Cell-surface markers for colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial for effective treatment. Among CRC screening techniques, optical colonoscopy is widely considered the gold standard. However, it is a costly and invasive procedure with a low rate of compliance. Our long-term goal is to develop molecular imaging agents for the non-invasive detection of CRC by molecular imaging-based colonoscopy using CT, MRI or fluorescence. To achieve this, cell surface targets must be identified and validated. Here, we report the discovery of cell-surface markers that distinguish CRC from surrounding tissues that could be used as molecular imaging targets. Profiling of mRNA expression microarray data from patient tissues including adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and normal gastrointestinal tissues was used to identify potential CRC specific cell-surface markers. Of the identified markers, six were selected for further validation (CLDN1, GPR56, GRM8, LY6G6D/F, SLCO1B3 and TLR4). Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of patient tissues. Except for SLCO1B3, diffuse and low expression was observed for each marker in normal colon tissues. The three markers with the greatest protein overexpression were CLDN1, LY6G6D/F and TLR4, where at least one of these markers was overexpressed in 97% of the CRC samples. GPR56, LY6G6D/F and SLCO1B3 protein expression was significantly correlated with the proximal tumor location and with expression of mismatch repair genes. Marker expression was further validated in CRC cell lines. Hence, three cell-surface markers were discovered that distinguish CRC from surrounding normal tissues. These markers can be used to develop imaging or therapeutic agents targeted to the luminal surface of CRC.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC), the second leading cause of cancer mortality, constitutes a significant global health burden. An accurate, noninvasive detection method for CRC as complement to colonoscopy could improve the effectiveness of treatment. In the present study, SureSelectXT Methyl-Seq was performed on cancerous and normal colon tissues and CLDN1, INHBA and SLC30A10 were found as candidate methylated genes. MethyLight assay was run on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh case and control tissues to validate the methylation of the selected gene. The methylation was significantly different (p-values?<?2.2e-16) with a sensitivity of 87.17%; at a specificity cut-off of 100% in FFPE tissues. Methylation studies on fresh tissues, indicated a sensitivity of 82.14% and a specificity cut-off of 92% (p-values?=?1.163e-07). The biomarker performance was robust since, normal tissues indicated a significant 22.1-fold over-expression of the selected gene as compared to the corresponding CRC tissues (p-value?<?2.2e-16) in the FFPE expression assay. In our plasma pilot study, evaluation of the tissue methylation marker in the circulating cell-free DNA, demonstrated that 9 out of 22 CRC samples and 20 out of 20 normal samples were identified correctly. In summary, there is a clinical feasibility that the offered methylated gene could serve as a candidate biomarker for CRC diagnostic purpose, although further exploration of our candidate gene is warranted.
Project description:Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related death. Despite the substantial progress in mCRC management, it remains important to identify new therapeutic options and biological markers for personalized medicine. Here, we investigated the expression of claudin-1 (CLDN1), a major tight junction transmembrane protein, in the different colorectal cancer (CRC) molecular subtypes and then assessed the anti-tumor effect of a new anti-CLDN1 monoclonal antibody (mAb).Gene expression profiling and immunochemistry analysis of normal and tumor tissue samples from patients with stage IV CRC were used to determine CLDN1 gene expression. Then, the 6F6 mAb against CLDN1 extracellular part was generated. Its effect on CRC cell cycle, proliferation, survival and migration was assessed in vitro, using a 3D cell culture system, flow cytometry, clonogenic and migration assays. In vivo, 6 F6 mAb efficacy was evaluated in nude mice after subcutaneous xenografts or intrasplenic injection of CRC cells.Compared with normal mucosa where it was almost exclusively cytoplasmic, in CRC samples CLDN1 was overexpressed (p?<?0.001) and mainly localized at the membrane. Moreover, it was differentially expressed in the various CRC molecular subtypes. The strongest expressions were found in the consensus molecular subtype CMS2 (p?<?0.001), the transit-ampliflying (p?<?0.001) and the C5 subtypes (p?<?0.001). Lower CLDN1 expression predicted a better outcome in the molecular subtypes C3 and C5 (p?=?0.012 and p?=?0.004, respectively). CLDN1 targeting with the 6 F6 mAb led to reduction of survival, growth and migration of CLDN1-positive cells. In preclinical mouse models, the 6F6 mAb decreased tumor growth and liver metastasis formation.Our data indicate that CLDN1 targeting with an anti-CLDN1 mAb results in decreased growth and survival of CRC cells. This suggests that CLDN1 could be a new potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is driven by a minor fraction of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) whose persistence is considered being the primary cause of disease relapse. A detailed characterization of the surface immunophenotype of LSCs to discriminate them from bulk leukemic blasts may enable successful targeting of this population thereby improving patient outcomes in AML. To identify surface markers, which may reflect LSC activity at diagnosis, we performed a detailed analysis of 16 putative LSC markers in CD34/38 leukemic subcompartments of 150 diagnostic AML samples using multicolor flow cytometry. The most promising markers were then selected to determine a possible correlation of their expression with a recently published LSC gene signature. We found GPR56 and CLL-1 to be the most prominently differently expressed surface markers in AML subcompartments. While GPR56 was highest expressed within the LSC-enriched CD34+ 38- subcompartment as compared to CD34+ 38+ and CD34- leukemic bulk cells, CLL-1 expression was lowest in CD34+ 38- leukemic cells and increased in CD34+ 38+ and CD34- blasts. Furthermore, high GPR56 surface expression in CD34+ 38- leukemic cells correlated with a recently published LSC gene expression signature and was associated with decreased overall survival in patients receiving intensive chemotherapy. In contrast, CLL-1 expression correlated inversely with the LSC gene signature and was not informative on outcome. Our data strongly support GPR56 as a promising clinically relevant marker for identifying leukemic cells with LSC activity at diagnosis in CD34-positive AML.
Project description:Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen belongs to the mucin-type tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. Notably, TF antigen is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) but is rarely expressed in normal colonic tissue. Increased TF antigen expression is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we sought to validate a novel nanobeacon for imaging TF-associated CRC in a preclinical animal model. We developed and characterized the nanobeacon for use with fluorescence colonoscopy. In vivo imaging was performed on an orthotopic rat model of CRC. Both white light and fluorescence colonoscopy methods were utilized to establish the ratio-imaging index for the probe. The nanobeacon exhibited specificity for TF-associated cancer. Fluorescence colonoscopy using the probe can detect lesions at the stage which is not readily confirmed by conventional visualization methods. Further, the probe can report the dynamic change of TF expression as tumor regresses during chemotherapy. Data from this study suggests that fluorescence colonoscopy can improve early CRC detection. Supplemented by the established ratio-imaging index, the probe can be used not only for early detection, but also for reporting tumor response during chemotherapy. Furthermore, since the data obtained through in vivo imaging confirmed that the probe was not absorbed by the colonic mucosa, no registered toxicity is associated with this nanobeacon. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel probe for imaging TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of CRC at the molecular level.
Project description:Immunoprofiling is useful for predicting prognosis in various malignancies and provides targets for immunotherapy. Quantitative multispectral imaging system, which allows simultaneous detection of multiple immune markers, is a novel method for examining the tumor immune environment. We compared the expression levels of various surface markers in immune cells between colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) and evaluated the clinical usefulness of immunoprofiling in CRC. Tumor specimens from 24 CAC patients and 48 sporadic CRC patients, matched by age, sex, and tumor location to CAC, were included in the analysis. The expression levels of CD3, CD8, Foxp3, and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in immune cells at the invasive margins of tumor tissues were evaluated by quantitative multispectral imaging. The CAC group had significantly less levels of cells expressing CD3, CD8, Foxp3, or PD-L1 (all, p?<?0.01). In the CAC group, patients whose immune cells had high expression of CD3+ and CD8+ had better overall survival. The immune profiling patterns of CAC patients were significantly distinct from those of sporadic CRC patients, suggesting that CAC and sporadic CRC have distinct disease phenotypes. Immunoprofiling can be helpful for evaluation of clinical prognosis in CAC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a well-known epigenetic mechanism involved in epigenetic gene regulation. Several genes were reported hypermethylated in CRC, althought no gene marker was proven to be individually of sufficient sensitivity or specificity in routine clinical practice. Here, we identified novel epigenetic markers and assessed their combined use for diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: We used methylation arrays on samples from several effluents to characterize methylation profiles in CRC samples and controls, as established by colonoscopy and pathology findings, and selected two differentially methylated candidate epigenetic genes (NPY, PENK). To this gene panel we added WIF, on the basis of being reported in literature as silenced by promoter hypermethylation in several cancers, including CRC. We measured their methylation degrees by quantitative multiplex-methylation specific PCR (QM-MSP) on 15 paired carcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous colorectal tissues and we subsequently performed a clinical validation on two different series of 266 serums, subdivided in 32 CRC, 26 polyps, 47 other cancers and 161 with normal colonoscopy. We assessed the results by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), using cumulative methylation index (CMI) as variable threshold. RESULTS: We obtained CRC detection on tissues with both sensitivity and specificity of 100%. On serum CRC samples, we obtained sensitivity/specificity values of, e.g., 87%/80%, 78%/90% and 59%/95%, and negative predictive value/positive predictive value figures of 97%/47%, 95%/61% and 92%/70%. On serum samples from other cancers we obtained sensitivity/specificity of, e.g, 89%/25%, 43%/80% and 28%/91%. CONCLUSIONS: We showed the potential of NPY, PENK, and WIF1 as combined epigenetic markers for CRC diagnosis, both in tissue and serum and tested their use as serum biomarkers in other cancers. We optimized a QM-MSP for simultaneously quantifying their methylation levels. Our assay can be an effective blood test for patients where CRC risk is present but difficult to assess (e.g. mild symptoms with no CRC family history) and who would therefore not necessarily choose to go for further examination. This panel of markers, if validated, can also be a cost effective screening tool for the detection of asymptomatic cancer patients for colonoscopy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Claudins are tight junction proteins expressed in epithelial tissues that play important roles in cell polarity and adhesion. Altered distribution of claudin-1(CLDN1) affects cell mobility and tumor invasiveness. Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) represent epithelial tumors of the sellar region, consisting of adamantinomatous (adaCP) and papillary (papCP) variants. Their tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain structures complicates successful surgery. Reliable markers are required to predict tumor behavior and to establish individualized treatment protocols. METHODS: We describe the distribution pattern of CLDN1 in a large cohort of 66 adaCPs, 21 papCPs, and 24 Rathke`s cleft cyst (RCC) cases using immunohistochemistry. CLDN1 mRNA levels were analyzed with qRT-PCR in 33 CP samples. The impact on the migration potential was studied in primary adaCP cell cultures (n = 11) treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for CLDN1. Furthermore, CLDN1 distribution patterns and expression levels were compared between invasive (n = 16) and noninvasive (n = 17) tumor groups. RESULTS: PapCPs and RCCs exhibited a distinct homogenous and membranous expression pattern, whereas CLDN1 immunoreactivity appeared weaker and more heterogeneous in adaCPs. In the latter cases, whirl-like cell clusters showed complete absence of CLDN1. mRNA analysis confirmed reduced CLDN1 levels in adaCPs versus papCPs. Interestingly, invasive tumors exhibited significantly lower CLDN1 expression compared with noninvasive counterparts regardless of CP subtype. Accordingly, siRNA treatment for CLDN1 altered tumor cell migration in vitro. CONCLUSION: CLDN1 represents a novel marker in the differential diagnosis of CP variants and RCCs. Low CLDN1 expression levels correlate with an invasive CP growth pattern and may serve as a prognostic marker.
Project description:Type VII collagen is the main component of anchoring fibrils, structures that are integral to basement membrane homeostasis in skin. Mutations in the gene encoding type VII collagen COL7A1 cause recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) an inherited skin blistering condition complicated by frequent aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). OATP1B3, which is encoded by the gene SLCO1B3, is a member of the OATP (organic anion transporting polypeptide) superfamily responsible for transporting a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. OATP1B3 expression is limited to the liver in healthy tissues, but is frequently detected in multiple cancer types and is reported to be associated with differing clinical outcome. The mechanism and functional significance of tumour-specific expression of OATP1B3 has yet to be determined. Here, we identify SLCO1B3 expression in tumour keratinocytes isolated from RDEB and UV-induced cSCC and demonstrate that SLCO1B3 expression and promoter activity are modulated by type VII collagen. We show that reduction of SLCO1B3 expression upon expression of full-length type VII collagen in RDEB cSCC coincides with acquisition of front-to-rear polarity and increased organisation of 3D spheroid cultures. In addition, we show that type VII collagen positively regulates the abundance of markers implicated in cellular polarity, namely ELMO2, PAR3, E-cadherin, B-catenin, ITGA6 and Ln332.
Project description:All memory T cells mount an accelerated response on antigen reencounter, but significant functional heterogeneity is present within the respective memory T-cell subsets as defined by CCR7 and CD45RA expression, thereby warranting further stratification. Here we show that several surface markers, including KLRB1, KLRG1, GPR56, and KLRF1, help define low, high, or exhausted cytokine producers within human peripheral and intrahepatic CD4+ memory T-cell populations. Highest simultaneous production of TNF and IFN-γ is observed in KLRB1+KLRG1+GPR56+ CD4 T cells. By contrast, KLRF1 expression is associated with T-cell exhaustion and reduced TNF/IFN-γ production. Lastly, TCRβ repertoire analysis and in vitro differentiation support a regulated, progressive expression for these markers during CD4+ memory T-cell differentiation. Our results thus help refine the classification of human memory T cells to provide insights on inflammatory disease progression and immunotherapy development.
Project description:Blood-based protein biomarkers may be an attractive option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we used a two-stage design to measure 275 protein markers by proximity extension assay (PEA), first in plasma samples of a discovery set consisting of 98 newly diagnosed CRC cases and 100 age- and gender-matched controls free of neoplasm at screening colonoscopy. An algorithm predicting the presence of early- or late-stage CRC was derived by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression with .632+ bootstrap method, and the algorithms were then validated using PEA again in an independent validation set consisting of participants of screening colonoscopy with and without CRC (n = 56 and 102, respectively). Three different signatures for all-, early-, and late-stage CRC consisting of 9, 12, and 11 protein markers were obtained in the discovery set with areas under the curves (AUCs) after .632 + bootstrap adjustment of 0.92, 0.91, and 0.96, respectively. External validation among participants of screening colonoscopy yielded AUCs of 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.67-0.84], 0.75 (95% CI, 0.62-0.87), and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.68-0.89) for all-, early-, and late-stage CRC, respectively. Although the identified protein markers are not competitive with the best available stool tests, these proteins may contribute to the development of powerful blood-based tests for CRC early detection in the future.