Changing Azole Resistance: A Secondary Analysis of the MUTT I Randomized Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: The development of multiple triazole resistance in pathogenic filamentous fungi has become an increasing clinical concern and has been shown to increase the risk for treatment failure.To determine whether antifungal resistance increased during the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I), as measured by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in baseline cultures.This secondary analysis of a double-masked, multicenter, randomized clinical trial included patients with culture- or smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcer and a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400. Culture-positive samples with susceptibility testing were included in this analysis. The patients were treated at multiple locations of the Aravind Eye Care Hospital system in South India. Data were collected from April 3, 2010, to December 31, 2011, and analyzed from July 15 to September 1, 2015.Corneal smears and cultures were obtained from all study participants at baseline. Susceptibility testing was performed for each culture-positive specimen.Minimum inhibitory concentration of voriconazole and natamycin in baseline cultures.Of 323 participants with smear-positive specimens (183 men [56.7%]; 140 women [43.3%]; median [interquartile range] age, 47 [38-56] years), fungal-positive cultures were obtained for 256 (79.3%). The MIC data were available for 221 of 323 participants (68.4%), because 35 samples had no growth during susceptibility testing. A 2.14-fold increase per year (95% CI, 1.13-4.56; P?=?.02) in voriconazole MICs after controlling for the infectious organism was found. This association was not found when looking at natamycin MICs of baseline cultures after controlling for the infectious organism (1.26; 95% CI, 0.13-12.55; P?=?.85).Susceptibility to voriconazole appeared to decrease during the relatively short enrollment period of the clinical trial. This decrease may be more related to increased resistance of environmental fungi rather than previous treatment with azoles, because presenting with azole treatment was not a risk factor for resistance.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736.
Project description:To describe the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal isolates to natamycin and voriconazole, and to compare these MICs to previous ocular susceptibility studies.Experimental laboratory study using isolates from a randomized clinical trial.The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I was a randomized, double-masked, multicenter trial comparing topical natamycin and voriconazole for fungal keratitis treatment. Susceptibility testing to natamycin and voriconazole were performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. The relationship between organism and MIC was assessed. A literature review was performed to compare results to previous ocular susceptibility studies.Of the 323 patients enrolled in the trial, MICs were available for 221 (68%). Fusarium (n = 126) and Aspergillus species (n = 52) were the most commonly isolated organisms. MICs to natamycin and voriconazole were significantly different across all genera (P < .001). The MIC median (MIC50) and 90th percentile (MIC90) for natamycin were equal to or higher than voriconazole for all organisms except Curvularia species. Compared to other organisms, Fusarium species isolates had the highest MICs to voriconazole and Aspergillus flavus isolates had the highest MICs to natamycin. Our results were similar to previous reports except that the voriconazole MIC90 against Aspergillus species was 2-fold higher and the natamycin MIC90 against Aspergillus fumigatus was 4-fold higher in our study.In this large susceptibility study, Fusarium isolates were least susceptible to voriconazole and A flavus isolates were least susceptible to natamycin when compared to other filamentous fungi. In the future, susceptibility testing may help guide therapy if performed in a timely manner.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To compare topical natamycin vs voriconazole in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. METHODS:This phase 3, double-masked, multicenter trial was designed to randomize 368 patients to voriconazole (1%) or natamycin (5%), applied topically every hour while awake until reepithelialization, then 4 times daily for at least 3 weeks. Eligibility included smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcer and visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months; secondary outcomes included corneal perforation and/or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. RESULTS:A total of 940 patients were screened and 323 were enrolled. Causative organisms included Fusarium (128 patients [40%]), Aspergillus (54 patients [17%]), and other filamentous fungi (141 patients [43%]). Natamycintreated cases had significantly better 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity than voriconazole-treated cases (regression coefficient=0.18 logMAR; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.05; P=.006). Natamycin-treated cases were less likely to have perforation or require therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (odds ratio=0.42; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.80; P=.009). Fusarium cases fared better with natamycin than with voriconazole (regression coefficient=0.41 logMAR; 95% CI,0.61 to 0.20; P<.001; odds ratio for perforation=0.06; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.28; P<.001), while non-Fusarium cases fared similarly (regression coefficient=0.02 logMAR; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.13; P=.81; odds ratio for perforation=1.08; 95% CI, 0.48 to 2.43; P=.86). CONCLUSIONS:Natamycin treatment was associated with significantly better clinical and microbiological outcomes than voriconazole treatment for smear-positive filamentous fungal keratitis, with much of the difference attributable to improved results in Fusarium cases. APPLICATION TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:Voriconazole should not be used as monotherapy in filamentous keratitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736
Project description:Given the limitations in health care resources, quality-of-life measures for interventions have gained importance.To determine whether vision-related quality-of-life outcomes were different between the natamycin and voriconazole treatment arms in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I, as measured by an Indian Vision Function Questionnaire.Secondary analysis (performed October 11-25, 2014) of a double-masked, multicenter, randomized, active comparator-controlled, clinical trial at multiple locations of the Aravind Eye Care System in South India that enrolled patients with culture- or smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcers who had a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 (logMAR of 0.3-1.3).Study participants were randomly assigned to topical voriconazole, 1%, or topical natamycin, 5%.Subscale score on the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire from each of the 4 subscales (mobility, activity limitation, psychosocial impact, and visual function) at 3 months.A total of 323 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 292 (90.4%) completed the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire at 3 months. The majority of study participants had subscale scores consistent with excellent function. After adjusting for baseline visual acuity and organism, we found that study participants in the natamycin-treated group scored, on average, 4.3 points (95% CI, 0.1-8.5) higher than study participants in the voriconazole-treated group (P?=?.046). In subgroup analyses looking at ulcers caused by Fusarium species and adjusting for baseline best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, the natamycin-treated group scored 8.4 points (95% CI, 1.9-14.9) higher than the voriconazole-treated group (P?=?.01). Differences in quality of life were not detected for patients with Aspergillus or other non-Fusarium species as the causative organism (1.5 points [95% CI, -3.9 to 6.9]; P?=?.52).We found evidence of improvement in vision-related quality of life among patients with fungal ulcers who were randomly assigned to natamycin compared with those randomly assigned to voriconazole, and especially among patients with Fusarium species as the causative organism. Incorporation of quality-of-life measures in clinical trials is important to fully evaluate the effect of the studied interventions.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:NCT00996736.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine if there is a benefit to adjuvant intrastromal voriconazole (ISV) injections for primary treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. DESIGN:Outcome-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS:Patients with moderate vision loss resulting from a smear-positive fungal ulcer. METHODS:Study eyes were randomized to topical natamycin plus ISV injection versus topical natamycin alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcome of the trial was microbiological cure on 3-day repeat culture analysis. Secondary outcomes included microbiological cure on 7-day repeat culture analysis; 3-week and 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity; infiltrate or scar size or both; rate of perforation; therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK); and other adverse events. RESULTS:A total of 151 patients with smear-positive ulcers were screened and 70 were enrolled at Aravind Eye Hospital, Pondicherry, India. Baseline cultures grew Fusarium in 19 samples (27%), Aspergillus in 17 samples (24%), and other filamentous fungi in 19 samples (27%) and showed negative results in 13 samples (19%). Those randomized to ISV injection had 1.82 times the odds of 3-day culture positivity after controlling for baseline culture status (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-5.23; P = 0.26, bias-corrected logistic regression) and 1.98 times the odds of positive 7-day culture results, after controlling for baseline culture status (95% CI, 0.69-5.91; P = 0.20, bias-corrected logistic regression). Those randomized to ISV injection showed 0.5 logMAR lines (approximately 0.5 Snellen lines) of decreased visual acuity (95% CI, -2.6 to 3.6 lines; P = 0.75) and 0.55 mm worse infiltrate or scar size or both at 3 months after controlling for baseline values (95% CI, -0.13 to 1.25; P = 0.11). Intrastromal voriconazole injections showed a 2.85-fold increased hazard of perforation after controlling for baseline infiltrate depth (95% CI, 0.76-10.75; P = 0.12) but no difference in the rate of TPK (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.44-2.04; P = 0.90). CONCLUSIONS:There seems to be no benefit to adding ISV injections to topical natamycin in the primary treatment of moderate to severe filamentous fungal ulcers. Studies consistently suggest that voriconazole has a limited role in the treatment of filamentous fungal ulcers.
Project description:To determine if pretreatment with antifungal agents is predictive of worse clinical outcome in a fungal keratitis clinical trial.Non-pre-specified subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial in a tertiary hospital.Three hundred twenty-three fungal ulcer cases with an enrolment visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400.The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I was a randomized, double-masked trial to determine the optimal treatment for filamentous fungal keratitis at the Aravind Eye Care System, India. Enrolled cases were randomized to receive topical natamycin or voriconazole. Prior antifungal medication use, dose and duration were collected at enrolment. A subgroup analysis was performed to determine if patients using natamycin or azoles at presentation have worse clinical outcomes compared with those who were not pretreated.Three-month visual acuity (primary), 3-month infiltrate or scar size, corneal perforation and/or transplant and re-epithelialization time.Of the 323 patients enrolled, 44% presented on an antifungal agent. Pretreated patients had larger mean baseline infiltrate size (P?<?0.001) and epithelial defect size (P?=?0.02). Multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that pretreatment was associated with significantly worse 3-month visual acuity (P?=?0.006), larger 3-month scar size (P?<?0.001) and increased odds of corneal perforation and/or transplant (P?=?0.001).Fungal keratitis that is smear-positive despite being pretreated with appropriate antifungal agents appears to be a risk factor for worse outcomes, likely a result of initial ulcer severity and treatment failure. These patients may benefit from more aggressive multimodal therapy at a tertiary centre.
Project description:To assess the association between minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and clinical outcomes in a fungal keratitis clinical trial.Experimental study using data from a randomized comparative trial.Of the 323 patients enrolled in the trial, we were able to obtain MIC values from 221 patients with monocular fungal keratitis.The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I was a randomized, double-masked clinical trial comparing clinical outcomes of monotherapy with topical natamycin versus voriconazole for the treatment of fungal keratitis. Speciation and determination of MIC to natamycin and voriconazole were performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The relationship between MIC and clinical outcome was assessed.The primary outcome was 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. Secondary outcomes included 3-month infiltrate or scar size; corneal perforation and/or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty; and time to re-epithelialization.A 2-fold increase in MIC was associated with a larger 3-month infiltrate or scar size (0.21 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.31; P < 0.001) and increased odds of perforation (odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.69; P = 0.02). No correlation was found between MIC and 3-month visual acuity. For natamycin-treated cases, an association was found between higher natamycin MIC with larger 3-month infiltrate or scar size (0.29 mm; 95% CI, 0.15-0.43; P < 0.001) and increased perforations (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.46-3.97; P < 0.001). Among voriconazole-treated cases, the voriconazole MIC did not correlate with any of the measured outcomes in the study.Decreased susceptibility to natamycin was associated with increased infiltrate or scar size and increased odds of perforation. There was no association between susceptibility to voriconazole and outcome.
Project description:Importance:Fusarium keratitis is common and often results in poor outcomes. No new treatments since natamycin have become available. Objective:To explore the role of adjuvant oral voriconazole on clinical outcomes in Fusarium keratitis. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this prespecified subgroup analysis of a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, 240 patients from the Aravind Eye Care System in India, the Lumbini Eye Hospital and Bharatpur Eye Hospital in Nepal, and the University of California, San Francisco, who had culture-positive fungal ulcer and baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs placebo. Enrollment started May 24, 2010, and the last patient study visit was November 23, 2015. All patients received topical voriconazole, 1%, and after the results of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial (MUTT) II became available, topical natamycin, 5%, was added for all patients. Data analysis was performed from September 2 to October 28, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome of the trial was the rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Secondary outcomes included rate of reepithelialization, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and infiltrate or scar size at 3 months. Results:Of the 240 study participants, 72 (30.4%) were culture positive for Fusarium species (41 [56.9%] male and 31 [43.1%] female; median [interquartile range] age, 50 [45-57] years). Of these, 33 (45.8%) were randomized to oral voriconazole and 39 (54.2%) to placebo. Fusarium ulcers randomized to oral voriconazole had a 0.43-fold decreased hazard of perforation or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty compared with placebo after controlling for baseline infiltrate depth (95% CI, 0.22-fold to 0.84-fold; P?=?.01). Multiple linear regression revealed a 1.89-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks (95% CI, -2.69 to -1.09 mm; P?<?.001) and a 0.83-mm decreased infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 months after correcting for baseline values (95% CI, -1.33 to -0.32 mm; P?=?.001) in eyes randomized to oral voriconazole vs placebo. Eyes treated with oral voriconazole also had a mean 0.29 decreased logMAR (improved) (Snellen equivalent 20/40) visual acuity at 3 months after controlling for baseline visual acuity, although this finding was not statistically significant (95% CI, -0.57 to 0.002; P?=?.052). Conclusions and Relevance:Although MUTT II could not find a benefit for all corneal ulcers, Fusarium keratitis may benefit from the addition of oral voriconazole to topical natamycin, and physicians should consider prescribing oral voriconazole in these cases. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736.
Project description:PURPOSE:We compare results from regression discontinuity (RD) analysis to primary results of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) utilizing data from two contemporaneous RCTs for treatment of fungal corneal ulcers. METHODS:Patients were enrolled in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trials I and II (MUTT I & MUTT II) based on baseline visual acuity: patients with acuity ? 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) enrolled in MUTT I, and >20/400 in MUTT II. MUTT I investigated the effect of topical natamycin versus voriconazole on best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. MUTT II investigated the effect of topical voriconazole plus placebo versus topical voriconazole plus oral voriconazole. We compared the RD estimate (natamycin arm of MUTT I [N = 162] versus placebo arm of MUTT II [N = 54]) to the RCT estimate from MUTT I (topical natamycin [N = 162] versus topical voriconazole [N = 161]). RESULTS:In the RD, patients receiving natamycin had mean improvement of 4-lines of visual acuity at 3 months (logMAR -0.39, 95% CI: -0.61, -0.17) compared to topical voriconazole plus placebo, and 2-lines in the RCT (logMAR -0.18, 95% CI: -0.30, -0.05) compared to topical voriconazole. CONCLUSIONS:The RD and RCT estimates were similar, although the RD design overestimated effects compared to the RCT.
Project description:Importance:Identifying patients with infectious keratitis who are at risk of experiencing a poor outcome may be useful to allocate resources toward high-risk patients, particularly in resource-poor settings. Objective:To determine baseline patient and ulcer characteristics that predict a high risk of developing corneal perforation and/or the need to undergo therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK). Design, Setting, and Participants:This is a secondary analysis of Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II, a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial that enrolled 240 patients with smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcers who enrolled between May 2010 and August 2015. Participants had a baseline visual acuity of 20/400 or worse and were randomized to receive oral voriconazole or a placebo (all participants received topical voriconazole, 1%). After 39 participants (16.3%) were enrolled, topical natamycin, 5%, was also added. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome of this secondary analysis was the rate of corneal perforation or the need to undergo TPK. Results:The mean (SD) age at enrollment was 49 (13) years, 104 participants (43.3%) were women, and all were of Southeast Asian descent. The presence of hypopyon at baseline indicated 2.28 times the odds of the patient developing corneal perforation and/or needing TPK (95% CI, 1.18-4.40; P?=?.01). Study participants whose infiltrate involved the posterior one-third had a 71.4% risk of developing corneal perforation and/or needing TPK. For each 1-mm increase in the geometric mean of the infiltrate, there was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.12-1.67; P?=?.002) increased odds of developing perforation and/or needing TPK. Other clinical features such as visual acuity, baseline culture positivity, type of filamentous fungal organism and duration of symptoms, and demographic characteristics, such as sex and occupation, were not significant predictors in the multivariable regression analysis. Conclusions and Relevance:These results suggest that risk stratification from baseline ulcer characteristics can identify those at highest risk for developing corneal perforation and/or needing TPK. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00996736.
Project description:To perform a Bayesian analysis of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) using expert opinion as a prior belief.MUTT I was a randomized clinical trial comparing topical natamycin or voriconazole for treating filamentous fungal keratitis. A questionnaire elicited expert opinion on the best treatment of fungal keratitis before MUTT I results were available. A Bayesian analysis was performed using the questionnaire data as a prior belief and the MUTT I primary outcome (3-month visual acuity) by frequentist analysis as a likelihood.Corneal experts had a 41.1% prior belief that natamycin improved 3-month visual acuity compared with voriconazole. The Bayesian analysis found a 98.4% belief for natamycin treatment compared with voriconazole treatment for filamentous cases as a group (mean improvement 1.1 Snellen lines, 95% credible interval 0.1-2.1). The Bayesian analysis estimated a smaller treatment effect than the MUTT I frequentist analysis result of 1.8-line improvement with natamycin versus voriconazole (95% confidence interval 0.5-3.0, P = 0.006). For Fusarium cases, the posterior demonstrated a 99.7% belief for natamycin treatment, whereas non-Fusarium cases had a 57.3% belief.The Bayesian analysis suggests that natamycin is superior to voriconazole when filamentous cases are analyzed as a group. Subgroup analysis of Fusarium cases found improvement with natamycin compared with voriconazole, whereas there was almost no difference between treatments for non-Fusarium cases. These results were consistent with, though smaller in effect size than, the MUTT I primary outcome by frequentist analysis. The accordance between analyses further validates the trial results. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00996736.).