Cost-effectiveness of Wisconsin TEAM model for improving adherence and hypertension control in black patients.
ABSTRACT: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the 6-month Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) intervention for black patients with hypertension in community pharmacies using prospectively collected cost data.Cost-effectiveness analysis of a cluster-randomized trial.Twenty-eight chain pharmacies in 5 Wisconsin cities from December 2006 to February 2009.Five hundred seventy-six black patients with uncontrolled hypertension.Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians using novel tools for improving adherence and feedback to patients and physicians as compared to information-only control group.Incremental cost analysis of variable costs from the pharmacy perspective captured prospectively at the participant level. Outcomes (effect measures) were 6-month refill adherence, changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and proportion of patients achieving blood pressure (BP) control.Mean cost of intervention personnel time and tools was $104.8 ± $45.2. Incremental variable costs per millimeter of mercury decrease in SBP and DBP were $22.2 ± 16.3 and $66.0 ± 228.4, respectively. The cost of helping 1 more person achieve the BP goal (<140/90 mm Hg) was $665.2 ± 265.2; the cost of helping 1 more person achieve good refill adherence was $463.3 ± 110.7. Prescription drug costs were higher for the TEAM group ($392.8 [SD = 396.3] versus $307.0 [SD = 295.2]; P = 0.02). The startup cost for pharmacy furniture, equipment, and privacy screen was $168 per pharmacy.Our randomized, practice-based intervention demonstrates that community pharmacists can implement a cost-effective intervention to improve hypertension control in blacks. This approach imposes a nominal expense at the pharmacy level that can be integrated into the ongoing pharmacist-patient relationship, and can enhance clinical and behavioral outcomes.
Project description:To assess the effectiveness and sustainability of a 6-month Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) intervention for black patients with hypertension in community chain pharmacies.Cluster randomized trial.28 chain pharmacies (14 TEAM and 14 control) in five Wisconsin cities from December 2006 to February 2009.576 black patients with hypertension.Trained pharmacist-technician teams implemented a 6-month intervention using scheduled visits, Brief Medication Questionnaires (BMQs), and novel toolkits for facilitating medication adherence and pharmacist feedback to patients and physicians. Control participants received patient information only.Refill adherence (?80% days covered) and changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and blood pressure control using blinded assessments at 6 and 12 months.At baseline, all patients had blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or more. Of those eligible, 79% activated the intervention (mean 4.25 visits). Compared with control participants at 6 months, TEAM participants achieved greater improvements in refill adherence (60% vs. 34%, P < 0.001), SBP (-12.62 vs. -5.31 mm Hg, P < 0.001), and blood pressure control (50% vs. 36%, P = 0.01). Six months after intervention discontinuation, TEAM participants showed sustained improvements in refill adherence ( P < 0.001) and SBP ( P = 0.004), though the difference in blood pressure control was not significant ( P < 0.05) compared with control participants. Analysis of intervention fidelity showed that patients who received the full intervention during months 1 through 6 achieved significantly greater 6- and 12-month improvements in refill adherence and blood pressure control compared with control participants.A team-based intervention involving community chain pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and novel toolkits led to significant and sustained improvements in refill adherence and SBP in black patients with hypertension.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that involving pharmacists is an effective strategy for improving patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control. To date, few controlled studies have tested the cost-effectiveness of specific models for improving patient adherence and BP control in community pharmacies, where most Americans obtain prescriptions. We hypothesized that a team model of adherence monitoring and intervention in corporately owned community pharmacies can improve patient adherence, prescribing, and BP control among hypertensive black patients. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) Trial is a randomized controlled trial testing a multistep intervention for improving adherence monitoring and intervention in 28 corporately owned community pharmacies. Patients in the 14 control pharmacies received "usual care," and patients in the 14 intervention pharmacies received TEAM Care by trained pharmacists and pharmacy technicians working with patients and physicians. Data collectors screened 1250 patients and enrolled 597 hypertensive black patients. The primary end points were the proportion of patients achieving BP control and reductions in systolic and diastolic BP measured after 6 and 12 months. Secondary end points were changes in adherence monitoring and intervention, patient adherence and barriers to adherence, prescribing, and cost-effectiveness. Researchers also will examine potential covariates and barriers to change. Involving pharmacists is a potentially powerful means of improving BP control in blacks. Pharmacists are in an excellent position to monitor patients between clinic visits and to provide useful information to patients and physicians.
Project description:Many patients with diabetes have poor blood pressure (BP) control. Pharmacological therapy is the cornerstone of effective BP treatment, yet there are high rates both of poor medication adherence and failure to intensify medications. Successful medication management requires an effective partnership between providers who initiate and increase doses of effective medications and patients who adhere to the regimen.In this cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness study, primary care teams within sites were randomized to a program led by a clinical pharmacist trained in motivational interviewing-based behavioral counseling approaches and authorized to make BP medication changes or to usual care. This study involved the collection of data during a 14-month intervention period in three Department of Veterans Affairs facilities and two Kaiser Permanente Northern California facilities. The clinical pharmacist was supported by clinical information systems that enabled proactive identification of, and outreach to, eligible patients identified on the basis of poor BP control and either medication refill gaps or lack of recent medication intensification. The primary outcome is the relative change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements over time. Secondary outcomes are changes in Hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), medication adherence determined from pharmacy refill data, and medication intensification rates.Integration of the three intervention elements--proactive identification, adherence counseling and medication intensification--is essential to achieve optimal levels of control for high-risk patients. Testing the effectiveness of this intervention at the team level allows us to study the program as it would typically be implemented within a clinic setting, including how it integrates with other elements of care.The ClinicalTrials.gov registration number is NCT00495794.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the number of parents who visited community pharmacies in London seeking pain medications for their children's pain and specifically for oral pain, to identify which health services parents contacted before their pharmacy visit and to estimate the cost to the National Health Service (NHS) when children with oral pain who visit pharmacies also see health professionals outside dentistry. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study. SETTING:1862 pharmacies in London in November 2016-January 2017. PARTICIPANTS:Parents, carers and adolescents purchasing over-the-counter pain medications or collecting pain prescriptions for children (0-19 years). BRIEF INTERVENTION:A survey administered by pharmacy staff to participants and a guidance pack. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The number of parents who visited pharmacies seeking pain medications for their children's pain and oral pain and the number of parents who contacted health professionals outside dentistry before their pharmacy visit. Estimated costs of visits by children with oral pain to health professionals outside dentistry. RESULTS:One in two (951) pharmacies participated collecting information from 6915 parents seeking pain medications for their children. The majority (65%) of parents sought pain medications to relieve their children's oral pain. Only 30% of children with oral pain had seen a dentist before the pharmacy visit, while 28% of children had seen between one and four different health professionals. The cost to the NHS of children contacting health professionals outside dentistry was £36 573, extrapolated to an annual cost of £373 288. Replicating these findings across all pharmacies in England could mean that the NHS spends an estimated £2.3 million annually when children with oral pain inappropriately use multiple health services. CONCLUSION:Most parents who visited pharmacies for children's pain medications in London sought pain medications for children's oral pain. Children's inappropriate contact with multiple health services when they have oral pain adds significant costs to the NHS.
Project description:Even in high-performing health systems, some patients with diabetes mellitus have poor blood pressure (BP) control because of poor medication adherence and lack of medication intensification. We examined whether the Adherence and Intensification of Medications intervention, a pharmacist-led intervention combining elements found in efficacy studies to lower BP, improved BP among patients with diabetes mellitus with persistent hypertension and poor refill adherence or insufficient medication intensification in 2 high-performing health systems.We conducted a prospective, multisite cluster randomized pragmatic trial with randomization of 16 primary care teams at 5 medical centers (3 Veterans Affairs and 2 Kaiser Permanente) to the Adherence and Intensification of Medications intervention or usual care. The primary outcome was relative change in systolic BP (SBP), comparing 1797 intervention with 2303 control team patients, from 6 months preceding to 6 months after the 14-month intervention period. We examined shorter-term changes in SBP as a secondary outcome. The mean SBP decrease from 6 months before to 6 months after the intervention period was ?9 mm Hg in both arms. Mean SBPs of eligible intervention patients were 2.4 mm Hg lower (95% CI: -3.4 to -1.5; P<0.001) immediately after the intervention than those achieved by control patients.The Adherence and Intensification of Medications program more rapidly lowered SBPs among intervention patients, but usual-care patients achieved equally low SBP levels by 6 months after the intervention period. These findings show the importance of evaluating in different real-life clinical settings programs found in efficacy trials to be effective before urging their widespread adoption in all settings.URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00495794.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the community pharmacy New Medicine Service (NMS) at 26 weeks. METHODS:Pragmatic patient-level parallel randomised controlled trial in 46 English community pharmacies. 504 participants aged ?14, identified in the pharmacy when presenting a prescription for a new medicine for predefined long-term conditions, randomised to receive NMS (n=251) or normal practice (n=253) (NMS intervention: 2 consultations 1 and 2 weeks after prescription presentation). Adherence assessed through patient self-report at 26-week follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis employed. National Health Service (NHS) costs calculated. Disease-specific Markov models estimating impact of non-adherence combined with clinical trial data to calculate costs per extra quality-adjusted life-year (QALY; NHS England perspective). RESULTS:Unadjusted analysis: of 327 patients still taking the initial medicine, 97/170 (57.1%) and 103/157 (65.6%) (p=0.113) patients were adherent in normal practice and NMS arms, respectively. Adjusted intention-to-treat analysis: adherence OR 1.50 (95% CI 0.93 to 2.44, p=0.095), in favour of NMS. There was a non-significant reduction in 26-week NHS costs for NMS: -£104 (95% CI -£37 to £257, p=0.168) per patient. NMS generated a mean of 0.04 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.13) more QALYs per patient, with mean reduction in lifetime cost of -£113.9 (-1159.4, 683.7). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -£2758/QALY (2.5% and 97.5%: -38 739.5, 34 024.2. NMS has an 89% probability of cost-effectiveness at a willingness to pay of £20 000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS:At 26-week follow-up, NMS was unable to demonstrate a statistically significant increase in adherence or reduction in NHS costs, which may be attributable to patient attrition from the study. Long-term economic evaluation suggested NMS may deliver better patient outcomes and reduced overall healthcare costs than normal practice, but uncertainty around this finding is high. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01635361, ISRCTN23560818, ISRCTN23560818, UKCRN12494.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Medication non-adherence is a major contributor to poor outcomes in diabetes. Previous research has shown an association between use of mail order pharmacy delivery and better medication adherence, but little is known about the barriers and facilitators to mail order pharmacy use in diabetes patients. This qualitative study examined factors related to mail order pharmacy use versus traditional "brick and mortar" pharmacies to refill prescriptions. METHODS:We conducted four 90-min focus groups in 2016 among 28 diabetes patients in the Hawaii and Northern California regions of Kaiser Permanente, a large integrated health care delivery system. We queried participants on their preferred mode for refilling prescriptions and perceived barriers and facilitators of mail order pharmacy use. One researcher independently coded each focus group transcript, with two of these transcripts double-coded by a second researcher to promote reliability. We employed thematic analysis guided by the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behavior (COM-B) framework using NVivo 11 software. RESULTS:A total of 28 diabetes patients participated. Participants' average age was 64.1?years; 57% were female; and racial/ethnic backgrounds included Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (36%), Black/African-American (21%) Hispanic/Latino (7%), and non-Hispanic White (36%). Analysis uncovered 26 themes related to the decision to use mail order pharmacy, with each theme representing a barrier or facilitator mapped to the COM-B framework. Most themes (20/26) fell into the COM-B category of 'Opportunity.' Opportunity barriers to mail order pharmacy use included unpredictability of medication delivery date, concerns about mail security, and difficulty coordinating refill orders for multiple prescriptions. In contrast, facilitators included greater access and convenience (e.g., no need to wait in line or arrange transportation) compared to traditional pharmacies. Motivational facilitators to mail order pharmacy use included receiving a pharmacy benefit plan incentive of a free one-month supply of prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS:This study found that while patients with diabetes may benefit from mail order pharmacy use, they perceive numerous barriers to using the service. These findings will inform the design of interventions and quality improvement initiatives to increase mail order pharmacy use, which in turn may improve medication adherence and outcomes in diabetes patients, across health care systems.
Project description:To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management.Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014.randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series.any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language.19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 'strong', 4 'moderate' and 9 'weak'. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions.Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a feasible option for weight management interventions. Given the potential reach, effectiveness and associated costs of these interventions, commissioners should consider using community pharmacies to help deliver public health services.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence is considered an important cause of morbidity and mortality in primary care. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and acceptability of a complex intervention delivered by community pharmacists, the New Medicine Service (NMS), compared with current practice in reducing non-adherence to, and problems with, newly prescribed medicines for chronic conditions. METHODS/DESIGN: Research subject group: patients aged 14 years and above presenting in a community pharmacy for a newly prescribed medicine for asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); hypertension; type 2 diabetes or anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents in two geographical regions in England. DESIGN: parallel group patient-level pragmatic randomized controlled trial. INTERVENTIONS: patients randomized to either: (i) current practice; or (ii) NMS intervention comprising pharmacist-delivered support for a newly prescribed medicine. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: proportion of adherent patients at six, ten and 26 weeks from the date of presenting their prescriptions at the pharmacy; cost effectiveness of the intervention versus current practice at 10 weeks and 26 weeks; in-depth qualitative understanding of the operationalization of NMS in pharmacies. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: impact of NMS on: patients' understanding of their medicines, pharmacovigilance, interprofessional and patient-professional relationships and experiences of service users and stakeholders.Economic analysis: Trial-based economic analysis (cost per extra adherent patient) and long-term modeling of costs and health effects (cost per quality-adjusted-life-year) will be conducted from the perspective of National Health Service (NHS) England, comparing NMS with current practice.Qualitative analysis: a qualitative study of NMS implementation in different community settings, how organizational influences affect NMS delivery, patterns of NMS consultations and experiences of professionals and patients participating in NMS, and patients receiving current practice. SAMPLE SIZE: 250 patients in each treatment arm would provide at least 80% power (two-tailed alpha of 0.05) to demonstrate a reduction in patient-reported non-adherence from 20% to 10% in the NMS arm compared with current practice, assuming a 20% drop-out rate. DISCUSSION: At the time of submission of this article, 58 community pharmacies have been recruited and the interventions are being delivered. Analysis has not yet been undertaken. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials: ISRCTN23560818. Clinical Trials US (clinicaltrials.gov): NCT01635361.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To determine if a prototype pharmacists' services evaluation programme that uses linked community pharmacy claims and health administrative data to measure pharmacists' performance can be used to identify characteristics of pharmacies providing higher quality of care. DESIGN:Population-based cohort study using community pharmacy claims from 1 November 2009 to 30 June 2010. SETTING:All community pharmacies in Quebec, Canada. PARTICIPANTS:1742 pharmacies dispensing 8?655?348 antihypertensive prescriptions to 760?700 patients. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Patient adherence to antihypertensive medications. PREDICTORS:Pharmacy level: dispensing workload, volume of pharmacist-provided professional services (eg, refusals to dispense, pharmacotherapy recommendations), pharmacy location, banner/chain, pharmacist overlap and within-pharmacy continuity of care. Patient level: sex, age, income, patient prescription cost, new/chronic therapy, single/multiple antihypertensive medications, single/multiple prescribers and single/multiple dispensing pharmacies. Dispensing level: prescription duration, time of day dispensed and antihypertensive class. Multivariate alternating logistic regression estimated predictors of the primary outcome, accounting for patient and pharmacy clustering. RESULTS:9.2% of dispensings of antihypertensive medications were provided to non-adherent patients. Male sex, decreasing age, new treatment, multiple prescribers and multiple dispensing pharmacies were risk factors for increased non-adherence. Pharmacies that provided more professional services were less likely to dispense to non-adherent hypertensive patients (OR: 0.60; 95%?CI: 0.57 to 0.62) as were those with better scores on the Within-Pharmacy Continuity of Care Index. Neither increased pharmacists' services for improving antihypertensive adherence per se nor increased pharmacist overlap impacted the odds of non-adherence. However, pharmacist overlap was strongly correlated with dispensing workload. There was significant unexplained variability among pharmacies belonging to different banners and chains. CONCLUSIONS:Pharmacy administrative claims data can be used to calculate pharmacy-level characteristics associated with improved quality of care. This study supports the importance of pharmacist's professional services and continuity of pharmacist's care.