Depression motivates quit attempts but predicts relapse: differential findings for gender from the International Tobacco Control Study.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:To determine whether signs of current depression predict attempts to quit smoking, and short-term abstinence among those who try, and to test moderating effects of gender and cessation support (pharmacological and behavioural). DESIGN:Prospective cohort with approximately annual waves. Among smokers at one wave we assessed outcomes at the next wave using mixed-effects logistic regressions. SETTING:Waves 5-8 of the Four Country International Tobacco Control Study: a quasi-experimental cohort study of smokers from Canada, USA, UK and Australia. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 6811 tobacco smokers who participated in telephone surveys. MEASUREMENTS:Three-level depression index: (1) neither low positive affect (LPA) nor negative affect (NA) in the last 4 weeks; (2) LPA and/or NA but not diagnosed with depression in the last 12 months; and (3) diagnosed with depression. Outcomes were quit attempts and 1-month abstinence among attempters. FINDINGS:Depression positively predicted quit attempts, but not after controlling for quitting history and motivational variables. Controlling for all covariates, depression consistently negatively predicted abstinence. Cessation support did not moderate this effect. There was a significant interaction with gender for quit attempts (P = 0.018) and abstinence (P = 0.049) after controlling for demographics, but not after all covariates. Depression did not predict abstinence among men. Among women, depressive symptoms [odds ratio (OR) = 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.49-0.81] and diagnosis (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.34-0.63) negatively predicted abstinence. CONCLUSIONS:Smokers with depressive symptoms or diagnosis make more quit attempts than their non-depressed counterparts, which may be explained by higher motivation to quit, but they are also more likely to relapse in the first month. These findings are stronger in women than men.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Observational studies and a few clinical trials suggest that use of low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (snus) can facilitate smoking cessation. To better understand the real-world impact of snus on smoking behaviour, a large-scale, long-term clinical trial of naturalistic snus use among smokers is needed. STUDY DESIGN:A nationwide clinical trial compared abstinence outcomes among smokers who were randomised to receive free samples of snus versus not. Participants (N=1236) were recruited throughout the US and assessed for 1?year following a 6-week naturalistic sampling period, with high retention throughout. Primary outcomes included self-reported quit attempts, floating abstinence (any 7-day period of non-smoking) and 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 6 months and 12?months. Secondary outcomes were changes in smoking, motivation and confidence to quit and adverse events. No tobacco industry support was provided. RESULTS:Within snus group, 82% used at least once, and 16% were using regularly at end of sampling period. Compared to control participants, smokers in the snus group were less likely to make any quit attempt (RR=0.83; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.00), and any 24 h quit attempt (RR=0.77; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.95). There were no group differences on any measure of abstinence. CONCLUSIONS:Provision of snus in a naturalistic context resulted in minimal uptake, and as a whole, undermined quit attempts and did not increase smoking abstinence. Results do not support the unguided, free provision of snus among smokers not motivated to quit as a means to facilitate quit attempts. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01509586, Results.
Project description:Black smokers have demonstrated greater lung cancer disease burden and poorer smoking cessation outcomes compared with whites. Lung cancer screening represents a unique opportunity to promote cessation among smokers; however, little is known about the differential impact of screening on smoking behaviors among black and white smokers. Using data from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), we examined the racial differences in smoking behaviors after screening.We examined racial differences in smoking behavior and cessation activity among 6,316 white and 497 black (median age, 60 and 59 years, respectively) NLST participants who were current smokers at screening using a follow-up survey on 24-hour and 7-day quit attempts, 6-month continuous abstinence, and the use of smoking cessation programs and aids at 12 months after screening. Using multiple regression analyses, we examined the predictors of 24-hour and 7-day quit attempts and 6-month continuous abstinence.At 12 months after screening, blacks were more likely to report a 24-hour (52.7% vs. 41.2%, p < .0001) or 7-day (33.6% vs. 27.2%, p = .002) quit attempt. However, no significant racial differences were found in 6-month continuous abstinence (5.6% blacks vs. 7.2% whites). In multiple regression, black race was predictive of a higher likelihood of a 24-hour (odds ratio [OR], 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0) and 7-day (OR, 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1-1.8) quit attempt; however, race was not associated with 6-month continuous abstinence. Only a positive screening result for lung cancer was significantly predictive of successful 6-month continuous abstinence (OR, 2.3, 95% CI, 1.8-2.9).Although blacks were more likely than whites to have 24-hour and 7-day quit attempts, the rates of 6-month continuous abstinence did not differ. Targeted interventions are needed at the time of lung cancer screening to promote abstinence among all smokers.Among smokers undergoing screening for lung cancer, blacks were more likely than whites to have 24-hour and 7-day quit attempts; however, these attempts did not translate to increased rates of 6-month continuous abstinence among black smokers. Targeted interventions are needed at the time of lung cancer screening to convert quit attempts to sustained smoking cessation among all smokers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smoking reduction treatment is a promising approach to increase abstinence amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit. However, little is known about which reduction treatment elements increase quit attempts and the uptake of cessation treatment amongst such smokers. METHODS:This study is a secondary analysis of a 4-factor randomized factorial experiment conducted amongst primary care patients (N?=?517) presenting for regular healthcare visits in Southern Wisconsin who were unwilling to quit smoking but willing to cut down. We evaluated the main and interactive effects of Motivation-phase intervention components on whether participants: 1) made a quit attempt (intentional abstinence ?24?h) by 6- and 26-weeks post-study enrollment and, 2) used cessation treatment. We also evaluated the relations of quit attempts with abstinence. The four intervention components evaluated were: 1) Nicotine Patch vs. None; 2) Nicotine Gum vs. None; 3) Motivational Interviewing (MI) vs. None; and 4) Behavioral Reduction Counseling (BR) vs. None. Intervention components were administered over 6 weeks, with an option to repeat treatment; participants could request cessation treatment at any point. RESULTS:Nicotine gum significantly increased the likelihood of making a quit attempt by 6 weeks (23% vs. 15% without gum; p?<?.05). Conversely, nicotine patch reduced quit attempts when used with BR. Patch also discouraged use of cessation treatment (15.8% vs. 23% without patch; p?<?.05). Aided vs. unaided quit attempts produced abstinence in 42% vs. 10% of participants, respectively. CONCLUSION:Nicotine gum is a promising Motivation-phase intervention that may spur quit attempts amongst smokers initially unwilling to quit.
Project description:While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data.We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months).Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences.Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority.This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit further study.
Project description:Smoking cessation medications have been shown to yield higher success rates and sustained abstinence than unassisted quit attempts. In Japan, the treatments available include nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and varenicline; however, unassisted attempts to quit smoking remain common.The objective of this study was to compare the health and economic consequences in Japan of using pharmacotherapy to support smoking cessation with unassisted attempts and the current mix of strategies used.A discrete-event simulation that models lifetime quitting behaviour and includes multiple quit attempts (MQAs) and relapses was adapted for these analyses. The risk of developing smoking-related diseases is estimated based on the duration of abstinence. Data collected from a survey conducted in Japan were used to determine the interventions selected by smokers initiating a quit attempt and the time between MQAs. Direct and indirect costs are assessed (expressed in 2014 Japanese Yen).Using pharmacotherapy (NRT or varenicline) to support quit attempts proved to be dominant when compared with unassisted attempts or the current mix of strategies (most are unassisted). The results of stratified analyses by age imply that smoking cessation improves health outcomes across all generations. Indirect costs due to premature death leading to lost wages are an important component of the total costs, exceeding the direct medical cost estimates.Increased utilisation of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy to support quit attempts is predicted to lead to an increase in the number of smokers achieving abstinence, and provide improvements in health outcomes over a lifetime with no additional costs.
Project description:People with psychiatric disorders are more likely to smoke and smoke more heavily than the general population, and they suffer disproportionally from smoking-related illnesses. However, little is known about how quitting versus continuing to smoke affects mental health and the likelihood of developing a psychiatric diagnosis. This study used data from a large prospective clinical trial to examine the relations of smoking cessation success with psychiatric diagnoses 1 and 3 years after the target quit day.This study enrolled 1504 smokers (83.9% white; 58.2% female) in a cessation trial that involved the completion of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric diagnoses and biochemical confirmation of point-prevalence abstinence at Baseline and Years 1 and 3.Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for pre-quit (past-year) diagnoses, participants who were smoking at the Year 3 follow-up were more likely to have developed and maintained a substance use or major depressive disorder by that time than were individuals who were abstinent at Year 3.Quitting smoking does not appear to negatively influence mental health in the long-term and may be protective with respect to depression and substance use diagnoses; this should encourage smokers to make quit attempts and encourage clinicians to provide cessation treatment.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:More than half of the smoking population in Hong Kong are unmotivated to quit. Only about 2% of tobacco users in the territory have ever used cessation aids such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of delivering 1-week free NRT sample plus brief intervention to smokers at outdoor smoking hotspots on quit attempts and use of smoking cessation services. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a two-arm, pragmatic, multisite, cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the effectiveness of increasing quit attempts, use of cessation service and recruitment outcomes. Trained smoking cessation ambassadors will approach smokers at outdoor smoking hotspots, and deliver brief smoking cessation advice. Recruitment sessions are randomised to intervention or control group (allocation ratio 1:1). Participants in the intervention group (n=550) will receive 1-week free NRT sample (either patch or gum), brief medication advice from an onsite nurse and cessation service referral, whereas participants in control group (n=275) will only receive the brief advice and service referral. The primary outcomes are the proportion of participants who enrol in any cessation service in Hong Kong within 1?month of the recruitment, and the proportion of participants who report quit attempts at 1-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include self-reported use of NRT, self-reported 7-day tobacco abstinence, 30-day abstinence at 3 months and 6?months, biochemically validated abstinence at 6?months, perceived importance, difficulty and confidence to quit (scale 0-10), and Incremental Behavior Change towards Smoking Cessation. Process outcomes include number of smokers who will be approached, will accept the brief smoking cessation advice or be recruited to participate in the RCT. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster approved the trial (UW 18-118). Findings will be disseminated through funding website, publication and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03717051.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tobacco cessation methods employed by patients with head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are previously unstudied and have the potential to inform choice of cessation method and necessary abstinence support. METHODS:A total of 130 current smokers with HNSCC were queried regarding prior unsuccessful tobacco cessation techniques, product used (cold turkey, varenicline, and nicotine patch/gum), and maximum time abstained from smoking. RESULTS:One hundred six smokers retrospectively reported using one of the four main quit methods. Unassisted cessation ("cold turkey") was the most commonly used method (P < .001). A multiple ordinal logistic general estimating equation analysis revealed that cold turkey had increased odds [5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2, 11.8) and 4.3 (95% CI: 1.5, 12.9)] of achieving a longer quit duration than the nicotine patch or varenicline, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Among smokers developing HNSCC, previous cessation attempts were most commonly unassisted. This method was associated with longest abstinence periods. These data suggest insufficient support and education regarding behavioral and pharmacologic cessation therapies.
Project description:The cross-sectional associations between lifetime emotional disorder status (anxiety/depressive disorders) among smokers in relation to historical quit processes were examined. Adult treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=472) received structured psychiatric interviews and completed a survey that included in-depth questions on cessation history. Having a lifetime emotional disorder was significantly associated with a greater number of prior quit attempts and cessation strategies used, including increased use of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological quit methods. These smokers may still require complimentary specialty care to address their specific affective vulnerabilities given that their use of commonly-applied strategies did not result in lifetime abstinence.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Text-messaging programs for smoking cessation improve abstinence outcomes in the general population. However, little is known about engagement and abstinence outcomes among African Americans in text-messaging smoking cessation programs. The current study compares engagement and abstinence between Blacks and Whites in the National Cancer Institute's SmokefreeTXT program. METHOD:Data were from Blacks (n = 1333) and Whites (n = 7154) who enrolled in the 6-week SmokefreeTXT program between August 2017 and June 2018. We assessed the association between race and program initiation and completion; responses to weekly smoking cessation, mood, and craving assessments; and self-reported abstinence using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:Blacks and Whites initiated the program at a similar frequency, yet Blacks were more likely to complete the program (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.43 to 2.06). Blacks were less likely to respond to all seven abstinence, mood, and craving assessments (eg, AOR of quit day responses = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.77; 6-week AOR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.72). Self-reported abstinence was lower among Blacks for all seven smoking assessments (eg, quit day abstinence AOR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.41 to 0.68; 6-week abstinence AOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.89). CONCLUSION:Although Blacks were more likely than Whites to complete the SmokefreeTXT program, they were less likely to engage with the program by responding to assessment questions and had lower abstinence rates. Qualitative research may reveal unique barriers to engagement among Blacks. IMPLICATIONS:Black smokers enrolled in a nationwide mobile smoking cessation program at a rate comparable to White smokers. However, they were significantly less likely to engage with the program or quit smoking. This study highlights the need to examine barriers to cessation for Black smokers.