Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.
ABSTRACT: The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.
Project description:Periodic activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) ubiquitin ligase determines progression through multiple cell cycle transitions by targeting cell cycle regulators for destruction. At the G(1)/S transition, phosphorylation-dependent dissociation of the Cdh1-activating subunit inhibits the APC, allowing stabilization of proteins required for subsequent cell cycle progression. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) that initiate and maintain Cdh1 phosphorylation have been identified. However, the issue of which cyclin-CDK complexes are involved has been a matter of debate, and the mechanism of how cyclin-CDKs interact with APC subunits remains unresolved. Here we substantiate the evidence that mammalian cyclin A-Cdk2 prevents unscheduled APC reactivation during S phase by demonstrating its periodic interaction with Cdh1 at the level of endogenous proteins. Moreover, we identified a conserved cyclin-binding motif within the Cdh1 WD-40 domain and show that its disruption abolished the Cdh1-cyclin A-Cdk2 interaction, eliminated Cdh1-associated histone H1 kinase activity, and impaired Cdh1 phosphorylation by cyclin A-Cdk2 in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of cyclin binding-deficient Cdh1 stabilized the APC-Cdh1 interaction and induced prolonged cell cycle arrest at the G(1)/S transition. Conversely, cyclin binding-deficient Cdh1 lost its capability to support APC-dependent proteolysis of cyclin A but not that of other APC substrates such as cyclin B and securin Pds1. Collectively, these data provide a mechanistic explanation for the mutual functional interplay between cyclin A-Cdk2 and APC-Cdh1 and the first evidence that Cdh1 may activate the APC by binding specific substrates.
Project description:B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.
Project description:Although it has been known for many years that B-cyclin/CDK complexes regulate the assembly of the mitotic spindle and entry into mitosis, the full complement of relevant CDK targets has not been identified. It has previously been shown in a variety of model systems that B-type cyclin/CDK complexes, kinesin-5 motors, and the SCF(Cdc4) ubiquitin ligase are required for the separation of spindle poles and assembly of a bipolar spindle. It has been suggested that, in budding yeast, B-type cyclin/CDK (Clb/Cdc28) complexes promote spindle pole separation by inhibiting the degradation of the kinesins-5 Kip1 and Cin8 by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC(Cdh1)). We have determined, however, that the Kip1 and Cin8 proteins are present at wild-type levels in the absence of Clb/Cdc28 kinase activity. Here, we show that Kip1 and Cin8 are in vitro targets of Clb2/Cdc28 and that the mutation of conserved CDK phosphorylation sites on Kip1 inhibits spindle pole separation without affecting the protein's in vivo localization or abundance. Mass spectrometry analysis confirms that two CDK sites in the tail domain of Kip1 are phosphorylated in vivo. In addition, we have determined that Sic1, a Clb/Cdc28-specific inhibitor, is the SCF(Cdc4) target that inhibits spindle pole separation in cells lacking functional Cdc4. Based on these findings, we propose that Clb/Cdc28 drives spindle pole separation by direct phosphorylation of kinesin-5 motors.
Project description:The p27(Kip1) ubiquitin ligase receptor Skp2 is often overexpressed in human tumours and displays oncogenic properties. The activity of SCF(Skp2) is regulated by the APC(Cdh1), which targets Skp2 for degradation. Here we show that Skp2 phosphorylation on Ser64/Ser72 positively regulates its function in vivo. Phosphorylation of Ser64, and to a lesser extent Ser72, stabilizes Skp2 by interfering with its association with Cdh1, without affecting intrinsic ligase activity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2-mediated phosphorylation of Skp2 on Ser64 allows its expression in mid-G1 phase, even in the presence of active APC(Cdh1). Reciprocally, dephosphorylation of Skp2 by the mitotic phosphatase Cdc14B at the M --> G1 transition promotes its degradation by APC(Cdh1). Importantly, lowering the levels of Cdc14B accelerates cell cycle progression from mitosis to S phase in an Skp2-dependent manner, demonstrating epistatic relationship of Cdc14B and Skp2 in the regulation of G1 length. Thus, our results reveal that reversible phosphorylation plays a key role in the timing of Skp2 expression in the cell cycle.
Project description:Anaphase promoting complex (APC)-Cdh1 targets multiple mitotic proteins for degradation upon exit from mitosis into G1; inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdh1 by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and Polo kinase has been proposed to prevent the premature degradation of substrates in the ensuing cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate essentiality of CDK phosphorylation of Cdh1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by exact endogenous gene replacement of CDH1 with CDK-unphosphorylatable CDH1-m11; in contrast, neither Cdh1 polo kinase sites nor polo interaction motifs are required. CDH1-m11 cells arrest in the first cycle with replicated DNA and sustained polarized growth; most cells have monopolar spindles. Blocking proteolysis of the Cin8 kinesin in CDH1-m11 cells does not promote spindle pole body (SPB) separation. In contrast, expression of undegradable mitotic cyclin results in both SPB separation and the restoration of isotropic growth. A minority of CDH1-m11 cells arrest with short bipolar spindles that fail to progress to anaphase; this can be accounted for by a failure to accumulate Cdc20 and consequent failure to cleave cohesin. Bipolar spindle assembly in CDH1-m11 cells is strikingly sensitive to gene dosage of the stoichiometric Cdh1 inhibitor ACM1. Thus, different spindle-regulatory pathways have distinct sensitivities to Cdh1, and ACM1 may buffer essential CDK phosphorylation of Cdh1.
Project description:In eukaryotes, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C, also known as the cyclosome) regulates the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of specific cell-cycle proteins to coordinate chromosome segregation in mitosis and entry into the G1 phase. The catalytic activity of the APC/C and its ability to specify the destruction of particular proteins at different phases of the cell cycle are controlled by its interaction with two structurally related coactivator subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. Coactivators recognize substrate degrons, and enhance the affinity of the APC/C for its cognate E2 (refs 4-6). During mitosis, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) and polo-like kinase (Plk) control Cdc20- and Cdh1-mediated activation of the APC/C. Hyperphosphorylation of APC/C subunits, notably Apc1 and Apc3, is required for Cdc20 to activate the APC/C, whereas phosphorylation of Cdh1 prevents its association with the APC/C. Since both coactivators associate with the APC/C through their common C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs, the mechanism underlying this differential regulation is unclear, as is the role of specific APC/C phosphorylation sites. Here, using cryo-electron microscopy and biochemical analysis, we define the molecular basis of how phosphorylation of human APC/C allows for its control by Cdc20. An auto-inhibitory segment of Apc1 acts as a molecular switch that in apo unphosphorylated APC/C interacts with the C-box binding site and obstructs engagement of Cdc20. Phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment displaces it from the C-box-binding site. Efficient phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory segment, and thus relief of auto-inhibition, requires the recruitment of Cdk-cyclin in complex with a Cdk regulatory subunit (Cks) to a hyperphosphorylated loop of Apc3. We also find that the small-molecule inhibitor, tosyl-l-arginine methyl ester, preferentially suppresses APC/C(Cdc20) rather than APC/C(Cdh1), and interacts with the binding sites of both the C-box and Ile-Arg tail motifs. Our results reveal the mechanism for the regulation of mitotic APC/C by phosphorylation and provide a rationale for the development of selective inhibitors of this state.
Project description:FZR1/CDH1 is an activator of Anaphase promoting complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), best known for its role as E3 ubiquitin ligase that drives the cell cycle. APC/C activity is regulated by CDK-mediated phosphorylation of FZR1 during mitotic cell cycle. Although the critical role of FZR1 phosphorylation has been shown mainly in yeast and in vitro cell culture studies, its biological significance in mammalian tissues in vivo remained elusive. Here, we examined the in vivo role of FZR1 phosphorylation using a mouse model, in which non-phosphorylatable substitutions were introduced in the putative CDK-phosphorylation sites of FZR1. Although ablation of FZR1 phosphorylation did not show substantial consequences in mouse somatic tissues, it led to severe testicular defects resulting in male infertility. In the absence of FZR1 phosphorylation, male juvenile germ cells entered meiosis normally but failed to enter meiosis II or form differentiated spermatids. In aged testis, male mutant germ cells were overall abolished, showing Sertoli cell-only phenotype. In contrast, female mutants showed apparently normal progression of meiosis. The present study demonstrated that phosphorylation of FZR1 is required for temporal regulation of APC/C activity at meiosis II entry, and for maintenance of spermatogonia, which raised an insight into the sexual dimorphism of FZR1-regulation in germ cells.
Project description:Progression through meiosis in yeast is governed by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, in concert with a related kinase called Ime2. It remains unclear how these kinases collaborate to meet the unique demands of meiotic progression. We demonstrate that Ime2 and Cdk1 phosphorylate an overlapping substrate set and that the two kinases overlap functionally as inhibitors of the ubiquitin ligase APC(Cdh1) and replication origin licensing. Surprisingly, Ime2 phosphorylates Cdk1 substrates at distinct phosphorylation sites that are highly resistant to dephosphorylation by the phosphatase Cdc14. We propose that Ime2-dependent phosphorylation of a subset of cell-cycle proteins limits the effects of Cdc14 in meiosis.
Project description:Cyclin A accumulates at the onset of S phase, remains high during G(2) and early mitosis and is degraded at prometaphase. Here, we report that the acetyltransferase P/CAF directly interacts with cyclin A that as a consequence becomes acetylated at lysines 54, 68, 95 and 112. Maximal acetylation occurs simultaneously to ubiquitylation at mitosis, indicating importance of acetylation on cyclin A stability. This was further confirmed by the observation that the pseudoacetylated cyclin A mutant can be ubiquitylated whereas the nonacetylatable mutant cannot. The nonacetylatable mutant is more stable than cyclin A WT (cycA WT) and arrests cell cycle at mitosis. Moreover, in cells treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors cyclin A acetylation increases and its stability decreases, thus supporting the function of acetylation on cyclin A degradation. Although the nonacetylatable mutant cannot be ubiquitylated, it interacts with the proteins needed for its degradation (cdks, Cks, Cdc20, Cdh1 and APC/C). In fact, its association with cdks is increased and its complexes with these kinases display higher activity than control cycA WT-cdk complexes. All these results indicate that cyclin A acetylation at specific lysines is crucial for cyclin A stability and also has a function in the regulation of cycA-cdk activity.
Project description:Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), the master regulators of cell division, are activated by different cyclins at different cell cycle stages. In addition to being activators of CDKs, cyclins recognize various linear motifs to target CDK activity to specific proteins. We uncovered a cyclin docking motif, NLxxxL, that contributes to phosphorylation-dependent degradation of the CDK inhibitor Far1 at the G1/S stage in the yeast S. cerevisiae. This motif is recognized exclusively by S-phase CDK (S-CDK) Clb5/6-Cdc28, and is considerably more potent than the conventional RxL docking motif. The NLxxxL and RxL motifs were found to overlap in some target proteins, suggesting that cyclin docking motifs can evolve to switch from one to another for fine-tuning of cell cycle events. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, we show how different docking connections temporally control phosphorylation-driven target degradation. This also revealed a differential function of the phosphoadaptor protein Cks1, as Cks1 docking potentiated degron phosphorylation of RxL-containing but not of NLxxxL-containing substrates. The NLxxxL motif was found to govern S-cyclin-specificity in multiple yeast CDK targets including Fin1, Lif1 and Slx4, suggesting its wider importance.