Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody That Attenuates Antiphospholipid Syndrome-Related Pregnancy Complications and Thrombosis.
ABSTRACT: In the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), patients produce antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) that promote thrombosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Current therapy with anticoagulation is only partially effective and associated with multiple complications. We previously discovered that aPL recognition of cell surface ?2-glycoprotein I (?2-GPI) initiates apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2)-dependent signaling in endothelial cells and in placental trophoblasts that ultimately promotes thrombosis and fetal loss, respectively. Here we sought to identify a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to ?2-GPI that negates aPL-induced processes in cell culture and APS disease endpoints in mice. In a screen measuring endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity in cultured endothelial cells, we found that whereas aPL inhibit eNOS, the mAb 1N11 does not, and instead 1N11 prevents aPL action. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that 1N11 decreases pathogenic antibody binding to ?2-GPI, and it blocks aPL-induced complex formation between ?2-GPI and apoER2. 1N11 also prevents aPL antagonism of endothelial cell migration, and in mice it reverses the impairment in reendothelialization caused by aPL, which underlies the non-thrombotic vascular occlusion provoked by disease-causing antibodies. In addition, aPL inhibition of trophoblast proliferation and migration is negated by 1N11, and the more than 6-fold increase in fetal resorption caused by aPL in pregnant mice is prevented by 1N11. Furthermore, the promotion of thrombosis by aPL is negated by 1N11. Thus, 1N11 has been identified as an mAb that attenuates APS-related pregnancy complications and thrombosis in mice. 1N11 may provide an efficacious, mechanism-based therapy to combat the often devastating conditions suffered by APS patients.
Project description:In the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) recognition of β2 glycoprotein I promotes thrombosis, and preclinical studies indicate that this is due to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) antagonism via apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2)-dependent processes. How apoER2 molecularly links these events is unknown. Here, we show that, in endothelial cells, the apoER2 cytoplasmic tail serves as a scaffold for aPL-induced assembly and activation of the heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Disabled-2 (Dab2) recruitment to the apoER2 NPXY motif promotes the activating L309 methylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit by leucine methyl transferase-1. Concurrently, Src homology domain-containing transforming protein 1 (SHC1) recruits the PP2A scaffolding subunit to the proline-rich apoER2 C terminus along with 2 distinct regulatory PP2A subunits that mediate inhibitory dephosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. In mice, the coupling of these processes in endothelium is demonstrated to underlie aPL-invoked thrombosis. By elucidating these intricacies in the pathogenesis of APS-related thrombosis, numerous potential new therapeutic targets have been identified.
Project description:In antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) binding to β2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) induce endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion and thrombus formation via unknown mechanisms. Here we show that in mice both of these processes are caused by the inhibition of eNOS. In studies of cultured human, bovine, and mouse endothelial cells, the promotion of monocyte adhesion by aPL entailed decreased bioavailable NO, and aPL fully antagonized eNOS activation by diverse agonists. Similarly, NO-dependent, acetylcholine-induced increases in carotid vascular conductance were impaired in aPL-treated mice. The inhibition of eNOS was caused by antibody recognition of domain I of β2GPI and β2GPI dimerization, and it was due to attenuated eNOS S1179 phosphorylation mediated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Furthermore, LDL receptor family member antagonism with receptor-associated protein (RAP) prevented aPL inhibition of eNOS in cell culture, and ApoER2-/- mice were protected from aPL inhibition of eNOS in vivo. Moreover, both aPL-induced increases in leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and thrombus formation were absent in eNOS-/- and in ApoER2-/- mice. Thus, aPL-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and thrombosis are caused by eNOS antagonism, which is due to impaired S1179 phosphorylation mediated by β2GPI, apoER2, and PP2A. Our results suggest that novel therapies for APS can now be developed targeting these mechanisms.
Project description:The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by an elevated risk for arterial and venous thrombosis and pregnancy-related morbidity. Since the discovery of the disease in 1980s, numerous studies in cell culture systems, in animal models, and in patient populations have been reported, leading to a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of APS. These studies have determined that circulating autoantibodies, collectively called antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), the majority of which recognize cell surface proteins attached to the plasma membrane phospholipids, play a causal role in the development of the disease. The binding of aPL to the cell surface antigens triggers interaction of the complex with transmembrane receptors to initiate intracellular signaling in critical cell types, including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, and trophoblasts. Subsequent alteration of various cell functions results in inflammation, thrombus formation, and pregnancy complications. Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2), a lipoprotein receptor family member, has been implicated as a mediator for aPL actions in platelets and endothelial cells. Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule known to exert potent antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects. NO insufficiency and oxidative stress have been linked to APS pathogenesis. This review will focus on the recent findings on how apoER2 and dysregulation of NO production contribute to aPL-mediated pathologies in APS.
Project description:Beta-2-glycoprotein I (?2 GPI) constitutes the major autoantigen in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), a common acquired cause of arterial and venous thrombosis. We recently described the novel observation that ?2 GPI may exist in healthy individuals in a free thiol (biochemically reduced) form. The present study was undertaken to quantify the levels of total, reduced, and posttranslationally modified oxidized ?2 GPI in APS patients compared to various control groups.In a retrospective multicenter analysis, the proportion of ?2 GPI with free thiols in serum from healthy volunteers was quantified. Assays for measurement of reduced as well as total circulating ?2 GPI were developed and tested in the following groups: APS (with thrombosis) (n=139), autoimmune disease with or without persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) but without APS (n=188), vascular thrombosis without APS or aPL (n=38), and healthy volunteers (n=91).Total ?2 GPI was significantly elevated in patients with APS (median 216.2 ?g/ml [interquartile range 173.3-263.8]) as compared to healthy subjects (median 178.4 ?g/ml [interquartile range 149.4-227.5] [P<0.0002]) or control patients with autoimmune disease or vascular thrombosis (both P<0.0001). The proportion of total ?2 GPI in an oxidized form (i.e., lacking free thiols) was significantly greater in the APS group than in each of the 3 control groups (all P<0.0001).This large retrospective multicenter study shows that posttranslational modification of ?2 GPI via thiol-exchange reactions is a highly specific phenomenon in the setting of APS thrombosis. Quantification of posttranslational modifications of ?2 GPI in conjunction with standard laboratory tests for APS may offer the potential to more accurately predict the risk of occurrence of a thrombotic event in the setting of APS.
Project description:Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) promote endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and procoagulant state. We investigated the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on prothrombotic state and endothelial function in mice and in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Human aPL were injected to C57BL/6 mice treated or not with HCQ. Vascular endothelial function and eNOS were assessed in isolated mesenteric arteries. Thrombosis was assessed both in vitro by measuring thrombin generation time (TGT) and tissue factor (TF) expression and in vivo by the measurement of the time to occlusion in carotid and the total thrombosis area in mesenteric arteries. TGT, TF, and VCAM1 expression were evaluated in HAEC. aPL increased VCAM-1 expression and reduced endothelium dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. In parallel, aPL shortened the time to occlusion and extended thrombus area in mice. This was associated with an overexpression of TF and an increased TGT in mice and in HAEC. HCQ reduced clot formation as well as TGT, and improved endothelial-dependent relaxations. Finally, HCQ increased the p-eNOS/eNOS ratio. This study provides new evidence that HCQ improves procoagulant status and vascular function in APS by modulating eNOS, leading to an improvement in the production of NO.
Project description:Pregnancies in women with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are frequently complicated by fetal loss and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). How circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) cause pregnancy complications in APS is poorly understood. We sought to determine whether the low-density lipoprotein receptor family member apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) mediates trophoblast dysfunction and pregnancy complications induced by aPL.Placental and trophoblast ApoER2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Normal human IgG and aPL were purified from healthy individuals and APS patients, respectively. The role of ApoER2 in aPL-induced changes in trophoblast proliferation and migration and in kinase activation was assessed using RNA interference in HTR-8/SVneo cells. The participation of ApoER2 in aPL-induced pregnancy loss and IUGR was evaluated in pregnant ApoER2(+/+) and ApoER2(-/-) mice injected with aPL or normal human IgG.We found that ApoER2 is abundant in human and mouse placental trophoblasts and in multiple trophoblast-derived cell lines, including HTR-8/SVneo cells. ApoER2 and its interaction with the cell surface protein ?2 -glycoprotein I were required for aPL-induced inhibition of cultured trophoblast proliferation and migration. In parallel, aPL antagonism of Akt kinase activation by epidermal growth factor in trophoblasts was mediated by ApoER2. Furthermore, in a murine passive-transfer model of pregnancy complications of APS, ApoER2(-/-) mice were protected from both aPL-induced fetal loss and aPL-induced IUGR.ApoER2 plays a major role in the attenuation of trophoblast function by aPL, and the receptor mediates aPL-induced pregnancy complications in vivo in mice. ApoER2-directed interventions can now potentially be developed to combat the pregnancy complications associated with APS.
Project description:Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), especially those targeting ?2 -glycoprotein I (?2 GPI), are well known to activate endothelial cells, monocytes, and platelets, with prothrombotic implications. In contrast, the interaction of aPL with neutrophils has not been extensively studied. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been recognized as an important activator of the coagulation cascade, as well as an integral component of arterial and venous thrombi. This study was undertaken to determine whether aPL activate neutrophils to release NETs, thereby predisposing to the arterial and venous thrombosis inherent in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).Neutrophils, sera, and plasma were prepared from patients with primary APS (n?=?52) or from healthy volunteers and characterized. No patient had concomitant systemic lupus erythematosus.Sera and plasma from patients with primary APS had elevated levels of both cell-free DNA and NETs, as compared to healthy volunteers. Freshly isolated neutrophils from patients with APS were predisposed to high levels of spontaneous NET release. Further, APS patient sera, as well as IgG purified from APS patients, stimulated NET release from control neutrophils. Human aPL monoclonal antibodies, especially those targeting ?2 GPI, also enhanced NET release. The induction of APS NETs was abrogated with inhibitors of reactive oxygen species formation and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Highlighting the potential clinical relevance of these findings, APS NETs promoted thrombin generation.Our findings indicate that NET release warrants further investigation as a novel therapeutic target in APS.
Project description:The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by recurrent vascular thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, and fetal loss occurring in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Along with arterial and venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications, patients with APS have an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary artery disease, resulting from vascular cell dysfunction induced by aPL. Accumulating evidence to date indicates that interactions between circulating aPL and cell surface molecules of target cells, primarily endothelial cells and platelets, underlie the vascular disease phenotypes of APS. However, the molecular basis of APS is poorly understood. Nitric oxide produced by endothelial cells is a key determinant of vascular health that regulates several physiologic processes, including thrombosis, endothelial-leukocyte interaction, vascular cell migration, and the modulation of vascular tone. This review will discuss recent findings that indicate a novel mechanism by which aPL antagonize endothelial cell production of nitric oxide and thereby promote thrombosis.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by thrombosis, obstetric complications and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), which drive endothelial injury and thrombophilia. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in endothelial and thrombotic pathologies. Here, we characterized the quantity, cellular origin and the surface expression of biologically active molecules in small EVs (sEVs) isolated from the plasma of thrombotic APS patients (n = 14), aPL-negative patients with idiopathic thrombosis (aPL-neg IT, n = 5) and healthy blood donors (HBD, n = 7). Nanoparticle tracking analysis showed similar sEV sizes (110-170 nm) between the groups, with an increased quantity of sEVs in patients with APS and aPL-neg IT compared to HBD. MACSPlex analysis of 37 different sEV surface markers showed endothelial (CD31), platelet (CD41b and CD42a), leukocyte (CD45), CD8 lymphocyte and APC (HLA-ABC) cell-derived sEVs. Except for CD8, these molecules were comparably expressed in all study groups. sEVs from APS patients were specifically enriched in surface expression of CD62P, suggesting endothelial and platelet activation in APS. Additionally, APS patients exhibited increased CD133/1 expression compared to aPL-neg IT, suggesting endothelial damage in APS patients. These findings demonstrate enhanced shedding, and distinct biological properties of sEVs in thrombotic APS.
Project description:Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by thrombosis and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) that directly recognizes plasma ?(2)-glycoprotein I (?(2) GPI). Tissue factor (TF), the major initiator of the extrinsic coagulation system, is induced on monocytes by aPL in vitro, explaining in part the pathophysiology in APS. We previously reported that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays an important role in aPL-induced TF expression on monocytes. In this study, we identified plasma gelsolin as a protein associated with ?(2) GPI by using immunoaffinity chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis. An in vivo binding assay showed that endogenous ?(2) GPI interacts with plasma gelsolin, which binds to integrin a(5) ?(1) through fibronectin. The tethering of ?(2) GPI to monoclonal anti-?(2) GPI autoantibody on the cell surface was enhanced in the presence of plasma gelsolin. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that p38 MAPK protein was phosphorylated by monoclonal anti-?(2) GPI antibody treatment, and its phosphorylation was attenuated in the presence of anti-integrin a(5) ?(1) antibody. Furthermore, focal adhesion kinase, a downstream molecule of the fibronectin-integrin signalling pathway, was phosphorylated by anti-?(2) GPI antibody treatment. These results indicate that molecules including gelsolin and integrin are involved in the anti-?(2) GPI antibody-induced MAPK pathway on monocytes and that integrin is a possible therapeutic target to modify a prothrombotic state in patients with APS.