Multicenter study on caries risk assessment in adults using survival Classification and Regression Trees.
ABSTRACT: Dental caries is an important public health problem worldwide. This study aims to prove how preventive therapies reduce the onset of caries in adult patients, and to identify patients with high or low risk of caries by using Classification and Regression Trees based survival analysis (survival CART). A clinical data set of 732 patients aged 20 to 64 years in nine Japanese general practices was analyzed with the following parameters: age, DMFT, number of mutans streptococci (SM) and Lactobacilli (LB), secretion rate and buffer capacity of saliva, and compliance with a preventive program. Results showed the incidence of primary carious lesion was affected by SM, LB and compliance with a preventive program; secondary carious lesion was affected by DMFT, SM and LB. Survival CART identified high-risk patients for primary carious lesion according to their poor compliance with a preventive program and SM (?10(6)?CFU/ml) with a hazard ratio of 3.66 (p?=?0.0002). In the case of secondary caries, patients with LB (?10(5)?CFU/ml) and DMFT (>15) were identified as high risk with a hazard ratio of 3.50 (p?
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to determine the relative amounts of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and lactobacilli (LBs) and their relationship with dental caries among a Yemeni adult population. RESULTS:A positive correlation appeared between SM and LB counts from saliva and caries tissue samples and the decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score (p?<?0.05). There was a significant correlation between SM and LBs in caries tissue (p?<?0.05). However, there was no significant difference between SM and LBs isolated from saliva samples (p?>?0.05). The number of SM and LBs in subjects with active caries was significantly higher than that in those without active caries (p?<?0.05). There was no significant difference between the daily habits and SM and LB or DMFT scores (p?>?0.05), except for a significant difference between brushing frequency and DMFT score (p?<?0.05).
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to assess caries prevalence and experience among 11 to 14?years, school children, analyze demographic, socioeconomic, personal and professional dental care in relation to untreated carious lesions, and evaluates the effect of decayed teeth on early adolescents' oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). METHODS:A cross-sectional analytical investigation was conducted on 1020 preparatory schoolchildren selected on the basis of a multistage sampling technique. Caries status of the participants detected via recording their caries experience and untreated cavities using DMFT and DT indices. OHRQoL was determined using a validated Arabic CPQ11-14 short-form questionnaire. Statistical methods for descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Independent-Samples t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis through a hierarchical approach was used to detect the influence of independent variables on DT scores. To declare the association between independent variables and QoL, a step-by-step, multivariate regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS:The average scores of DMFT and DT in this study were 2.97?±?1.29 and 1.66?±?1.24. Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that early adolescents whom their mothers with a lower level of education and of low socioeconomic status were 1.41 and 1.27 times respectively had higher DT scores when compared with their peers. Untreated cavities affected mainly by mother education, school type, family income, and regular dental appointments. Children with DMFT?3) or DT?=?0 recorded a statistically significant lower CPQ11-14 average score (p<0.01) and (p<0.0001) respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Untreated carious cavities and caries experience were associated with lower socioeconomic, maternal education andl ess frequent tooth brushing. Untreated carious cavities have a significant negative impact on schoolchildren's QoL.
Project description:Before implementing a new oral health promotion program in the French overseas territory of Nouvelle Calédonie, the health authorities needed recent data about dental status of the New Caledonian child population.This study aimed to describe the dental status of 6, 9 and 12-yr-old New Caledonian children and to investigate the environmental and behavioural risk factors related to oral health.A randomly selected sample of 2734 children (744 6-yr-olds, 789 9-yr-olds, and 1201 12-yr-olds) was examined clinically by seven calibrated investigators and participants responded to a questionnaire. The main variables were objective criteria about dental status and subjective criteria about experience of dental care, dental fear, self-perception of oral health, cultural or ethnic identity and environmental and behavioural risk factors.Overall, most of the children had infectious oral diseases: more than 50% had gingivitis, and 60% of 6- and 9 yr-olds had at least one deciduous or permanent tooth with untreated caries. The mean 12-yr-old number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was 2.09±2.82. The number of carious lesions was related to the unfavourable lifestyle, deprived social status and no preventive dental care. Kanak, Polynesians and Caledonians (respectively 27%, 18% and 45% of the study sample) were more affected by caries than metropolitan French and Asian children. Children with many untreated carious lesions had negative perceptions of their oral health; they complained of chewing difficulty and had higher scores for dental anxiety.This study highlights the need for new strategies aimed at improving oral health and at reducing inequalities in New Caledonia. An oral health promotion program would need to be developed in connection with other health programmes using the common risk factor approach within the context of the local environment.
Project description:Background:Streptococcus mutans as an acid-generator of biofilm, sugar as a caries-conducive environment, and oral hygiene have been implicated as major etiological agents in dental caries. This study was designed to assess the association and impact of S. mutans, sugar consumption, and tooth brushing on decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) score in Iranian 20-30-year-old individuals and compare the effect of the three mentioned factors to find the most effective one. Materials and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 459 adults completed a Sugar Frequency Questionnaire and were examined for dental caries using DMFT index, sugar consumption level, and tooth brushing frequency per day. Saliva and plaque samples were collected, and the target population without Streptococcus sobrinus in their microbial oral community was selected using polymerase chain reaction technique. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and multiple linear regression tests (? = 0.05). Results:Nearly 77.1% of the study population were harboring S. mutans. Mean DMFT of the population was 6.62. Mean comparison analysis showed that there is a strong relationship between S. mutans existence in mouth flora and DMFT scores (P < 0.0001). Multiple linear regression test showed higher percentage of S. mutans contribution (28.2%) in DMFT score changes than sugar consumption (3.6%) and tooth brushing (0.7%). Conclusion:This study provides a recent report from S. mutans frequency and DMFT score in Iranian adult population. It is also the first study that shows significantly higher impact of S. mutans in microbial population of mouth microflora on caries development than sugar consumption and oral hygiene. Accordingly, S. mutans screening program should be more highlighted in preventive strategies.
Project description:Dentin reactions to caries, crucial for pathogenesis and for the determination of the severity of caries lesions, are believed to be reasonably detected by stereomicroscopy (SM) and polarized light microscopy in quinoline (PLMQ), but accuracies are not available. Here, stereomicroscopy of wet (SW) and dry (SD) ground sections of natural occlusal caries lesions resulted in moderate (0.7, for normal dentin) and low accuracies (< 0.6, for carious and sclerotic dentin) as validated by contrast-corrected microradiography. Accuracies of PLMQ were moderate for both normal (0.71) and carious dentin (0.71). The hypothesis that detection of dentin reactions by SM and PLMQ would be influenced by the contrast quality of micrographic images was rejected. Dentin reactions were scored by SW, SD, PLMQ, and three types of microradiographic images with varying contrast qualities and each technique was compared against the one that resulted in the highest number of scores for each dentin reaction. Large differences resulted, mainly related to the detection of sclerotic dentin by both SW and SD, and normal and carious dentin by PLMQ. It is concluded that contrast-corrected microradiography should be preferred as the gold standard and SM and PLMQ should be avoided, but the relationship of PLMQ with dentin mineralization deserves further investigation.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years.A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO) caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index), for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits. The analysis included frequencies and means. The differences between means were tested using the student t-test (p<0.05). The factors associated with dental caries were tested using the Spearman's rank.The mean dmft/DMFT of schoolchildren aged 6-11 years was 4.36 ± 3.763 and 1.20 ± 1.488, respectively. Sealant placements were found among 90 schoolchildren, amounting to 1.58%. From 8 years of age, 50% of children brush their teeth twice a day. Confectionery consumption among the observed children has increased. Forty percent of them eat sweets at least once a day, and majority of them visit their dentists only when necessary. A significant correlation between consumption of confectionery, oral hygiene, dental visits and the prevalence of caries was confirmed.The results of the present study show that there is a high prevalence of caries among 6-11 year old schoolchildren, thus pointing to a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care as well as utilizing preventive measures and regular dental visits.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dental caries is still considered a major public health concern for human beings, especially minority groups and those living in disadvantaged communities. The Lisu is a minority group in China of more than 702,000 people located primarily in Yunnan Province. The present study was aimed at studying the status of dental caries status, as well as its risk factors, among Lisu children aged 5?years in Yunnan Province, China. METHODS:A multistage cluster sampling method was employed for participants' recruitment. Two calibrated dentists carried out the clinical examination with dental mirrors and CPI probes under an LED headlight. The dental caries experience was assessed by the dmft index. Oral hygiene status was evaluated using the visible plaque index (VPI). Information on the child's socio-demographic characteristics and oral health-related practices were collected using a parental questionnaire. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression (ZINB) was employed to analyse the associations between the dental caries status and the children's social-demographic status and their oral health-related behaviours. RESULTS:In all, 470 Lisu children aged 5 were invited, and 404 were examined. Their mean dmft (±SD) and caries prevalence were 5.6?±?4.8 and 80%, respectively. Their mean VPI scores were 58%?±?21%. Lisu children who brushed their teeth at least once daily had higher dmft scores, and children from high-income families were more likely to have dental caries. CONCLUSION:The prevalence of dental caries among Lisu children aged 5?years in Yunnan, China was high, and their caries status was severe, with a majority of carious teeth untreated. The dental caries experience of Lisu children aged 5 was related to their brushing frequency and families' economic backgrounds.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Dental caries experience, which affects 91% of US adults, is a consequence of a carious process influenced by diet. Although individual foods have been implicated, we hypothesized that dietary patterns might be important predictors of caries presence. METHODS:We analysed data from 4467 people ≥18 years old participating in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of the US population. Data from 24-hour dietary recalls were classified into standard food categories and reduced to three dietary patterns using principal components (PCs) analysis. We used regression to model the log-transformed decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score and the prevalence of any caries experience by quartiles of PC scores, controlling for potential confounders. Dietary patterns differed by age with respect to dental caries so 18-30-year-olds (n = 1074) and >30-year-olds (n = 3393) were analysed separately. RESULTS:Similar dietary patterns existed among individuals aged 18-30 and >30 years, but the prevalence of DMFT score >0 and the median of DMFT was greater in those >30:78.7% (95% CI: 76.1, 81.3) vs 92.6% (95% CI: 91.4, 93.7) and 4 (95% CI: 4, 5) vs 12 DMFT (95% CI: 11, 13), respectively. In those 18-30, no dietary pattern was associated with greater prevalence or severity of dental caries experience. Among those >30, the prevalence of DMFT>0 was higher by 2% for those in each subsequent quartile of a diet high in sugar-sweetened beverages and sandwiches (adjusted PR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.001, 1.03)-thus, the prevalence of dental caries experience was 6% higher among those in the uppermost quartile than in the lowest quartile. For every subsequent quartile in the same pattern, there was a 1.98% higher (95% CI: 0.15, 3.85) DMFT score. However, analysis using the two strongest loading food groups from any of the PCs did not identify any predictors of caries experience. CONCLUSIONS:Dietary patterns were associated with the prevalence of dental caries experience, with differing findings by age. Although effect sizes were small, the population impact may be substantial. While food groups high in sugar were associated with caries prevalence and severity, associations were more apparent in the context of overall diet. Prospective studies are needed to confirm whether particular dietary patterns are causally related to the development of dental caries.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Dai people, one of the ethnic minorities in China, have a population of 1,260,000. They have the same origin as one of the main ethnic groups of Laos and Thailand. Most of the Dai live in Yunnan province, which is located in the less-developed southwestern part of China. This study aimed to describe the oral health status of Dai preschool children in China and the factors that influence their oral health status.<h4>Methods</h4>An oral health survey was performed between 2011 and 2012 to select Dai five-year-old children using multi-stage stratified sampling in Yunnan. Their dental caries experience was measured using the "dmft" index, and severe caries was assessed using the "pa" index, which is modified from the "pufa" index. Oral hygiene status was assessed using the visual plaque index (VPI). A questionnaire to study the children's socio-demographic background and oral health-related behaviours was completed by the children's parents.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 833 children were examined. Their caries prevalence was 89% and 49% of the children had carious tooth with pulp involvement. The mean (SD) dmft score was 7.0 (5.3). Higher dmft scores were found among children who were girls, were currently bottle-fed, took daily sweet snacks, had higher VPI scores, and had visited a dentist within the last year.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The caries prevalence and experience of the five-year-old Dai children in Yunnan, China was high, and almost half had severe caries. The caries experience was associated with gender, snack habits, dental visit habits, and oral hygiene status.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The hierarchical structure of enamel gives insight on the properties of enamel and can influence its strength and ultimately caries experience. Currently, past caries experience is quantified using the decayed, missing, filled teeth/decayed, missing, filled surface (DMFT/DMFS for permanent teeth; dmft/dmfs for primary teeth), or international caries detection and assessment system (ICDAS) scores. By analyzing the structure of enamel, a new measurement can be utilized clinically to predict susceptibility to future caries experience based on a patient's individual's biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that number of prisms by square millimeter in enamel and average gap distance between prisms and interprismatic areas, influence caries experience through genetic variation of the genes involved in enamel formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of enamel from primary teeth were used to measure (i) number of prisms by square millimeter and interprismatic spaces, (ii) prism density, and (iii) gap distances between prisms in the enamel samples. The measurements were tested to explore a genetic association with variants of selected genes and correlations with caries experience based on the individual's DMFT+ dmft score and enamel microhardness at baseline, after an artificial lesion was created and after the artificial lesion was treated with fluoride. RESULTS:Associations were found between variants of genes including ameloblastin, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin, tuftelin interactive protein 11, beta defensin 1, matrix metallopeptidase 20 and enamel structure variables measured (number of prisms by square millimeter in enamel and average gap distance between prisms and interprismatic areas). Significant correlations were found between caries experience and microhardness and enamel structure. Negative correlations were found between number of prisms by square millimeter and high caries experience (r value= -0.71), gap distance between prisms and the enamel microhardness after an artificial lesion was created (r value= -0.70), and gap distance between prisms and the enamel microhardness after an artificial lesion was created and then treated with fluoride (r value= -0.81). There was a positive correlation between number of prisms by square millimeter and prism density of the enamel (r value = 0.82). CONCLUSIONS:Our data support that genetic variation may impact enamel formation, and therefore influence susceptibility to dental caries and future caries experience. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:The evaluation of enamel structure that may impact caries experience allows for hypothesizing that the identification of individuals at higher risk for dental caries and implementation of personalized preventative treatments may one day become a reality.