Histiocytic Sarcoma Associated with Coombs Negative Acute Hemolytic Anemia: A Rare Presentation.
ABSTRACT: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) rarely involves extranodal sites, such as the spleen. We report a unique pediatric case of massive splenomegaly and refractory Coombs negative hemolytic anemia (CNHA) secondary to HS. The CNHA resolved completely after an emergent splenectomy. Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed novel ASXL1, PTPN11, KIT, and TP53 mutations, unmasking a clonal heterogeneity within the same neoplasm.
Project description:While the genetic contributions to the predisposition of Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs) to histiocytic sarcoma (HS) remains unclear, some insights into key genetic drivers have been gained. Our group recently reported a mutation in the PTPN11 gene (E76K). We have now identified a second missense mutation in PTPN11 (G503V), and a mutation in KRAS (Q61H) present in HS cell lines. These mutations are associated with malignancies in humans, and known to be gain-of-function mutations that result in activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of these mutations in a large sample of HS cases from BMDs and golden retrievers, and in lymphoma cases, from a cohort of BMDs. Mutations in PTPN11 were present in HS in 41/96 (43%) BMDs, and in 3/13 (23%) golden retrievers. PTPN11 mutations E76K and G503V did not coexist in the same neoplasm. The KRAS mutation was much less frequent, with a prevalence of 3.1% (3/96). We did not identify either PTPN11 nor KRAS mutations in any of the lymphoma samples. These results point out the potential relevance of PTPN11 and KRAS mutations as activators of the oncogenic MAPK pathway for canine HS, particularly in BMDs.
Project description:Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that may occur de novo or in the context of a previous hematologic malignancy or mediastinal germ cell tumor. Here, we performed whole exome sequencing and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) on 21 archival cases of primary histiocytic sarcoma. We identified a high number of genetic alterations within the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway in 21 of 21 cases, with alterations in NF1 (6 of 21), MAP2K1 (5 of 21), PTPN11 (4 of 21), BRAF (4 of 21), KRAS (4 of 21), NRAS (1 of 21), and LZTR1 (1 of 21), including single cases with homozygous deletion of NF1, high-level amplification of PTPN11, and a novel TTYH3-BRAF fusion. Concurrent NF1 and PTPN11 mutations were present in 3 of 21 cases, and 5 of 7 cases with alterations in NF1 and/or PTPN11 had disease involving the gastrointestinal tract. Following unsupervised clustering of gene expression data, cases with NF1 and/or PTPN11 abnormalities formed a distinct tumor subgroup. A subset of NF1/PTPN11 wild-type cases had frequent mutations in B-cell lymphoma associated genes and/or clonal IG gene rearrangements. Our findings expand the current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this rare tumor and suggest the existence of a distinct subtype of primary histiocytic sarcoma characterized by NF1/PTPN11 alterations with predilection for the gastrointestinal tract.
Project description:Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has become an attractive biomarker in human oncology, and its use may be informative in canine cancer. Thus, we used droplet digital PCR or PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement, to explore tumor-specific point mutations, copy number alterations, and chromosomal rearrangements in the plasma of cancer-affected dogs. We detected ctDNA in 21/23 (91.3%) of histiocytic sarcoma (HS), 2/8 (25%) of oral melanoma, and 12/13 (92.3%) of lymphoma cases. The utility of ctDNA in diagnosing HS was explored in 133 dogs, including 49 with HS, and the screening of recurrent PTPN11 mutations in plasma had a specificity of 98.8% and a sensitivity between 42.8 and 77% according to the clinical presentation of HS. Sensitivity was greater in visceral forms and especially related to pulmonary location. Follow-up of four dogs by targeting lymphoma-specific antigen receptor rearrangement in plasma showed that minimal residual disease detection was concordant with clinical evaluation and treatment response. Thus, our study shows that ctDNA is detectable in the plasma of cancer-affected dogs and is a promising biomarker for diagnosis and clinical follow-up. ctDNA detection appears to be useful in comparative oncology research due to growing interest in the study of natural canine tumors and exploration of new therapies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Histiocytic malignancies in both humans and dogs are rare and poorly understood. While canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is uncommon in the general domestic dog population, there is a strikingly high incidence in a subset of breeds, suggesting heritable predisposition. Molecular cytogenetic profiling of canine HS in these breeds would serve to reveal recurrent DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) that are breed and/or tumor associated, as well as defining those shared with human HS. This process would identify evolutionarily conserved cytogenetic changes to highlight regions of particular importance to HS biology. METHODS: Using genome wide array comparative genomic hybridization we assessed CNAs in 104 spontaneously occurring HS from two breeds of dog exhibiting a particularly elevated incidence of this tumor, the Bernese Mountain Dog and Flat-Coated Retriever. Recurrent CNAs were evaluated further by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and loss of heterozygosity analyses. Statistical analyses were performed to identify CNAs associated with tumor location and breed. RESULTS: Almost all recurrent CNAs identified in this study were shared between the two breeds, suggesting that they are associated more with the cancer phenotype than with breed. A subset of recurrent genomic imbalances suggested involvement of known cancer associated genes in HS pathogenesis, including deletions of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/B, RB1 and PTEN. A small number of aberrations were unique to each breed, implying that they may contribute to the major differences in tumor location evident in these two breeds. The most highly recurrent canine CNAs revealed in this study are evolutionarily conserved with those reported in human histiocytic proliferations, suggesting that human and dog HS share a conserved pathogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The breed associated clinical features and DNA copy number aberrations exhibited by canine HS offer a valuable model for the human counterpart, providing additional evidence towards elucidation of the pathophysiological and genetic mechanisms associated with histiocytic malignancies. Extrapolation of data derived from canine histiocytic disorders to human histiocytic proliferation may help to further our understanding of the propagation and cancerization of histiocytic cells, contributing to development of new and effective therapeutic modalities for both species.
Project description:Histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms are rare and poorly studied. We report the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in such cases in Japan. We investigated the clinical characteristics and survival in 87 adult patients with histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms. Fifty patients had histiocytic sarcoma, 12 had Langerhans cell histiocytosis, 11 had follicular dendritic cell sarcoma, 8 had Langerhans cell sarcoma, 6 had interdigitating cell sarcoma and 1 had indeterminate dendritic cell sarcoma. The median follow-up period was 18.0 (range: 9.6-71.8) months, and median overall survival (OS) was 23.5 months. The 2-year OS rate was 49.2%. In the multivariate analysis, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p =.004), ECOG performance status (PS) 2-4 (p =.006), and Ann Arbor stage III-IV (p =.008) affected OS. Stratification by elevated LDH, ECOG PS 2-4, and Ann Arbor stage III-IV allowed classification of patients into low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk groups. The same classification was applicable for HS and non-HS categories. In the rare neoplasms of histiocytic and dendritic cell sarcoma, ECOG PS, Ann Arbor stage, and LDH are important prognostic factors for predicting survival.
Project description:Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a common heterogeneous type of inherited hemolytic anemia characterized by jaundice and splenomegaly. Diagnosis of HS in neonates is considered unreliable, and is generally based on positive family history, spherocytes in peripheral smears, increased osmotic fragility, and jaundice. In the present study, routine laboratory tests, next‑generation sequencing, and Sanger sequencing were applied to diagnose a neonatal patient with Coombs‑negative hemolytic jaundice. The neonate had no family history of HS; however, spherocytes were observed in peripheral smears, and the patient exhibited Coombs‑negative and severe hemolytic jaundice, normal mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), normal glucose‑6‑phosphate dehydrogenase activity, negative thalassemia genetic mutation screening results, and negative autoimmune antibody tests. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the spectrin‑α, erythrocytic 1 (SPTA1) gene (c.3897‑1G>C and c.5029G>A) were identified. The SPTA1 c.3897‑1G>C mutation in intron 27‑1, which disrupted the consensus splice site, was inherited from his asymptomatic mother, and the SPTA1 c.5029G>A (p.Gly1677Arg) mutation in trans with the SPTA1 c.3897‑1G>C mutation was inherited from his asymptomatic father. Sanger sequencing of mRNA reverse transcribed into cDNA identified a deletion of the first 10 nucleotides of exon 28, confirming the splicing mutation. In conclusion, the present study reports a rare case of autosomal‑recessive HS with a severe clinical phenotype, but normal MCHC and MCV.
Project description:Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a malignancy originating from the histiocytic cell lineage and characterized by poor response to chemotherapy and short survival time. Mutation of the TP53 gene and its association with poor prognosis has been reported in several canine tumors. However, the mutation of this gene has not been investigated in canine HS. The aim of this study was to examine a TP53 gene mutation in dogs with HS. Aberrations of the TP53 gene were examined by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis, revealing mutations of the TP53 gene in 12 (46%) of 26 dogs affected by HS. The incidence of the TP53 gene mutation was relatively high in canine HS compared with other canine tumors. Among these mutations, 10 of 12 dogs (83%) with a TP53 gene mutation harbored the same mutation: a 2-base (AT) insertion in exon 5, resulting in the introduction of a stop codon (c.446_447insAT, p.Tyr150SerfsX8). Further studies are needed to examine the functional change due to the mutation and its association with the pathogenesis of canine HS.
Project description:The mutations of TP53 gene are frequently observed in canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS). The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of tumor cells with TP53 gene mutations. Tumor tissues were divided into three or four regions and TP53 gene mutations were examined. TP53 gene mutations were detected only in parts of the HS tissues from six of the eight dogs, and the frequency of the mutant allele varied (0-65%) among the tumor regions. This study suggests that canine HS can exhibit intratumor heterogeneity. Further studies are needed to examine the clinical significance of the intratumor heterogeneity of TP53 gene mutations.
Project description:Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive tumor type originating from histiocytic cell lineages. This disease is characterized by poor response to chemotherapy and short survival time. Therefore, it is of critical importance to identify and develop effective antitumor drugs against HS. The objectives of this study were to examine the drug sensitivities of 10 antitumor drugs. Using a real-time RT-PCR system, the mRNA expression levels of 16 genes related to drug resistance in 4 canine HS cell lines established from dogs with disseminated HS were determined and compared to 2 canine lymphoma cell lines (B-cell and T-cell). These 4 canine HS cell lines showed sensitivities toward microtubule inhibitors (vincristine, vinblastine and paclitaxel), comparable to those in the canine B-cell lymphoma cell line. Moreover, it was shown that P-gp in the HS cell lines used in this study did not have enough function to efflux its substrate. Sensitivities to melphalan, nimustine, methotrexate, cytarabine, doxorubicin and etoposide were lower in the 4 HS cell lines than in the 2 canine lymphoma cell lines. The data obtained in this study using cultured cell lines could prove helpful in the developing of advanced and effective chemotherapies for treating dogs that are suffering from HS.