Expression profiling and functional characterization of miR-192 throughout sheep skeletal muscle development.
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved, small, non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key regulators of myogenesis. Here, we examined the miRNA expression profiles of developing sheep skeletal muscle using a deep sequencing approach. We detected 2,396 miRNAs in the sheep skeletal muscle tissues. Of these, miR-192 was found to be up-regulated in prenatal skeletal muscle, but was down-regulated postnatally. MiR-192 expression also decreased during the myogenic differentiation of sheep satellite cells (SCs). MiR-192 overexpression significantly attenuated SCs myogenic differentiation but promoted SCs proliferation, whereas miR-192 inhibition enhanced SCs differentiation but suppressed SCs proliferation. We found that miR-192 targeted retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), a known regulator of myogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of RB1 in cultured cells significantly inhibited SCs myogenic differentiation but accelerated SCs proliferation, confirming the role of RB1 in myogenesis. Taken together, our findings enrich the ovine miRNA database, and outline the miRNA transcriptome of sheep during skeletal muscle development. Moreover, we show that miR-192 affects SCs proliferation and myogenic differentiation via down-regulation of RB1.
Project description:Skeletal muscle cell differentiation (myogenesis) is a process orchestrated by a complex network involving transcription factors, epigenetic regulators, and microRNAs. Previous studies identified miR-29 as a pro-myogenic factor that interacts with components of Polycomb repressive complex, YY1 and Ezh2. In a genome-wide survey of miR-29-mediated transcriptome changes in C2C12 myoblasts, many epigenetic factors were found to be down-regulated by miR-29. Among them, Rybp was shown to be a direct target of miR-29 through binding to its 3' UTR. Functional studies demonstrated that Rybp is down-regulated during myogenesis and acts as a negative regulator of skeletal myogenesis both in vitro during C2C12 differentiation and in vivo in injury-induced muscle regeneration. Furthermore, we found that Rybp and YY1 co-occupy several myogenic loci, including miR-29 itself, to silence their expression, thus forming a Rybp-miR-29 feedback loop. Rybp overexpression was found to enhance the enrichment of Ezh2 and trimethylation of H3K27 at target loci, suggesting it may facilitate the recruitment or stabilization of the Polycomb repressive complex. Collectively, our results identify Rybp as a novel regulator of myogenesis that co-acts with YY1 to silence miR-29 and other myogenic loci.
Project description:Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a selenocysteine-containing protein involved in cellular redox homeostasis which is downregulated in skeletal muscle differentiation. Here we show that TrxR1 decrease occurring during myogenesis is functionally involved in the coordination of this cellular process. Indeed, TrxR1 depletion reduces myoblasts growth by inducing an early myogenesis -related gene expression pattern which includes myogenin and Myf5 up-regulation and Cyclin D1 decrease. On the contrary, the overexpression of TrxR1 during differentiation delays myogenic process, by negatively affecting the expression of Myogenin and MyHC. Moreover, we found that miR-23a and miR-23b - whose expression was increased in the early stage of C2C12 differentiation - are involved in the regulation of TrxR1 expression through their direct binding to the 3' UTR of TrxR1 mRNA. Interestingly, the forced inhibition of miR-23a and miR-23b during C2C12 differentiation partially rescues TrxR1 levels and delays the expression of myogenic markers, suggesting the involvement of miR-23 in myogenesis via TrxR1 repression. Taken together, our results depict for the first time a novel molecular axis, which functionally acts in skeletal muscle differentiation through the modulation of TrxR1 by miR-23.
Project description:Myogenesis is an important biological process that occurs during both skeletal muscle regeneration and postnatal growth. Growing evidence points to the critical role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in myogenesis. Our analysis of miRNA expression patterns reveal that miRNAs of miR-17-92 cluster are dramatically downregulated in C2C12 cells after myogenesis stimulation, are strongly induced in mouse skeletal muscle after injury and decrease steadily thereafter and are downregulated with age in skeletal muscle during mouse and porcine postnatal growth. However, their roles in muscle developmental processes remain elusive. We show that the miR-17-92 cluster promotes mouse myoblast proliferation but inhibits myotube formation. miR-17, -20a and -92a target the actin-associated protein enigma homolog 1 (ENH1). The silencing of ENH1 increased the nuclear accumulation of the inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1) and represses myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the injection of adenovirus expressing miR-20a into the tibialia anterior muscle downregulates ENH1 and delays regeneration. In addition, the downregulation of miR-17-92 during myogenesis is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1. Overall, our results reveal a E2F1/miR-17-92/ENH1/Id1 regulatory axis during myogenesis.
Project description:Muscle fibers are generally formed as multinucleated fibers that are differentiated from myoblasts. Several reports have identified transcription factors and proteins involved in the process of muscle differentiation, but the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in myogenesis remain unclear. Here, comparative analysis of the miRNA expression profiles in mouse myoblasts and gastrocnemius (GA) muscle uncovered miR-3074-3p as a novel miRNA showing markedly reduced expression in fully differentiated adult skeletal muscle. Interestingly, elevating miR-3074-3p promoted myogenesis in C2C12 cells, primary myoblasts, and HSMMs, resulting in increased mRNA expression of myogenic makers such as Myog and MyHC. Using a target prediction program, we identified Caveolin-1 (Cav1) as a target mRNA of miR-3074-3p and verified that miR-3074-3p directly interacts with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Cav1 mRNA. Consistent with the findings in miR-3074-3p-overexpressing myoblasts, knockdown of Cav1 promoted myogenesis in C2C12 cells and HSMMs. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-3074-3p acts a positive regulator of myogenic differentiation by targeting Cav1. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(5): 278-283].
Project description:The sheep is an economically important animal, and there is currently a major focus on improving its meat quality through breeding. There are variations in the growth regulation mechanisms of different sheep breeds, making fundamental research on skeletal muscle growth essential in understanding the regulation of (thus far) unknown genes. Skeletal muscle development is a complex biological process regulated by numerous genes and non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). In this study, we used deep sequencing data from sheep longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles sampled at day 60, 90, and 120 of gestation, as well as at day 0 and 360 following birth, to identify and examine the lncRNA and miRNA temporal expression profiles that regulate sheep skeletal myogenesis. We stained LD muscles using histological sections to analyse the area and circumference of muscle fibers from the embryonic to postnatal development stages. Our results showed that embryonic skeletal muscle growth can be characterized by time. We obtained a total of 694 different lncRNAs and compared the differential expression between the E60 vs. E90, E90 vs. E120, E120 vs. D0, and D0 vs. D360 lncRNA and gene samples. Of the total 701 known sheep miRNAs we detected, the following showed a wide range of expression during the embryonic stage: miR-2387, miR-105, miR-767, miR-432, and miR-433. We propose that the detected lncRNA expression was time-specific during the gestational and postnatal stages. GO and KEGG analyses of the genes targeted by different miRNAs and lncRNAs revealed that these significantly enriched processes and pathways were consistent with skeletal muscle development over time across all sampled stages. We found four visual lncRNA-gene regulatory networks that can be used to explore the function of lncRNAs in sheep and may be valuable in helping improve muscle growth. This study also describes the function of several lncRNAs that interact with miRNAs to regulate myogenic differentiation.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a multi-stage process that includes the cell cycle exit, myogenic transcriptional activation, and morphological changes to form multinucleated myofibers. Recent studies have shown that saturated fatty acids (SFA) and miRNAs play crucial roles in myogenesis and muscle homeostasis. Nevertheless, the target molecules and myogenic regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs are largely unknown, particularly when myogenesis is dysregulated by SFA deposition. This study investigated the critical role played by miR-96-5p on the myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Long-chain SFA palmitic acid (PA) significantly reduced FHL1 expression and inhibited the myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts but induced miR-96-5p expression. The knockdown of FHL1 by siRNA stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited myogenic differentiation of myoblasts. Interestingly, miR-96-5p suppressed FHL1 expression by directly targeting the 3'UTR of <i>FHL1</i> mRNA. The transfection of an miR-96-5p mimic upregulated the expressions of cell cycle-related genes, such as PCNA, CCNB1, and CCND1, and increased myoblast proliferation. Moreover, the miR-96-5p mimic inhibited the expressions of myogenic factors, such as myoblast determination protein (MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), and myosin heavy chain (MyHC), and dramatically impeded differentiation and fusion of myoblasts. Overall, this study highlights the role of miR-96-5p in myogenesis via FHL1 suppression and suggests a novel regulatory mechanism for myogenesis mediated by miRNA in a background of obesity.
Project description:Satellite cells (SCs) are skeletal muscle stem cells that proliferate in response to injury and provide myogenic precursors for growth and repair. Zfp423 is a transcriptional cofactor expressed in multiple immature cell populations, such as neuronal precursors, mesenchymal stem cells, and preadipocytes, where it regulates lineage allocation, proliferation, and differentiation. Here, we show that Zfp423 regulates myogenic progression during muscle regeneration. Zfp423 is undetectable in quiescent SCs but becomes expressed during SC activation. After expansion, Zfp423 is gradually downregulated as committed SCs terminally differentiate. Mice with satellite-cell-specific Zfp423 deletion exhibit severely impaired muscle regeneration following injury, with aberrant SC expansion, defective cell cycle exit, and failure to transition efficiently from the proliferative stage toward commitment. Consistent with a cell-autonomous role of Zfp423, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Zfp423 in myoblasts inhibits differentiation. Surprisingly, forced expression of Zfp423 in myoblasts induces differentiation into adipocytes and arrests myogenesis. Affinity purification of Zfp423 in myoblasts identified Satb2 as a nuclear partner of Zfp423 that cooperatively enhances Zfp423 transcriptional activity, which in turn affects myoblast differentiation. In conclusion, by controlling SC expansion and proliferation, Zfp423 is essential for muscle regeneration. Tight regulation of Zfp423 expression is essential for normal progression of muscle progenitors from proliferation to differentiation.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a complex process that is finely regulated by myogenic transcription factors. Recent studies have shown that saturated fatty acids (SFA) can suppress the activation of myogenic transcription factors and impair the myogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. Despite the increasing evidence of the roles of miRNAs in myogenesis, the targets and myogenic regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs are largely unknown, particularly when myogenesis is dysregulated by SFA deposition. This study examined the implications of SFA-induced miR-183-5p on the myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Long-chain SFA palmitic acid (PA) drastically reduced myogenic transcription factors, such as myoblast determination protein (MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), and inhibited FHL1 expression and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, accompanied by the induction of miR-183-5p. The knockdown of FHL1 by siRNA inhibited myogenic differentiation of myoblasts. Interestingly, miR-183-5p inversely regulated the expression of FHL1, a crucial regulator of skeletal myogenesis, by targeting the 3'UTR of FHL1 mRNA. Furthermore, the transfection of miR-183-5p mimic suppressed the expression of MyoD, MyoG, MEF2C, and MyHC, and impaired the differentiation and myotube formation of myoblasts. Overall, this study highlights the role of miR-183-5p in myogenic differentiation through FHL1 repression and suggests a novel miRNA-mediated mechanism for myogenesis in a background of obesity. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(11): 605-610].
Project description:During myogenesis, satellite stem cells (SCs) are induced to proliferate and differentiate to myogenic precursors. The role of energy sensors such as the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in SC activation is unclear. We previously observed that upregulation of ATP through RNA-mediated mitochondrial restoration (MR) accelerates SC activation following skeletal muscle injury. We show here that during regeneration, the AMPK-CRTC2-CREB and Raptor-mTORC-4EBP1 pathways were rapidly activated. The phosho-CRTC2-CREB complex was essential for myogenesis and activated transcription of the critical cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 (Ccnd1). Knockdown (KD) of either mTORC or its subunit Raptor delayed SC activation without influencing the differentiation program. KD of 4EBP1 had no effect on SC activation but enhanced myofiber size. mTORC1 positively regulated Ccnd1 translation but destabilized Ccnd1 mRNA. These antithetical effects of mTORC1 were mediated by two microRNAs (miRs) targeted to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Ccnd1 mRNA: miR-1 was downregulated in mTORC-KD muscle, and depletion of miR-1 resulted in increased levels of mRNA without any effect on Ccnd1 protein. In contrast, miR-26a was upregulated upon mTORC depletion, while anti-miR-26a oligonucleotide specifically stimulated Ccnd1 protein expression. Thus, mTORC may act as a timer of satellite cell proliferation during myogenesis.
Project description:Skeletal muscle injury activates adult myogenic stem cells, known as satellite cells, to initiate proliferation and differentiation to regenerate new muscle fibers. The skeletal muscle-specific microRNA miR-206 is upregulated in satellite cells following muscle injury, but its role in muscle regeneration has not been defined. Here, we show that miR-206 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration in response to injury. Genetic deletion of miR-206 in mice substantially delayed regeneration induced by cardiotoxin injury. Furthermore, loss of miR-206 accelerated and exacerbated the dystrophic phenotype in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that miR-206 acts to promote satellite cell differentiation and fusion into muscle fibers through suppressing a collection of negative regulators of myogenesis. Our findings reveal an essential role for miR-206 in satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration and indicate that miR-206 slows progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.