Acrolein enhances epigenetic modifications, FasL expression and hepatocyte toxicity induced by anti-HIV drug Zidovudine.
ABSTRACT: Zidovudine (AZT) remains the mainstay of antiretroviral therapy against HIV in resource-poor countries; however, its use is frequently associated with hepatotoxicity. Not all HIV patients on AZT develop hepatotoxicity, and the determining factors are unclear. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are known risk factors for HIV hepatotoxicity, and both are significant sources of acrolein, a highly reactive and toxic aldehyde. This study examines the potential hepatotoxic interactions between acrolein and AZT. Our data demonstrate that acrolein markedly enhanced AZT-induced transcriptionally permissive histone modifications (H3K9Ac and H3K9Me3) allowing the recruitment of transcription factor NF-kB and RNA polymerase II at the FasL gene promoter, resulting in FasL upregulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Notably, the acrolein scavenger, hydralazine prevented these promoter-associated epigenetic changes and inhibited FasL upregulation and apoptosis induced by the combination of AZT and acrolein, as well as AZT alone. Our data strongly suggest that acrolein enhancement of promoter histone modifications and FasL upregulation are major pathogenic mechanisms driving AZT-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, these data also indicate the therapeutic potential of hydralazine in mitigating AZT hepatotoxicity.
Project description:Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress, as associated with spinal cord injury (SCI), may play a critical role in both neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain conditions. The production of the endogenous aldehyde acrolein, following lipid peroxidation during the inflammatory response, may contribute to peripheral sensitization and hyperreflexia following SCI via the TRPA1-dependent mechanism. Here, we report that there are enhanced levels of acrolein and increased neuronal sensitivity to the aldehyde for at least 14 days after SCI. Concurrent with injury-induced increases in acrolein concentration is an increased expression of TRPA1 in the lumbar (L3-L6) sensory ganglia. As proof of the potential pronociceptive role for acrolein, intrathecal injections of acrolein revealed enhanced sensitivity to both tactile and thermal stimuli for up to 10 days, supporting the compound's pro-nociceptive functionality. Treatment of SCI animals with the acrolein scavenger hydralazine produced moderate improvement in tactile responses as well as robust changes in thermal sensitivity for up to 49 days. Taken together, these data suggest that acrolein directly modulates SCI-associated pain behavior, making it a novel therapeutic target for preclinical and clinical SCI as an analgesic. Following spinal cord injury (SCI), acrolein involvement in neuropathic pain is likely through direct activation and elevated levels of pro-nociceptive channel TRPA1. While acrolein elevation correlates with neuropathic pain, suppression of this aldehyde by hydralazine leads to an analgesic effect. Acrolein may serve as a novel therapeutic target for preclinical and clinical SCI to relieve both acute and chronic post-SCI neuropathic pain.
Project description:Clinical advances in the treatment of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) are restricted by the incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms contributing to secondary brain injury. Acrolein is a highly active unsaturated aldehyde which has been implicated in many nervous system diseases. Our results indicated a significant increase in the level of acrolein after ICH in mouse brain. In primary neurons, acrolein induced an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxidative species, and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Mechanistically, acrolein facilitated the translocation of dynamin-related protein1 (Drp1) from the cytoplasm onto the mitochondrial membrane and led to excessive mitochondrial fission. Further studies found that treatment with hydralazine (an acrolein scavenger) significantly reversed Drp1 translocation and the morphological damage of mitochondria after ICH. In parallel, the neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological functional deficits induced by ICH were also remarkably alleviated. In conclusion, our results identify acrolein as an important contributor to the secondary brain injury following ICH. Meanwhile, we uncovered a novel mechanism by which Drp1-mediated mitochondrial oxidative damage is involved in acrolein-induced brain injury.
Project description:Both foscarnet (PFA) and zidovudine (AZT) select for drug-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the interactions between the mutations causing such resistance are unknown. The introduction of the previously identified PFA resistance mutation W to G at codon 88 (W88G), E89K, L92I, or Q161L into an HIV-1 strain having the four known AZT resistance mutations completely reversed high-level AZT resistance. Two additional PFA resistance mutations, W88S and S156A, partially suppressed AZT resistance. Phenotypic reversion of AZT resistance by W88S, W88G, E89K, L921, and S156A was associated with a concomitant suppression of PFA resistance. The degree to which PFA resistance mutations reversed AZT resistance was directly correlated with each mutation's ability to confer high-level PFA resistance (> or = 5.0-fold) and AZT hypersusceptibility in a wild-type genetic background. Highly PFA-resistant HIV- 1 strains were hypersusceptible to AZT; conversely, AZT-resistant strains with M41L and T215Y; M41L, L210W, and T215Y; or M41L, D67N, K70R, and T215Y mutations were 2.2- to 2.5-fold hypersusceptible to PFA. Prolonged in vitro selection of wild-type or AZT-resistant HIV-1 strains with the combination AZT and PFA failed to generate coresistant virus, indicating that dual resistance was relatively difficult to achieve. Strains selected by passage in PFA plus AZT were phenotypically PFA resistant and AZT susceptible despite multiple reverse transcriptase mutations known to confer AZT resistance. These data show that PFA resistance mutations can phenotypically reverse AZT resistance and that AZT and PFA resistance might be mutually exclusive. The reciprocal interactions between AZT and PFA resistance-conferring mutations have implications for structure-function studies of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Project description:Acrolein is a major reactive component of vehicle exhaust, and cigarette and wood smoke. It is also present in several food substances and is generated endogenously during inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Although previous studies have shown that dietary or inhalation exposure to acrolein results in endothelial activation, platelet activation, and accelerated atherogenesis, the basis for these effects is unknown. Moreover, the effects of acrolein on microRNA (miRNA) have not been studied. Using AGILENT miRNA microarray high-throughput technology, we found that treatment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells with acrolein led to a significant (>1.5-fold) upregulation of 12, and downregulation of 15, miRNAs. Among the miRNAs upregulated were members of the let-7 family and this upregulation was associated with decreased expression of their protein targets, β3 integrin, Cdc34, and K-Ras. Exposure to acrolein attenuated β3 integrin-dependent migration and reduced Akt phosphorylation in response to insulin. These effects of acrolein on endothelial cell migration and insulin signaling were reversed by expression of a let-7a inhibitor. Also, inhalation exposure of mice to acrolein (1 ppm x 6 h/day x 4 days) upregulated let-7a and led to a decrease in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the aorta. These results suggest that acrolein exposure has broad effects on endothelial miRNA repertoire and that attenuation of endothelial cell migration and insulin signaling by acrolein is mediated in part by the upregulation of let-7a. This mechanism may be a significant feature of vascular injury caused by inflammation, oxidized lipids, and exposure to environmental pollutants.
Project description:We previously demonstrated in vitro that zidovudine (AZT) selects for A371V in the connection domain and Q509L in ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) which, together with the thymidine analog mutations D67N, K70R and T215F, confer greater than 100-fold AZT resistance. The goal of the current study was to determine whether AZT monotherapy in HIV-1 infected patients also selects the A371V, Q509L or other mutations in the C-terminal domains of HIV-1 RT.Full-length RT sequences in plasma obtained pre- and post-therapy were compared in 23 participants who received AZT monotherapy from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group study 175. Five of the 23 participants reached a primary study endpoint. Mutations significantly associated with AZT monotherapy included K70R (p?=?0.003) and T215Y (p?=?0.013) in the polymerase domain of HIV-1 RT, and A360V (p?=?0.041) in the connection domain of HIV-1 RT. HIV-1 drug susceptibility assays demonstrated that A360V, either alone or in combination with thymidine analog mutations, decreased AZT susceptibility in recombinant viruses containing participant-derived full-length RT sequences or site-directed mutant RT. Biochemical studies revealed that A360V enhances the AZT-monophosphate excision activity of purified RT by significantly decreasing the frequency of secondary RNase H cleavage events that reduce the RNA/DNA duplex length and promote template/primer dissociation.The A360V mutation in the connection domain of RT was selected in HIV-infected individuals that received AZT monotherapy and contributed to AZT resistance.
Project description:Drug-naive patients infected with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who initiate antiretroviral therapy show a shorter time to virologic failure than patients infected with wild-type (WT) viruses. Resistance-related HIV genotypes not commonly seen in treated patients, which likely result from reversion or loss of primary resistance mutations, have also been recognized in drug-naive persons. Little work has been done to characterize the patterns of mutations in these viruses and the frequency of occurrence, their association with phenotypic resistance, and their effect on fitness and evolution of resistance. Through the analysis of resistance mutations in 1082 newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naive persons from the United States, we found that 35 of 48 (72.9%) persons infected with HIV-1 containing thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) had viruses that lacked a primary mutation (T215Y/F, K70R, or Q151M). Of these viruses, 9 (25.7%) had only secondary TAMs (D67N, K219Q, M41L, or F77L), and all were found to be sensitive to zidovudine (AZT) and other drugs. To assess the impact of secondary TAMs on the evolution of AZT resistance, we generated recombinant viruses from cloned plasma-derived reverse transcriptase sequences. Two viruses had D67N, three had D67N and K219Q/E, and three were WT. Four site-directed mutants with D67N, K219Q, K219E, and D67N/K219Q were also made in HIV-1(HXB2). In vitro selection of AZT resistance showed that viruses with D67N and/or K219Q/E acquired AZT resistance mutations more rapidly than WT viruses (36 days compared to 54 days; P = 0.003). To investigate the factors associated with the rapid selection of AZT mutations in these viruses, we evaluated fitness differences among HXB2(WT) and HXB2(D67N) or HXB2(D67N/K219Q) in the presence of AZT. Both HXB2(D67N/K219Q) and HXB2(D67N) were more fit than HXB2(WT) in the presence of either low or high AZT concentrations, likely reflecting low-level resistance to AZT that is not detectable by phenotypic testing. In the absence of AZT, the fitness cost conferred by D67N or K219Q was modest. Our results demonstrate that viruses with unique patterns of TAMs, including D67N and/or K219Q/E, are commonly found among newly diagnosed persons and illustrate the expanding diversity of revertant viruses in this population. The modest fitness cost conferred by D67N and K219Q supports persistence of these mutants in the untreated population and highlights the potential for secondary transmission. The faster evolution of these mutants toward AZT resistance is consistent with the higher viral fitness in the presence of AZT and shows that these viruses are phenotypically different from WT HIV-1. Our study emphasizes the need for clinical studies to better define the impact of these mutants on treatment responses and evolution of resistance.
Project description:Although anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapies have become more sophisticated and more effective, drug resistance continues to be a major problem. Zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) was the first nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI) approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infections and is still being used, particularly in the developing world. This drug targets the conversion of single-stranded RNA to double-stranded DNA by HIV-1 RT. However, resistance to the drug quickly appeared both in viruses replicating in cells in culture and in patients undergoing AZT monotherapy. The primary resistance pathway selects for mutations of T215 that change the threonine to either a tyrosine or a phenylalanine (T215Y/F); this resistance pathway involves an ATP-dependent excision mechanism. The pseudo-sugar ring of AZT lacks a 3' OH; RT incorporates AZT monophosphate (AZTMP), which blocks the end of the viral DNA primer. AZT-resistant forms of HIV-1 RT use ATP in an excision reaction to unblock the 3' end of the primer strand, allowing its extension by RT. The T215Y AZT resistance mutation is often accompanied by two other mutations, M41L and L210W. In this study, the roles of these mutations, in combination with T215Y, were examined to determine whether they affect polymerization and excision by HIV-1 RT. The M41L mutation appears to help restore the DNA polymerization activity of RT containing the T215Y mutation and also enhances AZTMP excision. The L210W mutation plays a similar role, but it enhances excision by RTs that carry the T215Y mutation when ATP is present at a low concentration.
Project description:Zidovudine (AZT) is one of the most referred antiretroviral drug. In spite of its higher bioavailability (50-75%) the most important reason of its cessation are bone marrow suppression, anemia, neutropenia and various organs related toxicities. This study aims at the improvement of oral delivery of AZT through its encapsulation in lactoferrin nanoparticles (AZT-lactonano). The nanoparticles (NPs) are of 50-60 nm in size and exhibit 67% encapsulation of the AZT. They are stable in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. Anti-HIV-1 activity of AZT remains unaltered in nanoformulation in acute infection. The bioavailability and tissue distribution of AZT is higher in blood followed by liver and kidney. AZT-lactonano causes the improvement of pharmacokinetic profile as compared to soluble AZT; a more than 4 fold increase in AUC and AUMC in male and female rats. The serum Cmax for AZT-lactonano was increased by 30%. Similarly there was nearly 2-fold increase in Tmax and t1/2. Our in vitro study confirms that, the endosomal pH is ideal for drug release from NPs and shows constant release from up to 96h. Bone marrow micronucleus assay show that nanoformulation exhibits approximately 2fold lower toxicity than soluble form. Histopathological and biochemical analysis further confirms that less or no significant organ toxicities when nanoparticles were used. AZT-lactonano has shown its higher efficacy, low organs related toxicities, improved pharmacokinetics parameter while keeping the antiviral activity intact. Thus, the nanoformulation are safe for the target specific drug delivery.
Project description:Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), such as zidovudine (AZT), are constituents of HIV-1 therapy and are used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Prolonged thymidine analogue exposure has been associated with mitochondrial toxicities to heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that the thymidine analogue AZT might interfere with autophagy in myocytes, a lysosomal degradation pathway implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial recycling, cell survival, and the pathogenesis of myodegenerative diseases. The impact of AZT and lamivudine (3TC) on C2C12 myocyte autophagy was studied using various methods based on LC3-green fluorescent protein overexpression or LC3 staining in combination with Western blotting, flow cytometry, and confocal and electron microscopy. Lysosomal and mitochondrial functions were studied using appropriate staining for lysosomal mass, acidity, cathepsin activity, as well as mitochondrial mass and membrane potential in combination with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. AZT, but not 3TC, exerted a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on late stages of autophagosome maturation, which was reversible upon mTOR inhibition. Inhibition of late autophagy at therapeutic drug concentrations led to dysfunctional mitochondrial accumulation with membrane hyperpolarization and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and, ultimately, compromised cell viability. These AZT effects could be readily replicated by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of myocyte autophagy and, most importantly, could be rescued by pharmacological stimulation of autophagolysosomal biogenesis. Our data suggest that the thymidine analogue AZT inhibits autophagy in myocytes, which in turn leads to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria with increased ROS generation and compromised cell viability. This novel mechanism could contribute to our understanding of the long-term side effects of antiviral agents.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Anemia is the main concern among patients using a zidovudine (AZT)-based antiretroviral treatment (ART). Some studies suggested weight-adjusted AZT dosing as a way to reduce toxicity. We analyzed the risk factors associated with AZT-induced anemia in a cohort using AZT as substitution for stavudine (D4T). METHODS: We retrospectively studied HIV-infected patients in a referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2003 and 2011. Factors associated with AZT-related anemia requiring AZT-discontinuation within the first year after AZT initiation were analyzed using Cox regression. RESULTS: Overall, 1180 patients, 60.5% female, were included. At AZT initiation, the median hemoglobin was 12.7 g/dL (IQR 11.7-13.9), the median weight: 51 kg (IQR 45-58) and the median time on ART prior to AZT substitution: 1.4 years (IQR 1.0-2.0). Within one year follow-up, 139 patients (11.8%) developed anemia requiring AZT discontinuation. Overall, there was no independent association of body weight with AZT discontinuation. AZT discontinuation was associated with lower hemoglobin level when starting AZT; older age and taking D4T-based ART less than one year prior to AZT. In exploratory analysis, a linear increase in risk of grade 2-4 anemia with lower body weight was seen if starting AZT substitution within less than one year of D4T-based ART. CONCLUSION: Our findings argue against the need of weight-based dosing of AZT to reduce anemia among patients using AZT as substitution for D4T. Whether this also applies to ART-naïve individuals remains to be assessed. Future studies with AZT dose reduction should assess efficacy and overall tolerance of AZT.