TWEAK/Fn14 activation and their relevance during AKI. In cultured tubular cells, the inflammatory cytokine TWEAK induces apoptosis in a proinflammatory environment. The default inhibitor of necroptosis [necrostatin-1 (Nec-1)] was protective, while caspase inhibition switched cell death to necroptosis. Additionally, folic acid-induced AKI in mice resulted in increased expression of Fn14 and necroptosis mediators, such as receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3, and mixed lineage domain-like protein (MLKL). Targeting necroptosis with Nec-1 or by genetic RIPK3 deficiency and genetic Fn14 ablation failed to be protective at early time points (48 h). However, a persistently high cell death rate and kidney dysfunction (72-96 h) were dependent on an intact TWEAK/Fn14 axis driving necroptosis. This was prevented by Nec-1, or MLKL, or RIPK3 deficiency and by Nec-1 stable (Nec-1s) administered before or after induction of AKI. These data suggest that initial kidney damage and cell death are amplified through recruitment of inflammation-dependent necroptosis, opening a therapeutic window to treat AKI once it is established. This may be relevant for clinical AKI, since using current diagnostic criteria, severe injury had already led to loss of renal function at diagnosis.
Project description:Necroptosis is a regulated necrotic cell death that involves receptor-interacting protein kinases RIPK1 and RIPK3. Here, we report that edelfosine triggers a rapid and massive cell death in human glioblastoma cells with characteristics of necrosis. Only a minor proportion of edelfosine-treated cells underwent caspase-dependent apoptosis. Autophagy and a rapid influx of extracellular calcium into the cells had little impact on cell death. Levels of procaspase-8 were very low in necroptosis-prone glioma cells compared with the levels in other cancer cell types that underwent apoptosis upon edelfosine treatment. The RIPK1-dependent necroptosis inhibitors necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) and Nec-1s as well as siRNA-mediated silencing of RIPK3 inhibited edelfosine-induced necroptosis, resulting in increased caspase-dependent apoptosis in edelfosine-treated glioblastoma U118 cells. Inhibition of the RIPK3 substrate MLKL with necrosulfonamide also increased apoptosis in edelfosine-treated cells. These data support a major role for RIPK1 and RIPK3 in the induction of necrotic cell death and in the switch from necrosis to apoptosis following edelfosine treatment. These results indicate that the ether lipid edelfosine exerts a rapid necroptotic cell death in apoptosis-reluctant glioblastoma cells, suggesting that induction of necroptosis could constitute a new approach for glioblastoma therapy.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa use N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule to regulate gene expression in the bacteria. It is expected that in patients with chronic infections with P.?aeruginosa, especially as biofilms, local [C12] will be high and, since C12 is lipid soluble, diffuse from the airways into the epithelium and underlying fibroblasts, capillary endothelia and white blood cells. Previous work showed that C12 has multiple effects in human host cells, including activation of apoptosis. The present work tested the involvement of Bak and Bax in C12-triggered apoptosis in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) by comparing MEF isolated from embryos of wild-type (WT) and Bax(-/-) /Bak(-/-) (DKO) mice. In WT MEF C12 rapidly triggered (minutes to 2?h): activation of caspases 3/7 and 8, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (??mito ), release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol, blebbing of plasma membranes, shrinkage/condensation of cells and nuclei and, subsequently, cell killing. A DKO MEF line that was relatively unaffected by the Bak/Bax-dependent proapoptotic stimulants staurosporine and etoposide responded to C12 similarly to WT MEF: activation of caspase 3/7, depolarization of ??mito and release of cytochrome C and cell death. Re-expression of Bax or Bak in DKO MEF did not alter the WT-like responses to C12 in DKO MEF. These data showed that C12 triggers novel, rapid proapoptotic Bak/Bax-independent responses that include events commonly associated with activation of both the intrinsic pathway (depolarization of ??mito and release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol) and the extrinsic pathway (activation of caspase 8). Unlike the proapoptotic agonists staurosporine and etoposide that release cytochrome C from mitochondria, C12's effects do not require participation of either Bak or Bax.
Project description:Programmed cell death contributes to host defense against pathogens. To investigate the relative importance of pyroptosis, necroptosis, and apoptosis during Salmonella infection, we infected mice and macrophages deficient for diverse combinations of caspases-1, -11, -12, and -8 and receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3 (RIPK3). Loss of pyroptosis, caspase-8-driven apoptosis, or necroptosis had minor impact on Salmonella control. However, combined deficiency of these cell death pathways caused loss of bacterial control in mice and their macrophages, demonstrating that host defense can employ varying components of several cell death pathways to limit intracellular infections. This flexible use of distinct cell death pathways involved extensive cross-talk between initiators and effectors of pyroptosis and apoptosis, where initiator caspases-1 and -8 also functioned as executioners when all known effectors of cell death were absent. These findings uncover a highly coordinated and flexible cell death system with in-built fail-safe processes that protect the host from intracellular infections.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cellular dysfunction and death is associated with several human diseases. It has been widely reported that ER stress kills through activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Here we demonstrate that ER stress can also induce necroptosis, an receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)/RIPK3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-dependent form of necrosis. Remarkably, we observed that necroptosis induced by various ER stressors in L929 cells is dependent on tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), but occurs independently of autocrine TNF or lymphotoxin ? production. Moreover, we found that repression of either TNFR1, RIPK1 or MLKL did not protect the cells from death but instead allowed a switch to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, while caspase inhibition was sufficient to protect TNFR1- or MLKL-deficient cells from death, rescue of the RIPK1-deficient cells additionally required RIPK3 depletion, indicating a switch back to RIPK3-dependent necroptosis in caspase-inhibited conditions. The finding that ER stress also induces necroptosis may open new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of pathologies resulting from unresolved ER stress.
Project description:Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA), a natural phenolic acid widely found in gallnuts, tea leaves and various fruits, possesses several bioactivities against inflammation, oxidation, and carcinogenicity. The beneficial effect of GA on the reduction of animal hepatofibrosis has been indicated due to its antioxidative property. However, the cytotoxicity of GA autoxidation causing cell death has also been reported. Herein, we postulated that GA might target activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs), the cell type responsible for hepatofibrosis, to mitigate the process of fibrosis. The molecular cytotoxic mechanisms that GA exerted on aHSCs were then analyzed. The results indicated that GA elicited aHSC programmed cell death through TNF-?-mediated necroptosis. GA induced significant oxidative stress through the suppression of catalase activity and the depletion of glutathione (GSH). Elevated oxidative stress triggered the production of TNF-? facilitating the undergoing of necroptosis through the up-regulation of key necroptotic regulatory proteins TRADD and receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), and the inactivation of caspase-8. Calmodulin and calpain-1 activation were engaged, which promoted subsequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). The TNF-? antagonist (SPD-304) and the RIP1 inhibitor (necrostatin-1, Nec-1) confirmed GA-induced TNFR1-mediated necroptosis. The inhibition of RIP1 by Nec-1 diverted the cell death from necroptosis to apoptosis, as the activation of caspase 3 and the increase of cytochrome c. Collectively, this is the first report indicating that GA induces TNF signaling-triggered necroptosis in aHSCs, which may offer an alternative strategy for the amelioration of liver fibrosis.