Characterization of Dynamic UbR-Proteasome Subcomplexes by In vivo Cross-linking (X) Assisted Bimolecular Tandem Affinity Purification (XBAP) and Label-free Quantitation.
ABSTRACT: Proteasomes are protein degradation machines that exist in cells as heterogeneous and dynamic populations. A group of proteins function as ubiquitin receptors (UbRs) that can recognize and deliver ubiquitinated substrates to proteasome complexes for degradation. Defining composition of proteasome complexes engaged with UbRs is critical to understand proteasome function. However, because of the dynamic nature of UbR interactions with the proteasome, it remains technically challenging to capture and isolate UbR-proteasome subcomplexes using conventional purification strategies. As a result, distinguishing the molecular differences among these subcomplexes remains elusive. We have developed a novel affinity purification strategy, in vivo cross-linking (X) assisted bimolecular tandem affinity purification strategy (XBAP), to effectively isolate dynamic UbR-proteasome subcomplexes and define their subunit compositions using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. In this work, we have analyzed seven distinctive UbR-proteasome complexes and found that all of them contain the same type of the 26S holocomplex. However, selected UbRs interact with a group of proteasome interacting proteins that may link each UbR to specific cellular pathways. The compositional similarities and differences among the seven UbR-proteasome subcomplexes have provided new insights on functional entities of proteasomal degradation machineries. The strategy described here represents a general and useful proteomic tool for isolating and studying dynamic and heterogeneous protein subcomplexes in cells that have not been fully characterized.
Project description:The UBR-box is a 70-residue zinc finger domain present in the UBR family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that directly binds N-terminal degradation signals in substrate proteins. UBR6, also called FBXO11, is an UBR-box containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that does not bind N-terminal signals. Here, we present the crystal structure of the UBR-box domain from human UBR6. The dimeric crystal structure reveals a unique form of domain swapping mediated by zinc coordination, where three independent protein chains come together to regenerate the topology of the monomeric UBR-box fold. Analysis of the structure suggests that the absence of N-terminal residue binding arises from the lack of an amino acid binding pocket.
Project description:UBR1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase best known for its ability to target protein degradation by the N-end rule. The physiological functions of UBR family proteins, however, remain not fully understood. We found that the functional loss of C. elegans UBR-1 leads to a specific motor deficit: when adult animals generate reversal movements, A-class motor neurons exhibit synchronized activation, preventing body bending. This motor deficit is rescued by removing GOT-1, a transaminase that converts aspartate to glutamate. Both UBR-1 and GOT-1 are expressed and critically required in premotor interneurons of the reversal motor circuit to regulate the motor pattern. ubr-1 and got-1 mutants exhibit elevated and decreased glutamate level, respectively. These results raise an intriguing possibility that UBR proteins regulate glutamate metabolism, which is critical for neuronal development and signaling.
Project description:The identification and characterization of protein complexes implicated in protein-protein interaction data are crucial to the understanding of the molecular events under normal and abnormal physiological conditions. This paper provides a novel characterization of subcomplexes in protein interaction databases, stressing definition and representation issues, quantification, biological validation, network metrics, motifs, modularity, and gene ontology (GO) terms. The paper introduces the concept of "nested group" as a way to represent subcomplexes and estimates that around 15% of those nested group with the higher Jaccard index may be a result of data artifacts in protein interaction databases, while a number of them can be found in biologically important modular structures or dynamic structures. We also found that network centralities, enrichment in essential proteins, GO terms related to regulation, imperfect 5-clique motifs, and higher GO homogeneity can be used to identify proteins in nested complexes.
Project description:The N-end rule pathway is a part of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system wherein N-recognin proteins recognize the amino terminal degradation signals (N-degrons) of the substrate. The type 1 N-degron recognizing UBR-box domain of the eukaryotic Arg/N-end rule pathway is known to possess a novel three-zinc-stabilized heart-shaped fold.Using sequence and structure analysis we argue that the UBR-box fold emerged from a binuclear RING-like treble clef zinc finger. The RING-like core is preserved in the UBR-box and the metal-chelating motifs display significant sequence and structural similarity to B-box and ZZ domains. UBR-box domains retrieved in our analysis co-occur with a variety of other protein domains, suggestive of its involvement in diverse biological roles. The UBR-box is a unique family of RING-like treble clefs as it displays a distinct circular permutation at the zinc-knuckle of the first zinc-binding site unlike other documented permutations of the RING-like domains which occur at the second zinc-binding site. The circular permutation of the RING-like treble clef scaffold has possibly aided the gain of a novel and relatively deep cleft suited for binding N-degrons. The N- and C-terminal extensions to the circularly permuted RING-like region bind a third zinc ion, which likely provides additional stability to the domain by keeping the two halves of the permuted zinc-knuckle together.Structural modifications and extensions to the RING-like core have resulted in a novel UBR-box fold, which can recognize and target the type 1 N-degron containing proteins for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The UBR-box appears to have emerged during the expansion of ubiquitin system pathway-related functions in eukaryotes, but is also likely to have other non-N-recognin functions as well.
Project description:Cytotoxic protein aggregation-induced impairment of cell function and homeostasis are hallmarks of age-related neurodegenerative pathologies. As proteasomal degradation represents the major clearance pathway for oxidatively damaged proteins, a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying its stress response is critical for developing strategies to maintain cell viability and function. Although the 26S proteasome has been shown to disassemble during oxidative stress, its conformational dynamics remains unclear. To this end, we have developed a new quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry (QXL-MS) workflow to explore the structural dynamics of proteasome complexes in response to oxidative stress. This strategy comprises SILAC-based metabolic labeling, HB tag-based affinity purification, a 2-step cross-linking reaction consisting of mild in vivo formaldehyde and on-bead DSSO cross-linking, and multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) to identify and quantify cross-links. This integrated workflow has been successfully applied to explore the molecular events underlying oxidative stress-dependent proteasomal regulation by comparative analyses of proteasome complex topologies from treated and untreated cells. Our results show that H2O2 treatment weakens the 19S-20S interaction within the 26S proteasome, along with reorganizations within the 19S and 20S subcomplexes. Altogether, this work sheds light on the mechanistic response of the 26S to acute oxidative stress, suggesting an intermediate proteasomal state(s) before H2O2-mediated dissociation of the 26S. The QXL-MS strategy presented here can be applied to study conformational changes of other protein complexes under different physiological conditions.
Project description:A subset of proteins targeted by the N-end rule pathway bear degradation signals called N-degrons, whose determinants include destabilizing N-terminal residues. Our previous work identified mouse UBR1 and UBR2 as E3 ubiquitin ligases that recognize N-degrons. Such E3s are called N-recognins. We report here that while double-mutant UBR1(-/-) UBR2(-/-) mice die as early embryos, the rescued UBR1(-/-) UBR2(-/-) fibroblasts still retain the N-end rule pathway, albeit of lower activity than that of wild-type fibroblasts. An affinity assay for proteins that bind to destabilizing N-terminal residues has identified, in addition to UBR1 and UBR2, a huge (570 kDa) mouse protein, termed UBR4, and also the 300-kDa UBR5, a previously characterized mammalian E3 known as EDD/hHYD. UBR1, UBR2, UBR4, and UBR5 shared a approximately 70-amino-acid zinc finger-like domain termed the UBR box. The mammalian genome encodes at least seven UBR box-containing proteins, which we propose to call UBR1 to UBR7. UBR1(-/-) UBR2(-/-) fibroblasts that have been made deficient in UBR4 as well (through RNA interference) were significantly impaired in the degradation of N-end rule substrates such as the Sindbis virus RNA polymerase nsP4 (bearing N-terminal Tyr) and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (bearing N-terminal Phe). Our results establish the UBR box family as a unique class of E3 proteins that recognize N-degrons or structurally related determinants for ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and perhaps other processes as well.
Project description:We have identified, purified, and characterized three subcomplexes of PA700, the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome. These subcomplexes (denoted PS-1, PS-2, and PS-3) collectively account for all subunits present in purified PA700 but contain no overlapping components or significant levels of non-PA700 proteins. Each subcomplex contained two of the six AAA subunits (Rpt1-6) that form the binding interface of PA700 with the 20 S proteasome, the protease component of the 26 S proteasome. Unlike intact PA700, no individual PA700 subcomplex displayed ATPase activity or proteasome activating activity. However, both activities were manifested by ATP-dependent in vitro reconstitution of PA700 from the subcomplexes. We exploited functional reconstitution to define and distinguish roles of different PA700 subunits in PA700 function by selective alteration of subunits within individual subcomplexes prior to reconstitution. Carboxypeptidase treatment of either PS-2 or PS-3, subcomplexes containing specific Rpt subunits previously shown to have important roles in 26 S proteasome assembly and activation, inhibited these processes but did not affect PA700 reconstitution or ATPase activity. Thus, the intact C termini of both subunits are required for 26 S proteasome assembly and activation but not for PA700 reconstitution. Surprisingly, carboxypeptidase treatment of PS-1 also inhibited 26 S proteasome assembly and activation upon reconstitution with untreated PS-2 and PS-3. These results suggest a previously unidentified role for other PA700 subunits in 26 S proteasome assembly and activation. Our results reveal relative structural and functional relationships among the AAA subunits of PA700 and new insights about mechanisms of 26 S proteasome assembly and activation.
Project description:Notch-type signaling mediates cell-cell interactions important for animal development. In humans, reduced or inappropriate Notch signaling activity is associated with various developmental defects and disease states, including cancers. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses two Notch-type receptors, GLP-1 and LIN-12. GLP-1 mediates several cell-signaling events in the embryo and promotes germline proliferation in the developing and adult gonad. LIN-12 acts redundantly with GLP-1 in certain inductive events in the embryo and mediates several cell-cell interactions during larval development. Recovery of genetic suppressors and enhancers of glp-1 or lin-12 loss- or gain-of-function mutations has identified numerous regulators of GLP-1 and LIN-12 signaling activity. Here, we report the molecular identification of sog-1, a gene identified in screens for recessive suppressors of conditional glp-1 loss-of-function mutations. The sog-1 gene encodes UBR-5, the sole C. elegans member of the UBR5/Hyd family of HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases. Molecular and genetic analyses indicate that the loss of ubr-5 function suppresses defects caused by reduced signaling via GLP-1 or LIN-12. In contrast, ubr-5 mutations do not suppress embryonic or larval lethality associated with mutations in a downstream transcription factor, LAG-1. In the gonad, ubr-5 acts in the receiving cells (germ cells) to limit GLP-1 signaling activity. SEL-10 is the F-box component of SCF(SEL-10) E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex that promotes turnover of Notch intracellular domain. UBR-5 acts redundantly with SEL-10 to limit Notch signaling in certain tissues. We hypothesize that UBR-5 activity limits Notch-type signaling by promoting turnover of receptor or limiting its interaction with pathway components.
Project description:Large sets of protein-protein interaction data coming either from biological experiments or predictive methods are available and can be combined to construct networks from which information about various cell processes can be extracted. We have developed an in silico approach based on these information to model the biogenesis of multiprotein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Firstly, we have built three protein interaction networks by collecting the protein-protein interactions, which involved the subunits of three complexes, from different databases. The protein-protein interactions come from different kinds of biological experiments or are predicted. We have chosen the elongator and the mediator head complexes that are soluble and exhibit an architecture with subcomplexes that could be functional modules, and the mitochondrial bc 1 complex, which is an integral membrane complex and for which a late assembly subcomplex has been described. Secondly, by applying a clustering strategy to these networks, we were able to identify subcomplexes involved in the biogenesis of the complexes as well as the proteins interacting with each subcomplex. Thirdly, in order to validate our in silico results for the cytochrome bc1 complex we have analysed the physical interactions existing between three subunits by performing immunoprecipitation experiments in several genetic context.For the two soluble complexes (the elongator and mediator head), our model shows a strong clustering of subunits that belong to a known subcomplex or module. For the membrane bc 1 complex, our approach has suggested new interactions between subunits in the early steps of the assembly pathway that were experimentally confirmed. Scripts can be downloaded from the site: http://bim.igmors.u-psud.fr/isips .
Project description:The conjugation of amino acids to the protein N termini is universally observed in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, yet its functions remain poorly understood. In eukaryotes, the amino acid l-arginine (l-Arg) is conjugated to N-terminal Asp (Nt-Asp), Glu, Gln, Asn, and Cys, directly or associated with posttranslational modifications. Following Nt-arginylation, the Nt-Arg is recognized by UBR boxes of N-recognins such as UBR1, UBR2, UBR4/p600, and UBR5/EDD, leading to substrate ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation via the N-end rule pathway. It has been a mystery, however, why studies for the past five decades identified only a handful of Nt-arginylated substrates in mammals, although five of 20 principal amino acids are eligible for arginylation. Here, we show that the Nt-Arg functions as a bimodal degron that directs substrates to either the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) or macroautophagy depending on physiological states. In normal conditions, the arginylated forms of proteolytic cleavage products, D101-CDC6 and D1156-BRCA1, are targeted to UBR box-containing N-recognins and degraded by the proteasome. However, when proteostasis by the UPS is perturbed, their Nt-Arg redirects these otherwise cellular wastes to macroautophagy through its binding to the ZZ domain of the autophagic adaptor p62/STQSM/Sequestosome-1. Upon binding to the Nt-Arg, p62 acts as an autophagic N-recognin that undergoes self-polymerization, facilitating cargo collection and lysosomal degradation of p62-cargo complexes. A chemical mimic of Nt-Arg redirects Ub-conjugated substrates from the UPS to macroautophagy and promotes their lysosomal degradation. Our results suggest that the Nt-Arg proteome of arginylated proteins contributes to reprogramming global proteolytic flux under stresses.