Rituximab plus chemotherapy as first-line treatment in Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in routine practice: a prospective, multicentre, non-interventional study.
ABSTRACT: The efficacy and safety of rituximab-based chemotherapy (R-chemo), the standard regimen for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), which is more common in Asia than in Western countries, are well confirmed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the safety and effectiveness of R-chemo in patients who are largely excluded from RCTs have not been well characterized. This real-world study investigated the safety and effectiveness of R-chemo as first-line treatment in Chinese patients with DLBCL.Treatment-naive DLBCL patients who were CD20 positive and eligible to receive R-chemo were enrolled with no specific exclusion criteria. Data collected at baseline included age, gender, disease stage, international prognostic index (IPI), B symptoms, extranodal involvement, performance status, and medical history. In the present study, data on safety, treatment effectiveness, and HBV infection management were collected 120 days after the last R-chemo administration.Overall, R-chemo was well tolerated. The safety profile of R-chemo in patients with a history of heart or liver disease was well described without any additional unexpected safety concerns. The overall response rate (ORR) in the Chinese patients from this study was 94.2 % (complete response [CR], 55.0 %; CR unconfirmed [CRu] 18.2 %; and partial response [PR], 20.9 %). Compared to patients with no history of disease, the CR and PR rates of patients with a history of heart or liver disease were lower and higher, respectively; this tendency could be in part explained by treatment interruptions in patients with heart or liver diseases. HBsAg positivity and a maximum tumor diameter of ?7.5 cm negatively correlated with CR?+?CRu, whereas age and HBsAg positivity negatively correlated with CR.This study further validated the safety and effectiveness of R-chemo in Chinese patients with DLBCL. Patients with a history of heart or liver disease may further benefit from R-chemo if preventive measures are taken to reduce hepatic and cardiovascular toxicity. In addition to IPI and tumor diameter, HBsAg positivity could also be a poor prognostic factor for CR in Chinese patients with DLBCL.ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT01340443 , April 20, 2011.
Project description:Background:Prospective real-life data on the safety and effectiveness of rituximab in Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or follicular lymphoma (FL) are limited. This real-world study aimed to evaluate long-term safety and effectiveness outcomes of rituximab plus chemotherapy (R-chemo) as first-line treatment in Chinese patients with DLBCL or FL. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation management was also investigated. Methods:A prospective, multicenter, single-arm, noninterventional study of previously untreated CD20-positive DLBCL or FL patients receiving first-line R-chemo treatment at 24 centers in China was conducted between January 17, 2011 and October 31, 2016. Enrolled patients underwent safety and effectiveness assessments after the last rituximab dose and were followed up for 3 years. Effectiveness endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, drug-related AEs, and AEs of special interest. We also reported data on the incidence of HBV reactivation. Results:In total, 283 previously untreated CD20-positive DLBCL and 31 FL patients from 24 centers were enrolled. Three-year PFS was 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50-67%) for DLBCL patients and 46% (95% CI: 20-69%) for FL patients. For DLBCL patients, multivariate analyses showed that PFS was not associated with international prognostic index, tumor maximum diameter, HBV infection status, or number of rituximab treatment cycles, and OS was only associated with age >60 years (P < 0.05). R-chemo was well tolerated. The incidence of HBV reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative/hepatitis B core antibody-positive patients was 13% (3/24) and 4% (3/69), respectively. Conclusions:R-chemo is effective and safe in real-world clinical practice as first-line treatment for DLBCL and FL in China, and that HBV reactivation during R-chemo is manageable with preventive measures and treatment. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01340443; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01340443.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with concurrent hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have distinct clinical features. Nevertheless, the prognostic value of HBsAg in DLBCL in the rituximab era remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the clinical relevance of HBsAg in immunocompetent patients with DLBCL treated with homogeneous rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone between 2002 and 2016. RESULTS:Among 416 analyzed patients, 98 (23.6%) were HBsAg positive. HBsAg positivity was associated with a younger age and more advanced stage at diagnosis, more frequent hepatic impairment during perichemotherapy, and a trend of higher National Comprehensive Cancer Network-International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) score at diagnosis. Compared with the HBsAg-negative patients, the HBsAg-positive patients had a lower overall response rate (76.5% vs. 85.5%, p = .043), poorer 5-year overall survival (OS) rate (57.2% vs. 73.5%, p < .001), and shorter 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate (47.2% vs. 60.7%, p = .013). Multivariate analyses showed that HBsAg positivity was an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator for OS and PFS. A scoring system incorporating HBsAg positivity, the NCCN-IPI score, and serum albumin levels proved to be useful for stratifying prognostically relevant subgroups of patients with DLBCL. CONCLUSION:This study demonstrated that HBV infection is uniquely relevant to DLBCL. HBsAg might serve as a novel biomarker to improve clinical risk stratification of patients with DLBCL in areas with high prevalence of HBV infection. Further research investigating the etiopathogenesis of HBV infection in DLBCL is imperative. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:A considerable disparity exists regarding the prognostic relevance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this large, retrospective cohort study from an area with high prevalence of HBV infection, the authors demonstrated that HBsAg was an independent unfavorable factor significantly associated with survival, highlighting its potential as a novel prognostic indicator to improve the risk stratification of patients with DLBCL in the rituximab era.
Project description:Romidepsin is a structurally unique, potent, bicyclic class 1 selective histone deacetylase inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who have received???1 prior systemic therapy and patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) who have received???1 prior therapy. Approval for PTCL was based on results (n?=?130; median follow-up, 13.4 months) from the pivotal study of romidepsin for the treatment of relapsed/refractory PTCL. The objective is to present updated data (median follow-up, 22.3 months) and to characterize patients who achieved long-term responses (? 12 months) to romidepsin.Patients with PTCL who relapsed from or were refractory to???1 prior systemic therapy received romidepsin 14 mg/m2 as a 4-hour intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days for up to 6 cycles; patients with response or stable disease could continue romidepsin beyond 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was rate of confirmed/unconfirmed complete response (CR/CRu) determined by an Independent Review Committee. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DOR). For patients who achieved CR/CRu, baseline characteristics by DOR (? 12 vs?<?12 months) were examined.The ORR to romidepsin was 25%, including 15% with CR/CRu. The median DOR for all responders was 28 months (range, < 1-48+) and was not reached for those who achieved CR/CRu. Patients with lack of response or transient response to prior therapy achieved durable responses with romidepsin. Of the 19 patients who achieved CR/CRu, 10 had long-term (? 12 months) responses; none of the baseline characteristics examined-including heavy pretreatment, response to prior therapy, or advanced disease-precluded long-term responses to romidepsin. With a median progression-free survival of 29 months, patients who achieved CR/CRu for???12 months had significantly longer survival vs those with CR/CRu for?<?12 months or?<?CR/CRu. Extended treatment and longer follow-up did not affect the reported safety profile of romidepsin.Treatment with romidepsin leads to highly durable responses in a subset of patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL, with responses ongoing as long as 48 months.
Project description:Approximately 60% of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) are curable with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemoimmunotherapy. Epratuzumab (E) is an unlabeled anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody with efficacy in relapsed DLBCL. This phase 2 trial tested the safety and efficacy of combining E with R-CHOP (ER-CHOP) in untreated DLBCL. A secondary aim was to assess the efficacy of interim positron emission tomography (PET) to predict outcome in DLBCL. Standard R-CHOP with the addition of E 360 mg/m(2) intravenously was administered for 6 cycles. A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the study. Toxicity was similar to standard R-CHOP. Overall response rate in the 81 eligible patients was 96% (74% CR/CRu) by computed tomography scan and 88% by PET. By intention to treat analysis, at a median follow-up of 43 months, the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years in all 107 patients were 70% and 80%, respectively. Interim PET was not associated with EFS or OS. Comparison with a cohort of 215 patients who were treated with R-CHOP showed an improved EFS in the ER-CHOP patients. ER-CHOP is well tolerated and results appear promising as a combination therapy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00301821.
Project description:Accumulating evidence from clinical trials indicates chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with the incidence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and may be associated with the prognosis of DLBCL, though this suggestion remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to assess whether HBV infection is associated with prognosis and response to chemotherapy in DLBCL. After a strict literature search strategy, a total of 809 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositive patients with DLBCL and 2849 HBsAg seronegative patients with DLBCL from twelve trials were included. DLBCL patients with chronic HBV infection had significantly poorer 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.23-1.92, <i>P</i><0.001 and 1.79, 1.48-2.17, <i>P</i><0.001) and 2- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.14-1.81, <i>P</i>=0.002 and HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75, <i>P</i>=0.03). HBsAg-seronegative patients also had a lower complete response (CR) rate (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.68, <i>P</i><0.001), higher progressive disease (PD) rate (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.34-3.24, <i>P</i>=0.001), and more advanced clinical features. This meta-analysis indicates HBV infection leads to a poorer prognosis and poorer response to standard chemotherapy.
Project description:We conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of 116 hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 278 HBsAg-negative patients with DLBCL, as a control cohort, who received rituximab-containing regimens as an induction chemotherapy at 30 Japanese medical centers between January 2004 and December 2014. Hepatitis was defined as an absolute serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level of ≥100 U/L. HBV reactivation-related hepatitis was defined as hepatitis with an absolute serum HBV DNA level of ≥3.3 log IU/mL or an absolute increase of ≥2 log compared with the baseline value. HBsAg-positive patients were divided into three groups based on anti-HBV prophylactic therapy: no nucleos(t)ide analogue (non-NA, n = 9), lamivudine (LAM, n = 20), and entecavir (ETV, n = 87). The 4-year cumulative incidence (CI) of hepatitis in HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients was 21.1% and 14.6% (P = .081), respectively. The 4-year CI of HBV reactivation-related hepatitis was higher in HBsAg-positive patients than in HBsAg-negative patients (8.0% vs 0.4%; P < .001). Among HBsAg-positive patients, the 4-year CI of HBV reactivation-related hepatitis was the highest in the non-NA group (33.3%), followed by the LAM (15.0%) and ETV (3.8%) groups (P < .001). Of note, 3 non-NA patients (33%) and 1 LAM patient (5%) (but no ETV patients) died due to HBV hepatitis. Based on Cox multivariate analysis, HBsAg positivity was not associated with poor overall survival. Prophylactic use of ETV would reduce the occurrence of HBV reactivation-related hepatitis and mortality in HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy.
Project description:Surgery-induced stress and anesthesia-related immunosuppression are believed to play a critical role in human oncology patients. Studies have hypothesized that anesthesia influences patients' outcome, promoting tumor recurrence and metastasis. Aim of the study was to investigate whether anesthesia promoted relapse in dogs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Medical records were searched for dogs with DLBCL, that were in complete remission (CR) after the same chemo-immunotherapy protocol. Dogs receiving anesthesia were included if the procedure was performed while in CR. Time to relapse (TTR) was obtained via Kaplan-Meier method. Association between anesthesia and relapse was assessed using a nested case-control design and estimated using conditional logistic regression. Sixty-one dogs with DLBCL were included. Overall median TTR was 329 days (95% CI, 281-377). Forty-eight (79%) dogs relapsed during the study period, while 13 (21%) were still in CR at data analysis closure. Eighteen (30%) dogs received anesthesia with opioids, propofol, and isoflurane or sevoflurane. The relative risk of lymphoma relapse for dogs undergoing anesthesia was significantly higher compared with dogs not undergoing anesthesia, with an odds ratio of 3.09 (<i>P</i> = 0.019) on multivariable analysis. Anesthesia may promote relapse in dogs with DLBCL treated with chemo-immunotherapy, although a role of perioperative stress cannot be ultimately excluded. Considering the high frequency of anesthetic procedures required for diagnostic and therapeutic protocols among oncology patients, it is of utmost interest to characterize the effects of single anesthetic agents on the immune system. Further prospective studies are needed to better define the impact of anesthesia on patients' outcome.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>While the epidemiologic association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is established, little is known about the pathological characteristics and outcome of DLBCL arising in patients with HBV infection.<h4>Methods</h4>We retrospectively studied a cohort of 420 patients with DLBCL for the incidence of HBV infection, and the clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors in HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients in China, a hepatitis B endemic area.<h4>Results</h4>In our study, 127 (30.2%) patients were HBsAg-positive. HBsAg-positive DLBCL displayed a younger median onset age (50 vs. 54 years, P = 0.002), more frequent involvement of the spleen (19.7% vs. 6.1%, P < 0.001), less frequent involvement of the small and large intestine (2.3% vs. 11.2%, P = 0.003), more advanced disease (stage III/IV: 56.7% vs. 45.1%, P = 0.028), and lower expression rate of MYC (49.1% vs. 66.7%, P = 0.026). The median follow-up time was 61.9 months. Univariate analysis showed that there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) between HBsAg-negative and -positive DLBCL (P = 0.577). In the HBsAg-positive DLBCL subgroup, age older than 60 years, advanced disease, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), spleen involvement, B symptoms (fever, night sweats, weight loss), and double expressers of MYC and BCL2 had a significantly worse outcome, and patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) had a better prognosis. Multivariate analysis further confirmed that spleen involvement and rituximab use were independent prognostic factors in HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study indicates that HBsAg-positive DLBCL has unique clinicopathological features and independent prognostic factors. Moreover, under antiviral prophylaxis, the survival of DLBCL patients with HBV infections was comparable to that of HBV-negative patients, and the use of rituximab significantly improved OS in HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The safety, tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of tirabrutinib, a second-generation, highly selective oral Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor were evaluated for relapsed/refractory primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).<h4>Methods</h4>Patients with relapsed/refractory PCNSL, Karnofsky performance status ?70, and normal end-organ function received tirabrutinib 320 and 480 mg once daily (QD) in phase 1 to evaluate dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) within 28 days using a 3+3 dose escalation design and with 480 mg QD under fasted conditions in phase 2.<h4>Results</h4>Forty-four patients were enrolled; 20, seven and 17 received tirabrutinib at 320, 480 and 480 mg under fasted conditions, respectively. No DLTs were observed, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached at 480 mg. Common grade ?3 adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia (9.1%), lymphopenia, leukopenia, and erythema multiforme (6.8% each). One patient with 480 mg QD had grade 5 AEs (pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and interstitial lung disease). Independent review committee-assessed overall response rate (ORR) was 64%: 60% with five complete responses (CR)/unconfirmed complete responses (CRu) at 320 mg, 100% with four CR/CRu at 480 mg, and 53% with six CR/CRu at 480 mg under fasted conditions. Median progression-free survival was 2.9 months: 2.1, 11.1 and 5.8 months at 320, 480, and 480 mg under fasted conditions, respectively. Median overall survival was not reached. ORR was similar among patients harboring CARD11, MYD88, and CD79B mutations, and corresponding wild-types.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These data indicate favorable efficacy of tirabrutinib in patients with relapsed/refractory PCNSL.
Project description:Objective:To determine the clinical features and survival difference of HBV related and Non-HBV related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and to evaluate the occurrence of HBV reactivation in DLBCL patients and related risk factors for HBV reactivation after R-CHOP therapy. Methods:A total of 246 patients diagnosed with CD20+ DLBCL were enrolled from June 2010 to June 2015. The medical records and survival data were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of HBV reactivation. Survival curves were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results:Among patients enrolled, 80 patients were HBsAg sero-positive and 166 patients were HBsAg sero-negative. Findings showed that HBsAg sero-negative patients were significantly older than that of patients with HBsAg sero-positive (P?<? 0.001). Proportion of B symptom positive patients in HBsAg sero-positive were higher (p?=?0.002). Higher LDH level (P?=?0.019) and late Ann Arbor stage (P?=?0.010) were more often observed in patients with HBsAg sero-positive. The rate of complete response, partial response, stable disease and progress disease in HBsAg sero-negative group were 63.9, 16.9, 1.1 and 18.1%, respective, which is significantly higher than that in HBsAg sero-positive group (36.2, 18.8, 1.2 and 43.8%). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that DLBCL patients with HBsAg sero-negative had better prognosis. In total, 17 patients showed HBV reactivation among 166 patients (10.2%) with HBsAg sero-negative after R-CHOP treatment, while a significant higher HBV reactivation 18.75% (9/48) in HBsAb negative group were observed, with 8.25% (8/97) patients in HBsAb level 10-100?U/mL group, and 0% patients in HBsAb level higher than 100?U/mL group. Multivariable analysis showed that serum HBsAb and serum HBcAb were independent risk factors for HBV reactivation in DLBCL patients. Conclusion:Our data revealed that characteristics and prognosis were significantly different between HBV related DLBCL than non-HBV related DLBCL patients. DLBCL patients with resolved hepatitis B are at a higher risk of developing HBV reactivation after R-CHOP chemotherapy compared with HBsAg-negative/HBcAb negative patients.