Role of Aromatic Amino Acids in Lipopolysaccharide and Membrane Interactions of Antimicrobial Peptides for Use in Plant Disease Control.
ABSTRACT: KYE28 (KYEITTIHNLFRKLTHRLFRRNFGYT-LR), the representative sequence of helix D of heparin co-factor II, was demonstrated to be potent against agronomically important Gram-negative plant pathogens Xanthomonas vesicatoria and Xanthomonas oryzae, capable of inhibiting disease symptoms in detached tomato leaves. NMR studies in the presence of lipopolysaccharide provided structural insights into the mechanisms underlying this, notably in relationship to outer membrane permeabilization. The three-dimensional solution structure of KYE28 in LPS is characterized by an N-terminal helical segment, an intermediate loop followed by another short helical stretch, and an extended C terminus. The two termini are in close proximity to each other via aromatic packing interactions, whereas the positively charged residues form an exterior polar shell. To further demonstrate the importance of the aromatic residues for this, a mutant peptide KYE28A, with Ala substitutions at Phe(11), Phe(19), Phe(23), and Tyr(25) was designed, which showed attenuated antimicrobial activity at high salt concentrations, as well as lower membrane disruption and LPS binding abilities compared with KYE28. In contrast to KYE28, KYE28A adopted an extended helical structure in LPS with extended N and C termini. Aromatic packing interactions were completely lost, although hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of hydrophobic residues were still partly retained, imparting an amphipathic character and explaining its residual antimicrobial activity and LPS binding as observed from ellipsometry and isothermal titration calorimetry. We thus present key structural aspects of KYE28, constituting an aromatic zipper, of potential importance for the development of novel plant protection agents and therapeutic agents.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play important roles in the innate defense mechanism. The broad spectrum of activity of AMPs requires an efficient permeabilization of the bacterial outer and inner membranes. The outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is made of a specialized lipid called lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS layer is an efficient permeability barrier against anti-bacterial agents including AMPs. As a mode of protection, LPS can induce self associations of AMPs rendering them inactive. Temporins are a group of short-sized AMPs isolated from frog skin, and many of them are inactive against Gram negative bacteria as a result of their self-association in the LPS-outer membrane.<h4>Principal findings</h4>Using NMR spectroscopy, we have determined atomic resolution structure and characterized localization of temporin-1Ta or TA (FLPLIGRVLSGIL-amide) in LPS micelles. In LPS micelles, TA adopts helical conformation for residues L4-I12, while residues F1-L3 are found to be in extended conformations. The aromatic sidechain of residue F1 is involved in extensive packing interactions with the sidechains of residues P3, L4 and I5. Interestingly, a number of long-range NOE contacts have been detected between the N-terminal residues F1, P3 with the C-terminal residues S10, I12, L13 of TA in LPS micelles. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR studies demonstrate close proximity of residues including F1, L2, P3, R7, S10 and L13 with the LPS micelles. Notably, the LPS bound structure of TA shows differences with the structures of TA determined in DPC and SDS detergent micelles.<h4>Significance</h4>We propose that TA, in LPS lipids, forms helical oligomeric structures employing N- and C-termini residues. Such oligomeric structures may not be translocated across the outer membrane; resulting in the inactivation of the AMP. Importantly, the results of our studies will be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents with a broader spectrum of activity.
Project description:Aromatic residues are relatively rare within the collagen triple helix, but they appear to play a specialized role in higher-order structure and function. The role of aromatic amino acids in the self-assembly of triple-helical peptides was investigated in terms of the kinetics of self-association, the nature of aggregated species formed, and the ability of these species to activate platelet aggregation. The presence of aromatic residues on both ends of a type IV collagen model peptide is observed to greatly accelerate the kinetics of self-association, decreasing the lag time and leading to insoluble, well-defined linear fibrils as well as small soluble aggregates. Both macroscopic visible aggregates and small multimolecular complexes in solution are capable of inducing platelet aggregation through the glycoprotein VI receptor on platelets. Proline-aromatic CH...pi interactions are often observed within globular proteins and in protein complexes, and examination of molecular packing in the crystal structure of the integrin binding collagen peptide shows Phe interacts with Pro/Hyp in a neighboring triple-helical molecule. An intermolecular interaction between aromatic amino acids and imino acids within the triple helix is also supported by the observed inhibitory effect of isolated Phe amino acids on the self-association of (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(10). Given the high fraction of Pro and Hyp residues on the surface of collagen molecules, it is likely that imino acid-aromatic CH...pi interactions are important in formation of higher-order structure. We suggest that the catalysis of type I collagen fibrillogenesis by nonhelical telopeptides is due to specific intermolecular CH...pi interactions between aromatic residues in the telopeptides and Pro/Hyp residues within the triple helix.
Project description:Temporins are a group of closely related short antimicrobial peptides from frog skin. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major constituent of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, plays important roles in the activity of temporins. Earlier studies have found that LPS induces oligomerization of temporin-1Tb (TB) thus preventing its translocation across the outer membrane and, as a result, reduces its activity on gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, temporin-1Tl (TL) exhibits higher activity, presumably because of lack of such oligomerization. A synergistic mechanism was proposed, involving TL and TB in overcoming the LPS-mediated barrier. Here, to gain insights into interactions of TL and TB within LPS, we investigated the structures and interactions of TL, TB, and TL+TB in LPS micelles, using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the context of LPS, TL assumes a novel antiparallel dimeric helical structure sustained by intimate packing between aromatic-aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic residues. By contrast, independent TB has populations of helical and aggregated conformations in LPS. The LPS-induced aggregated states of TB are largely destabilized in the presence of TL. Saturation transfer difference NMR studies have delineated residues of TL and TB in close contact with LPS and enhanced interactions of these two peptides with LPS, when combined together. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and (31)P NMR have pointed out the proximity of TL and TB in LPS and conformational changes of LPS, respectively. Importantly, these results provide the first structural insights into the mode of action and synergism of antimicrobial peptides at the level of the LPS-outer membrane.
Project description:Helix packing is important in the folding, stability, and association of membrane proteins. Packing analysis of the helical portions of 7 integral membrane proteins and 37 soluble proteins show that the helices in membrane proteins have higher packing values (0.431) than in soluble proteins (0.405). The highest packing values in integral membrane proteins originate from small hydrophobic (G and A) and small hydroxyl-containing (S and T) amino acids, whereas in soluble proteins large hydrophobic and aromatic residues have the highest packing values. The highest packing values for membrane proteins are found in the transmembrane helix-helix interfaces. Glycine and alanine have the highest occurrence among the buried amino acids in membrane proteins, whereas leucine and alanine are the most common buried residue in soluble proteins. These observations are consistent with a shorter axial separation between helices in membrane proteins. The tight helix packing revealed in this analysis contributes to membrane protein stability and likely compensates for the lack of the hydrophobic effect as a driving force for helix-helix association in membranes.
Project description:Rhodopsin undergoes rearrangements of its transmembrane helices after photon absorption to transfer a light signal to the G-protein transducin. To investigate the mechanism by which rhodopsin adopts the transducin-activating conformation, the local environmental changes in the transmembrane region were probed using the cysteine S-H group, whose stretching frequency is well isolated from the other protein vibrational modes. The S-H stretching modes of cysteine residues introduced into Helix III, which contains several key residues for the helical movements, and of native cysteine residues were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This method was applied to metarhodopsin IIa, a precursor of the transducin-activating state in which the intramolecular interactions are likely to produce a state ready for helical movements. No environmental change was observed near the ionic lock between Arg-135 in Helix III and Glu-247 in Helix VI that maintains the inactive conformation. Rather, the cysteine residues that showed environmental changes were located around the chromophore, Ala-164, His-211, and Phe-261. These findings imply that the hydrogen bond between Helix III and Helix V involving Glu-122 and His-211 and the hydrophobic packing between Helix III and Helix VI involving Gly-121, Leu-125, Phe-261, and Trp-265 are altered before the helical rearrangement leading toward the active conformation.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a serious public health hazard. The S2 subunit of the S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV carries out fusion between the virus and the host cells. However, the exact mechanism of the cell fusion process is not well understood. Current model suggests that a conformational transition, upon receptor recognition, of the two heptad core regions of S2 may expose the hydrophobic fusogenic peptide or fusion peptide for membrane insertion. Three regions of the S2 subunit have been proposed to be involved in cell-cell fusion. The N-terminal fusion peptide (FP, residues 770-788), an internal fusion peptide (IFP, residues 873-888) and the pre-transmembrane region (PTM, residues 1185-1202) demonstrated interactions with model lipid membranes and potentially involved in the fusion process. Here, we have determined atomic resolution structures of these three peptides in DPC detergent micelles by solution NMR. FP assumes α-helical conformation with significant distortion at the central Gly residues; enabling a close packing among sidechains of aromatic residues including W, Y and F. The 3-D structure of PMT is characterized by a helix-loop-helix with extensive aromatic interactions within the helices. IFP adopts a rather straight α-helical conformation defined by packing among sidechains of aromatic and aliphatic residues. Paramagnetic spin labeled NMR has demonstrated surface localization of PMT whereas FP and IFP inserted into the micelles. Collectively, data presented in this study will aid in understanding fusion mechanism of SARS-CoV.
Project description:Many proteins exist and function as oligomers. While hydrophobic interactions have been recognized as the major driving force for oligomerization, detailed molecular mechanisms for the assembly are unknown. Here, we used 14-3-3? as a model protein and investigated the role of hydrophobic residues at the dimeric interface using MD simulations and coimmunoprecipitations. We found that a half-exposed and half-buried residue in the interface, Phe(25), plays a more important role in promoting homodimerization than the hydrophobic core residues by organizing both favorable hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions. Phe(25) is critical in packing and stabilizing hydrophobic core residues. We conclude that the structural stability of hydrophobic cores is critical for a stable homodimer complex and this stable property can be bestowed by residues outside of hydrophobic core. The important organizing activity of Phe(25) for homodimerization of 14-3-3? originates from its unique physical location, rigidity, size, and hydrophobicity. Thus, hydrophobic residues that are not deeply buried at the oligomeric interface may play important but different roles from the buried core residues and they may promote oligomerization by organizing co-operativity of core and other residues for favorable hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions.
Project description:The fold of the murine Sox-5 (mSox-5) HMG box in free solution has been determined by multidimensional NMR using (15)N-labeled protein and has been found to adopt the characteristic twisted L-shape made up of two wings: the major wing comprising helix 1 (F10--F25) and helix 2 (N32--A43), the minor wing comprising helix 3 (P51--Y67) in weak antiparallel association with the N-terminal extended segment. (15)N relaxation measurements show considerable mobility (reduced order parameter, S(2)) in the minor wing that increases toward the amino and carboxy termini of the chain. The mobility of residues C-terminal to Q62 is significantly greater than the equivalent residues of non-sequence-specific boxes, and these residues show a weaker association with the extended N-terminal segment than in non-sequence boxes. Comparison with previously determined structures of HMG boxes both in free solution and complexed with DNA shows close similarity in the packing of the hydrophobic cores and the relative disposition of the three helices. Only in hSRY/DNA does the arrangement of aromatic sidechains differ significantly from that of mSox-5, and only in rHMG1 box 1 bound to cisplatinated DNA does helix 1 have no kink. Helix 3 in mSox-5 is terminated by P68, a conserved residue in DNA sequence-specific HMG boxes, which results in the chain turning through approximately 90 degrees.
Project description:Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) is one of the most potent stimulants of the innate immune system, recognized by the TLR4.MD-2 complex. Direct binding to MD-2 of LPS and LPS analogues that act as TLR4 agonists or antagonists is well established, but the role of MD-2 and TLR4 in receptor activation is much less clear. We have identified residues within the hairpin of MD-2 between strands five and six that, although not contacting acyl chains of tetraacylated lipid IVa (a TLR4 antagonist), influence activation of TLR4 by hexaacylated lipid A. We show that hydrophobic residues at positions 82, 85, and 87 of MD-2 are essential both for transfer of endotoxin from CD14 to monomeric MD-2 and for TLR4 activation. We also identified a pair of conserved hydrophobic residues (Phe-440 and Phe-463) in leucine-rich repeats 16 and 17 of the TLR4 ectodomain, which are essential for activation of TLR4 by LPS. F440A or F463A mutants of TLR4 were inactive, whereas the F440W mutant retained full activity. Charge reversal of neighboring cationic groups in the TLR4 ectodomain (Lys-388 and Lys-435), in contrast, did not affect cell activation. Our mutagenesis studies are consistent with a molecular model in which Val-82, Met-85, and Leu-87 in MD-2 and distal portions of a secondary acyl chain of hexaacylated lipid A that do not fit into the hydrophobic binding pocket of MD-2 form a hydrophobic surface that interacts with Phe-440 and Phe-463 on a neighboring TLR4.MD-2.LPS complex, driving TLR4 activation.
Project description:Employing 125I-polyubiquitin chain formation as a functional readout of ligase activity, biochemical and biophysical evidence demonstrates that catalytically active E6-associated protein (E6AP)/UBE3A is an oligomer. Based on an extant structure previously discounted as an artifact of crystal packing forces, we propose that the fully active form of E6AP is a trimer, analysis of which reveals a buried surface of 7508Å2 and radially symmetric interacting residues that are conserved within the Hect (homologous to E6AP C terminus) ligase superfamily. An absolutely conserved interaction between Phe(727) and a hydrophobic pocket present on the adjacent subunit is critical for trimer stabilization because mutation disrupts the oligomer and decreases kcat 62-fold but fails to affect E2 ubiquitin binding or subsequent formation of the Hect domain Cys(820) ubiquitin thioester catalytic intermediate. Exogenous N-acetylphenylalanylamide reversibly antagonizes Phe(727)-dependent trimer formation and catalytic activity (Ki12 mM), as does a conserved-helical peptide corresponding to residues 474–490 of E6A Pisoform 1 (Ki22M) reported to bind the hydrophobic pocket of other Hect ligases, presumably blocking Phe(727) intercalation and trimer formation. Conversely, oncogenic human papillomavirus-16/18 E6 protein significantly enhances E6AP catalytic activity by promoting trimer formation (Kactivation 1.5 nM) through the ability of E6 to form homodimers. Recombinant E6 protein additionally rescues the kcat defect of the Phe(727) mutation and that of a specific loss-of-function Angelman syndrome mutation that promotes trimer destabilization. The present findings codify otherwise disparate observations regarding the mechanism of E6AP and related Hect ligases in addition to suggesting therapeutic approaches for modulating ligase activity.