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Cost-effectiveness of Wisconsin TEAM model for improving adherence and hypertension control in black patients.


ABSTRACT: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the 6-month Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) intervention for black patients with hypertension in community pharmacies using prospectively collected cost data.Cost-effectiveness analysis of a cluster-randomized trial.Twenty-eight chain pharmacies in 5 Wisconsin cities from December 2006 to February 2009.Five hundred seventy-six black patients with uncontrolled hypertension.Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians using novel tools for improving adherence and feedback to patients and physicians as compared to information-only control group.Incremental cost analysis of variable costs from the pharmacy perspective captured prospectively at the participant level. Outcomes (effect measures) were 6-month refill adherence, changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and proportion of patients achieving blood pressure (BP) control.Mean cost of intervention personnel time and tools was $104.8 ± $45.2. Incremental variable costs per millimeter of mercury decrease in SBP and DBP were $22.2 ± 16.3 and $66.0 ± 228.4, respectively. The cost of helping 1 more person achieve the BP goal (<140/90 mm Hg) was $665.2 ± 265.2; the cost of helping 1 more person achieve good refill adherence was $463.3 ± 110.7. Prescription drug costs were higher for the TEAM group ($392.8 [SD = 396.3] versus $307.0 [SD = 295.2]; P = 0.02). The startup cost for pharmacy furniture, equipment, and privacy screen was $168 per pharmacy.Our randomized, practice-based intervention demonstrates that community pharmacists can implement a cost-effective intervention to improve hypertension control in blacks. This approach imposes a nominal expense at the pharmacy level that can be integrated into the ongoing pharmacist-patient relationship, and can enhance clinical and behavioral outcomes.

SUBMITTER: Shireman TI 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4958589 | BioStudies | 2016-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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